Bible Dictionary D

Diana. [Dia'na]

This is the Latin name of one of the principal goddesses of the Greeks and Romans: the Greek name is Artemis.  An image of her was said to have fallen from heaven, or to have been formed of wood or ebony which fell from the clouds. It was worshipped by all Asia. Her temple was at Ephesus, built of choice marble. A Roman coin in the British Museum bears a representation of the temple with the image of the goddess in the centre. Acts 19:24-35. Though Ephesus was otherwise an enlightened city, it was dark as to religion, the excited people could shout for two hours "Great is Diana of the Ephesians."

Diblaim. [Dibla'im]

Father of Gomer, Hosea's 'wife.' Hosea 1:3.

Diblath. [Dib'lath]

In the Hebrew it is Diblah. Ezek. 6:14. Place in the north of Canaan, conjectured by some to be the same as RIBLAH, but only by supposing an error of the copyist, D (ד) being written for R (ר) . Others identify it with Dibl, 33 7' N, 35 22' E.

Dibon. [Di'bon]

1.  City on the east of the Jordan in Moab, afterwards possessed by Gad; but near the time of the captivity it was again seized by Moab. Joshua 13:9, 17; Num. 21:30; Num. 32:3, 34; Isa. 15:2; Jer. 48:18, 22.  Also called DIBON-GAD in Num. 33:45, 46.  Identified with Dhiban, 31 30' N, 35 45 'E.

2.  City inhabited on the return from exile, Neh. 11:25: perhaps the same as DIMONAH. Not identified.

Dibri. [Dib'ri]

A Danite, whose daughter Shelomith had married an Egyptian. Lev. 24:11.

Didymus. [Did'ymus]

See THOMAS.

Diklah. [Dik'lah]

Son of Joktan of the family of Shem, whose descendants settled in Arabia. Gen. 10:27; 1 Chr. 1:21.

Dilean. [Dil'ean]

Town in the lowlands of Judah. Joshua 15:38.

Dimnah. [Dim'nah]

Levitical city of Zebulun, Joshua 21:35; but it is not mentioned in the cities of this tribe in Joshua 19:10-16, and in the Levitical cities of Zebulun in 1 Chr. 6:77 the name of RIMMON occurs, which makes it appear probable that the two names refer to the same place.

Dimon, [Di'mon] Waters of.

Streams east of the Salt Sea. Isa. 15:9.

Dimonah. [Dimo'nah]

City in the south of Judah, Joshua 15:22: perhaps the same as DIBON, No. 2.

Dinah. [Di'nah]

Daughter of Jacob and Leah: defiled by Shechem, son of the chieftain Hamor, which led to the massacre of the Shechemites through the craftiness and cruelty of Simeon and Levi. Gen. 30:21; Gen. 34:1-26; Gen. 46:15.

Dinaites. [Di'naites]

Colonists placed by the Assyrians in the cities of Samaria.  Ezra 4:9. They are not otherwise known.

Dinhabah. [Din'habah]

Capital city of Bela, son of Beor, king of Edom. Gen. 36:32; 1 Chr. 1:43.

Dinner.

1.   aruchah, 'allowance.' Any meal of herbs where there is love is better than a stalled ox with hatred. Prov. 15:17.

2.   akal, 'to eat.' Joseph's brethren were 'to eat' with him at noon. Gen. 43:16.

3.   ἄριστον a meal taken in the morning: cf. John 21:4, 12, 15; but late enough for friends to be invited. Luke 11:37, 38. Used for a marriage feast in Matt. 22:2, 4, perhaps as late as noon: it is distinguished from 'supper' in Luke 14:12.

Dionysius. [Dionys'ius]

Member of the supreme court at Athens, converted under the preaching of Paul. Acts 17:34.

Diotrephes. [Diot'rephes]

One in the church, otherwise unknown, who loved to have the pre-eminence: he refused to receive certain brethren, and excommunicated others. 3 John 9. Thus early was 'clericalism' manifested in the church.

Discerning of Spirits.

This was one of the gifts in the early church, needful for 'testing the spirits,' because even then many false prophets had gone forth into the world. 1 Cor. 12:10; 1 John 4:1-3. This gift was especially necessary at the time when the word of God was not fully written.

