|stempublishing.com : J. N. Darby : Synopsis : Luke : Chapter 3||Next chapter|
Chapters 19 and 20
The ministry of the word and the Lord's introduction into the world
In Luke 3 we find the exercise of the ministry of the word towards Israel, and that for the introduction of the Lord into this world. It is not the promises to Israel and the privileges secured to them by God, nor the birth of that child who was heir to all the promises; the empire, itself a testimony to Israel's captivity, being an instrument for the accomplishment of the word respecting the Lord. The years are here reckoned according to the reign of the Gentiles. Judea is a province in the hands of the Gentile empire, and the other parts of Canaan are divided under different chiefs, subordinate to the empire.
The Jewish system continues nevertheless; and the high priests were there to note the years of their subjection to the Gentiles by their names, and at the same time to preserve the order, the doctrine, and the ceremonies of the Jews, as far as could be done in their circumstances at that period.
Jehovah's message to His people that He Himself would come
Now the word of God is ever sure, and it is when the relationships of God with His people fail on the side of their faithfulness, that God in sovereignty maintains His relationship by means of communications through a prophet. His sovereign word maintains it when there are no other means.
But in this case Jehovah's message to His people had a peculiar character; for Israel was already ruined, having forsaken the Lord. The goodness of God had still left the people outwardly in their land; but the throne of the world was transferred to the Gentiles. Israel was now called to repent, to be forgiven, and to take a new place through the coming of the Messiah.
The testimony of God is therefore not in connection with His ordinances at Jerusalem, although the righteous submit to them. Nor does the prophet call them back to faithfulness on the ground on which they were. It is His voice in the wilderness, making His paths straight, in order that He may come, as from without, to those who repented and prepared themselves for His coming. Moreover, since it was the Jehovah Himself who came, His glory should not be confined within the narrow limits of Israel. All flesh should see the salvation wrought by God. The condition of the nation itself was that out of which God called them to come by repentance, proclaiming the wrath that was about to fall upon a rebellious people. Besides, if God came, He would have realities, the true fruits of righteousness, and not the mere name of a people. And He came in His sovereign power, which was able to raise up out of nothing that which He would have before Him. God comes. He would have righteousness as to man's responsibility, because He is righteous. He could raise up a seed unto Abraham by His divine power, and that from the very stones, if He saw fit. It is the presence, the coming of God Himself, that here characterises everything.
The conscience of all addressed in warning of judgment at the door
Now, the axe was already at the root of the trees, and each was to be judged according to its fruits. It was in vain to plead that they were Jews; if they enjoyed that privilege, where were its fruits? But God did not accept any according to man's estimate of righteousness and privilege, nor the proud judgment the self-righteous might form of others. He addressed Himself to the conscience of all.
Accordingly the publicans, objects of hatred to the Jews, as instruments of the fiscal oppression of the Gentiles; and the soldiers, who executed the arbitrary mandates of the kings, imposed on the people by the Roman will, or that of heathen governors, were exhorted to act in accordance with that which the true fear of God would produce, in contrast with the iniquity habitually practised in accordance with the will of man; the multitude were exhorted to practical charity, while the people, considered as a people, were treated as a generation of vipers, on whom the wrath of God was coming. Grace dealt with them in warning of judgment, but judgment was at the door.
Summary of verses 3-17 of chapter 3
Thus, from verses 3-14, we have these two things: in 3-6 the position of John towards the people as such, in the thought that God Himself would soon appear; in 6-14 his address to the conscience of individuals; verses 7, 8, 9 teaching them that the formal privileges of the people would afford no shelter in the presence of the holy and righteous God, and that to take refuge in national privilege was only to bring wrath upon themselves — for the nation was under judgment and exposed to the wrath of God. In verse 10 he comes to details. In verses 15-17 the question as to the Messiah is solved.
God Himself was coming
The great subject however of this passage — the great truth which the testimony of John displayed before the eyes of the people — was that God Himself was coming. Man was to repent. Privileges, granted meanwhile as means of blessing, could not be pleaded against the nature and the righteousness of Him who was coming, nor destroy the power by which He could create a people after His own heart. Nevertheless the door of repentance was open according to His faithfulness towards a people whom He loved.
Messiah's special work
But there was a special work for the Messiah according to the counsels, the wisdom, and the grace of God He baptised with the Holy Ghost and with fire. That is to say, He brought in the power and the judgment which dispelled evil, whether in holiness and blessing, or in destruction. He baptises with the Holy Ghost. This is not merely a renewal of desires, but power, in grace, in the midst of evil. He baptises with fire. This is judgment that consumes the evil. This judgment is thus applied to Israel, His threshing-floor. He would gather His wheat in safety elsewhere; the chaff should be burnt up in judgment.
The end of John's testimony, the beginning of the Lord's identification with His people
But at length John is put in prison by the regal head of the people. Not that this event took place historically at that moment; but the Spirit of God would set forth morally the end of his testimony, in order to commence the life of Jesus, the Son of man, but born the Son of God in this world.