Disciple,

μαθητής This word signifies strictly 'a learner' or 'pupil.' The Pharisees had such, whom they taught to fast. Matt. 22:16; Mark 2:18. John the Baptist had disciples, who likewise fasted. Matt. 9:14; Luke 5:33; John 3:25. The Lord Jesus had His disciples: the apostles whom He chose to be with Him are called His 'twelve disciples,' Matt. 11:1; but in other places the term is applied to all who followed the Lord, many of whom 'went back and walked no more with him.' John 6:60-66. When great multitudes followed the Lord, He turned to them and bade them count the cost of really following Him. Such an one must hate (in comparison with Christ) all his natural relations and his own life also. He must take up his cross and follow Christ, and he must forsake all that he had, or he could not be His disciple. Luke 14:26-33. On another occasion Jesus said to the Jews that believed on Him, "If ye abide in my word, ye are truly my disciples." John 8:31. It was true association in heart with a rejected Christ. Matt. 10:24, 25; John 15:8.

Discipline.

The word occurs only in Job 36:10, but the Hebrew word, musar, is found elsewhere, and is often translated 'instruction,' and at times 'chastening' and 'correction.' In Job it is God opening men's ears for instruction or discipline. In the N.T. the word παιδεύω is translated both 'to instruct' and 'to chasten,' showing that it is God's care over His saints for blessing. See CHASTENING. There is also discipline in the church. If one be overtaken in a fault the spiritual are called upon to restore such a one. Gal. 6:1. If there is sin, it may call for a REBUKE before all. 1 Tim. 5:20. Some may need reproof, 2 Tim. 4:2; and in other cases, as a last resort, discipline may call for 'putting away.' See EXCOMMUNICATION. The end and purpose of all discipline is to restore the soul to communion with God and with His saints. Discipline should always be exercised in the 'spirit of meekness,' each one considering himself lest he also be tempted. Gal. 6:1.

Diseases.

There are four Hebrew words and four Greek words so translated, but, like the English word, they do not specify the nature of the complaint. God promised to Israel that if they would be obedient He would take away from them all sickness, and would put upon them none of the evil diseases of Egypt which they had known. Deut. 7:15. When the Lord was on earth He healed every sickness and every disease among the people. Matt. 9:35. On the ground of obedience they failed to attain freedom from diseases, but their Messiah healed them all in grace. See the various names of the specific diseases, as FEVER, etc.

Dishan. [Dish'an]

Youngest son of Seir the Horite. Gen. 36:21, 28, 30; 1 Chr. 1:38, 42.

Dishon. [Dish'on]

1.  Fifth son of Seir the Horite. Gen. 36:21, 26, 30; 1 Chr. 1:38, 41.

2.  Son of Anah and grandson of Seir. Gen. 36:25; 1 Chr. 1:41.

Dispensation,

οἰκονομία.   This is literally 'administration of a house,' an 'economy,' and hence an ordered dealing with men by God in the varied administration of his ways at different times. In reviewing God's administrations with man, we may notice the state of innocence in Eden, though it hardly partook of the character of a dispensation. One law was given to Adam and Eve, and obedience was required, the penalty being announced if they failed.

This was followed by the lengthy period of nearly 1600 years till the flood — a time of no ordered dealing of God with men, during which men corrupted their way, and the earth was filled with violence. Then the world was 'spoken to' by God in the person of Noah, who was 'a preacher of righteousness;' and their repentance was waited for in long-suffering mercy while the ark was preparing. 1 Peter 3:20; 2 Peter 2:5. They repented not and the old world was destroyed. In the post-diluvian world government of man by his fellow was established by God, while a knowledge of God, as a God who judged evil, was spread abroad by the descendants of Noah; traditions of the Flood being found all over the earth. This was an additional testimony for God. Then followed the division of the earth into various nations and tribes, according to their families and tongues. Among these ignorance of God prevailed in spite of the testimony of God's power and divinity, and the admonition of conscience spoken of in Rom. 1, 2.

About 360 years after the deluge the Patriarchal Age was begun by the call of Abraham, a new and sovereign dealing of God; but this was confined to Abraham and his descendants.

The Dispensation of the Law followed, strictly the first publicly ordered system of God's dealing with men, and administered by angels. The oracles of God were given to a nation, the only nation in all the earth that God had known in this way. Amos 3:2. It was the dispensation of 'Do this, and live and be blessed; disobey, and be cursed.' This dispensation had three phases:

a.   About 400 years under the Judges, when God would have been their king, but during which time every one did that which was right in his own eyes.

b.   500 years as a kingdom under royalty.

c.   600 years from the captivity to the coming of Christ. Connected with this was prophetic testimony: the law and the prophets were until John. Luke 16:16.

During this 'Dispensation of Law' the Times of the Gentiles commenced in the political supremacy of Nebuchadnezzar, the head of gold and king of kings. Dan. 51:37, 38. They still run their course, and will continue until the Lord Jesus commences His reign.

2.    The Dispensation of Grace and Truth commenced, after the preaching of John, by the advent of Christ. During this economy the gospel is preached to every creature under heaven, and the calling out of the Church takes place, extending as a parenthesis, from the day of Pentecost to the rapture of the saints. Acts 2:1-4; 1 Thess. 4:13-18. Paul had a special 'dispensation' committed to him by God, both as to the gospel and to fulfil the word of God by the doctrine of the church as the body of Christ. 1 Cor. 9:17; Eph. 3:2, 3; Col. 1:25, 26.

3. The Dispensation of the Reign of Christ over the earth during the millennium. It is also called 'the dispensation of the fulness of times.' Eph. 1:10; Rev. 20:1-6. See MILLENNIUM.

Under these varied administrations the goodness and faithfulness of God shine out, and the failure of man is everywhere made manifest.

Dispersion.

The term applied to the nation of Israel as now scattered throughout the world. Esther 3:8; Jer. 25:34; Ezek. 36:19; John 7:35. It was to believers among them that the Epistles of James and 1 Peter were specially addressed.

Disposition of Angels,

διαταγὰς ἀγγέλων.  The ordered ministry of angels in connection with the dispensation of law. Acts 7:53: cf. Gal. 3:19.

Distaff.

The staff that holds the bunch of flax or wool, which, with the spindle are implements of spinning by the hand. Prov. 31:19.

Distil, To.

Used in scripture only with reference to the dew or rain which 'drops' in minute particles. Deut. 32:2; Job 36:28.

Divination.

The numerous references in scripture to the various forms of occult science, as it is now called, and the strong denunciations against the Israelites having anything to do with it, show that it was a dangerous reality, however much deception might at times have been associated with it. We read of it first in Gen. 41:8, when Pharaoh called for all the magicians, chartummim, of Egypt and the wise men, to interpret his dream. All their resources failing, God's man in the prison was called forth to show the dream, and this proved the occasion of working out God's purposes respecting Joseph. Doubtless the above class of men were eminent for their learning, as those were at the court of Babylon, over whom Daniel was made chief.  Dan. 4:7, 9.

Among those in Egypt there were some at least who were able to exercise powers beyond what they obtained by human learning. When Moses was endeavouring by means of signs to convince Pharaoh of the power of God, the magicians of Egypt were able to turn their rods into serpents, and to simulate the first two plagues with their enchantments. Ex. 7:22; Ex. 8:7. These plagues were 'turning the water into blood' and 'bringing up frogs upon the land.' This was beyond mere human power, and certainly the magicians did not work by the power of God; it must therefore have been by the power of Satan. We know not the nature of the enchantments used, the word is lat, and signifies 'secret, magic arts.' Satan can suggest what incantations to employ, if man is willing, and can exercise his powers as far as permitted by God. After the first two plagues the power was stopped, and the magicians had to own, when lice were produced, "This is the finger of God."

In Deut. 18:10, 11 there is a list of things bearing on our subject which were denounced by the Lord:

1.  DIVINATION,   qesem, 'prediction.' A remarkable passage in Ezek. 21:21, 22 gives some instances of how the heathen divined. The king of Babylon had come to two roads, and wanting to know whether he should take the road to Rabbath or to Jerusalem, resorted to divination. First 'he shook his arrows' (as it should be translated). Doubtless two or more arrows were marked each with the name of one of the cities, and shaken in the quiver, whichever arrow was taken by the right hand decided which road was to be taken. Jerusalem fell to the right hand. Perhaps the king was doubtful, so he consulted with images, teraphim; it is not known how these were used for divination: cf. Zech. 10:2. The king still sought another guide: 'he looked in the liver.' By certain set rules the intestines of a sacrifice were said to be propitious or the reverse. The king using three sets of prognostications shows that he had no great confidence in his divinations: he may have been often deceived by them previously. How different from an answer from God vouchsafed to Israel!