It is with verse 21 that this history begins, and in a manner both wonderful and full of grace. God, by John the Baptist, had called His people to repentance; and those on whom His word produced its effect came to be baptised by John. It was the first sign of life and of obedience. Jesus, perfect in life and in obedience, come down in grace for the remnant of His people, goes thither, taking His place with them, and is baptised with the baptism of John as they were. Touching and marvellous testimony! He does not love at a distance, nor merely in bestowing pardon; He comes by grace into the very place where the sin of His people had brought them, according to the sense of that sin which the converting and quickening power of their God had wrought in them. He leads His people there by grace, but He accompanies them when they go. He takes His place with them in all the difficulties of the way, and goes with them to meet all the obstacles that present themselves; and truly, as identifying Himself with the poor remnant, those excellent of the earth, in whom was all His delight, calling Jehovah His Lord; and making Himself of no reputation, not saying that His goodness extended to God, not taking His eternal place with God, but the place of humiliation; and, for that very reason, of perfection in the position to which He had humbled Himself, but a perfection that recognised the existence of sin, because in fact there was sin, and it behoved the remnant to be sensible of it in returning to God. To be sensible of it was the beginning of good. Hence He can go with them. But in Christ, however humble grace might be, His taking that path with them was grace that wrought in righteousness; for in Him it was love and obedience, and the path by which He glorified His Father. He went in by the door.
With the remnant; heaven opened on the grace and perfection of Jesus
Jesus therefore, in taking this place of humiliation which the state of the beloved people required, and to which grace brought Him, found Himself in the place of the fulfilment of righteousness, and of all the good pleasure of the Father, of which He thus became the object, as in this place.
The Father could acknowledge Him, as
the One who satisfied His heart in the place where sin and, at the
same time, the objects of His grace, were found, that He might give
free course to His grace. The cross was the full accomplishment of
this. We shall say a word on the difference when speaking of the
temptation of the Lord; but it is the same principle as to Christ's
loving will and obedience. Christ was here with the remnant,
instead of being substituted for them and put in their place to
atone for sin; but the object of the Father's delight had, in
grace, taken His place with the people, viewed as confessing their
sins* before God, and presenting themselves to God as concerned in
them, while by this really morally out of them, and renewed in
heart to confess them, without which the Lord could not have been
with them, except as a witness to preach grace to them
Jesus having taken this position, and praying — appearing as
the godly man, dependent on God and lifting up His heart to God,
thus also the expression of perfection in that position — heaven
opens to Him. By baptism He took His place with the remnant; in
praying — being there — He exhibited perfection in His own
relationship with God. Dependence, and the heart going up to God,
as the first thing and as the expression, so to say, of its
existence, is the perfection of man here below; and, in this case,
of man in such circumstances as these. Here then heaven can
open. And observe, it was not heaven opening to seek some one afar
from God, nor grace opening the heart to a certain feeling; but it
was the grace and perfection of Jesus which caused heaven to open.
As it is said, "Therefore doth my Father love me, because I lay
down my life." Thus also it is the positive perfection of Jesus*
that is the reason of heaven's opening. Remark also here that, when
once this principle of reconciliation is brought in, heaven and
earth are not so far from each other. It is true that, till after
the death of Christ, this intimacy must be centred in the Person of
Jesus and realised by Him alone, but that comprised all the
rest. Proximity was established, although the grain of wheat had to
remain alone, until it should "fall into the ground and die."
Nevertheless the angels, as we have seen, could say, "Peace on
earth, the good pleasure [of God] in men." And we see the angels
with the shepherds, and the heavenly host in the sight and hearing
of earth praising God for that which had taken place; and here,
heaven open upon man, and the Holy Ghost descending visibly upon
Let us examine the import of this last case. Christ has taken
His place with th e remnant in their weak and humble condition, but
in it fulfilling righteousness. The entire favour of the Father
rests upon Him, and the Holy Ghost comes down to seal and anoint
Him with His presence and His power. Son of God, man on earth,
heaven is open to Him, and all the affection of heaven is centred
upon Him, and upon Him associated with His own.* The first step
which these humbled souls take in the path of grace and of life
finds Jesus there with them, and, He being there, the favour and
delight of the Father, and the presence of the Holy Ghost. And let
us always remember that it is upon Him as man while Son of
Jesus as the measure of the position of man accepted before God
Such is the position of man accepted before God. Jesus is its measure, its expression. It has these two things — the Father's delight, and the power and seal of the Holy Ghost; and that in this world, and known by him who enjoys it. There is now this difference, already noticed, that we look by the Holy Ghost into heaven where Jesus is, but we take His place down here. Let us contemplate man thus in Christ — heaven open — the power of the Holy Ghost upon Him and in Him — the testimony of the Father, and the relationship of the Son with the Father.
Christ's genealogy in Luke; the Last Adam
It will be remarked that the genealogy of Christ is here traced, not to Abraham and David, that He should be the heir of the promises after the flesh, but to Adam; in order to exhibit the true Son of God a man on earth, where the first Adam lost his title, such as it was. The last Adam, the Son of God, was there, accepted of the Father, and preparing to take upon Himself the difficulties into which the sin and fall of the first Adam had brought those of his race who drew nigh to God under the influence of His grace.
The enemy was through sin in possession of the first Adam; and Jesus must gain the victory over Satan, if He would deliver those who are under his power. He must bind the strong man. To conquer him practically is the second part of the christian life. Joy in God, conflict with the enemy, make up the life of the redeemed, sealed with the Holy Ghost and walking by His power. In both these things the believer is with Jesus, and Jesus with him.
|Previous chapter||Index||Next chapter|