Other means of divination are named, as, 'divining by the cup.' Gen. 44:5, 15. This was practised by the Egyptians and Persians and is thus described: small pieces of metal and stones, marked with signs were thrown into the cup, and answers gathered from the marks as they fell. Sometimes the cup was filled with water, and, as the sun fell upon the water, images were seen or fancied on its surface. Another reference is "My people ask counsel at their stocks and their staff declareth unto them." Hosea 4:12. The Arabs used two rods, on one of which was written God bids, and on the other God forbids, these were shaken together, and the first that fell, or was drawn, was taken for the answer; or one rod was thrown up and the direction in which it pointed when it fell was answer. It will be seen here that a 'stock' or god was invoked that what the staff declared should be controlled by him. So in all divination, incantations were used, and the gods invoked to let the replies given be the most favourable. Behind all this we know there were demons who controlled the results given, so as to work out the purposes of Satan.

In the Acts we find a damsel possessed with a spirit of divination, or of Python. This was the prophetic oracle at Delphi, held to be the centre and focus of Gentile divination. An evil spirit connected with that oracle possessed this young woman. The testimony of the evil spirit to the servants of the most high God is remarkable: it may have been compelled to speak thus when brought face to face with the power of God (as the demons owned Christ): but the apostle could not tolerate commendation from such a source — the spirit was cast out by a superior power. Her soothsaying or divination was stopped, and her master lost the source of his evil gains Acts 16:16-19.

2.  OBSERVER OF TIMES, or, as others translate it, 'a practiser of augury:' it may have included both. The word is anan, which is also translated 'enchanter, soothsayer, and sorcerer.' An observer of times had his lucky and unlucky days, and nothing must be set on foot without the gods being consulted. We have an instance of this in Esther, when Haman wanted to find a lucky day on which his plans against the Jews should be carried out. They resorted to the lot, but doubtless invoked their god to give it success. Others practised augury for the like purpose of ascertaining the will of their god. Thunder, lightning, observing the clouds, the flight of birds, or the appearance of certain birds, answered their questions.

3.  ENCHANTER,  nachash, 'a whisperer.' This seems to refer to the songs sung or charms muttered as a preliminary to obtaining a response from the spirits they wished to consult. It was one of the things that Manasseh resorted to. 2 Kings 21:6.

4.  WITCH or SORCERER.   The Hebrew word is kashaph, and refers to the practice of magical arts, with the intent to injure man or beast, or to pervert the mind; to bewitch. It may be that they had no power to injure another unless that person, out of curiosity or friendship, was a willing listener to the incantations used. Manasseh practised also this wickedness. 2 Chr. 33:6. Nineveh is compared to a well-favoured harlot, the mistress of witchcrafts. Nahum 3:4. The woman at Endor is usually called a witch.

5.  CHARMER,  from chabar, 'to join together, to fascinate.' It is associated with another word, lachash, 'to speak in a soft gentle manner,' and then is applied to the charming of serpents. Ps. 58:5. In like manner man is deceived and disarmed of his aversion to intercourse with evil spirits until he finds himself under their sway. In Isa. 19:3 another word, ittim, is translated 'charmer' with a similar meaning, as giving a gentle sound in the incantations of the sorcerers.

6.  CONSULTER WITH FAMILIAR SPIRITS.  The word is ob, which signifies 'a leathern bottle or skin,' and is supposed to imply that the persons alluded to were professedly inflated with a spirit. It occurs sixteen times and is translated in all the places as above. As an example of the meaning of this word we have the woman at Endor whom Saul consulted: she is said to have had a familiar spirit. Saul at once said to the woman, "Bring me him up whom I shall name unto thee." The woman, as soon as her life was secured by an oath, replied, "Whom shall I bring up unto thee?" Apparently it was her profession to call up departed spirits, but on this occasion she recognised the work of a superior power, for when she saw Samuel she cried with a loud voice. Samuel told Saul that he and his sons on the morrow would be with him. Whether having the power to call up departed spirits is always implied in the above word is not known. A remarkable thing, in connection with those who have a familiar spirit, is that apparently there is a voice heard 'out of the ground.' Isa. 29:4.*

* It has been doubted by many whether it was really Samuel that arose, because of his being God's prophet. The woman had reckoned that her familiar demon would personate as usual: hence her fear when God allowed Samuel's spirit in this special instance to appear. Of course Satan can do nothing without God's permission, but it must be remembered that it is Satan that had the power of death, Heb. 2:14; and both Hades and Death, as powers of Satan, will eventually be cast into the lake of fire.  Rev. 20:14.

7.  WIZARD,  from yiddeoni, 'a knowing, wise one.' The only thing said in scripture concerning such is that they 'chirp and mutter.' Isa. 8:19. This was doubtless a part of their incantations, used to bewilder those who came for advice, and needful perhaps to arouse to action the spirit they wished to consult. The counsel may have been good at times in order the more effectually to draw the deluded ones under the influence of the evil spirits.

8.  NECROMANCER,  from darash methim, 'to consult the dead.' This occurs only in Deut. 18:11, though the same is implied in Isa. 8:19; Should the living go to the dead? should they not seek unto their God? And in Ps. 106:28 we read of some who 'ate the sacrifices of the dead,' which may have been a preliminary to consulting them. The above is the list given in Deut. 18:10, 11; a few still demand attention.

9.  ASTROLOGERS,  habar shamaym, 'dividers of the heavens' for astrological purposes. Isa. 47:13. The word for 'astrologers' throughout Daniel is a different word, ashshaph, and does not imply any connection with the heavens, but is rather 'sorcerers' or 'enchanters,' as we read with reference to Babylon in Isa. 47:9, 12, where a multitude of sorceries and great abundance of enchantments are spoken of. Along with the Babylonish astrologers in Isa. 47:13 are associated STAR-GAZERS, who may have prognosticated events from the altered positions of the planets in respect to the stars. To this is added MONTHLY PROGNOSTICATORS, who probably drew their deductions from the moon. Connected with Babylon is also the word SOOTHSAYER, gezar, 'to divide, determine fate or destiny' by any pretended means of predicting events.

In the N.T., besides the case referred to of the damsel possessed by a spirit of Python, we read of others, such as Simon who used sorcery and bewitched the people of Samaria for a long time, Acts 8:9-11; and Elymas the sorcerer, a Jew who was met with in Cyprus, who perverted the right ways of the Lord. Acts 13:6, 8. These used magical arts (called 'curious arts' in Acts 19:19) and bewitched the people. Another word is used for sorceries in the Revelation, φαρμακεία, which refers to drugs, 'to stupefy with drugs,' and then for any system of sorcery by incantations. Rev. 9:21; Rev. 18:23; cf. Rev. 21:8; Rev. 22:15. Sorcery is classed with the grossest of sins, and is also applied to the professing church in mystical Babylon. The same word is translated 'witchcraft' in Gal. 5:20.

The above is a brief glance at the subtle power of Satan in the unseen world, by which he deludes mankind, at least where man is the willing victim. Is it not clear that divination should not be confounded with mere jugglery? However much that may be associated with it, the real power of Satan is behind it. Some sorcerers converted in modern times in various parts of the earth have confessed that they were controlled by a power beyond their own; but that it ceased entirely on their believing and confessing Christ. It is important to see that this power is of Satan, because of the great increase in the present day of attempting to have intercourse with the spirits of the dead, to which even Christians may be, and indeed have been, drawn out of mere curiosity. "Let no man beguile you of your reward . . . . intruding into those things which he hath not seen, vainly puffed up by his fleshly mind." Col. 2:18.

Divine.

In 2 Peter 1:3, 4, the word is θεῖος, 'of or pertaining to God.' His divine power hath given us all things that pertain to life and godliness; also, through the communication of exceeding great and precious promises, believers become partakers of the divine nature. In Heb. 9:1 the word is λατρεία, 'ordinances of service' (the word 'divine' is better left out, though it was God who gave the O.T. ritual) The same word is translated 'service' in John 16:2; Rom. 9:4; Rom.12:1

Divorce.

This was explained by the Lord. Moses had suffered a man to put away his wife for any cause, as we see in Deut. 24:1, 3; but the Lord maintained God's original ordinance that what God had joined together, man had no right to put asunder, therefore a man must not put away his wife except for fornication, when she herself had broken the bond. Matt. 5:31, 32; Matt. 19:3-9.  A BILL OF DIVORCEMENT must be given to the woman, the drawing up of which, and having it witnessed, was some little check upon a man's hasty temper.

Divorce is used symbolically to express God's action in putting away Israel, who had been grossly unfaithful, and giving her a bill of divorcement. Isa. 50:1; Jer. 3:8.

Dizahab. [Diza'hab]

Place in the wilderness near where Moses rehearsed the law. Deut. 1:1. Identified with Dahab on the west shore of the Gulf of Akaba, about 28 30' N, 34 29' E.

Doctors.

Literally Teachers: otherwise called DOCTORS OR TEACHERS OF THE LAW. Those who devoted themselves to the study and teaching of the Jewish law. Luke 2:46; Luke 5:17; Acts 5:34.

Dodai. [Do'dai]

An Ahohite, one of David's captains. 1 Chr. 27:4.

Dodanim. [Doda'nim]

Descendants of Javan, son of Japheth. Gen. 10:4; 1 Chr. 1:7. In the margin the name is RODANIM, which has some manuscript authority.

Dodavah. [Doda'vah]

Father of Eliezer who prophesied against Jehoshaphat. 2 Chr. 20:37.

Dodo. [Do'do]

1.  Grandfather of Tola, a judge, of the tribe of Issachar. Judges 10:1.

2.  An Ahohite, father of Eleazar, one of David's three mighty men. 2 Sam. 23:9; 1 Chr. 11:12.

3.  Father of Elhanan, one of David's mighty men. 2 Sam. 23:24; 1 Chr. 11:26.

Doeg. [Do'eg]

Chief of Saul's herdsmen, an Edomite, who informed Saul of David's being aided by Ahimelech, and who afterwards slew the latter and his house — 85 priests. 1 Sam. 21:7; 1 Sam. 22:9-22; Ps. 52 title. We have no information as to how such a man could have been 'detained before the Lord.' He may have been a proselyte and had some vow upon him.

Dog.

Constantly referred to in scripture as an unclean and debased animal: hence the unclean Gentiles or heathen are compared to dogs. Ps. 22:16; Ps. 59:6, 14. The price of a dog was forbidden to be put into the Lord's treasury, it was an abomination. Deut. 23:18.  Hazael, a heathen, said, "Is thy servant a dog?" and the most offensive epithet was to call a man a dead dog. They were, and are, the scavengers of Eastern cities. All refuse is thrown into the streets and the dogs eat it. It was the dogs who ate the body of Jezebel, and licked up the blood of Naboth and of Ahab. In the N.T. it is the same: 'without are dogs,'  ' beware of dogs' used symbolically of those cut off and of the unclean: they return to their vomit again. The only apparent exception to the above is when the Lord compared the Syrophenician woman to a dog, and she said, "Yet the dogs eat of the crumbs which fall from their masters' table." In these passages the diminutive of the word is used, implying 'little dogs or puppies,' and these are often kept in houses until they grow up. But this does not remove the contempt implied in the term. Matt. 15:27. Wyclif translated 'houndis' and 'litil whelpis' in Mark 7:27, 28.

Door.

Besides the common use of the door as the means of entrance into a house, and of enclosing those within when shut, it is used in scripture symbolically for the way of entrance into blessing. The Lord said, "I am the door: by me if any man enter in, he shall be saved." Salvation is only by Him. He also said that as the true Shepherd He entered into the sheepfold by the door, that is, though Son of God, He entered as obedient by God's appointed means, being circumcised, presented in the temple, and baptised. John 10:1-9. God opened 'the door of faith' to the Gentiles by Paul and Barnabas. Acts 14:27. Opportunities for service are called opened doors. 1 Cor. 16:9; 2 Cor. 2:12; Col. 4:3; Rev. 3:8.

When the church is represented as in a Laodicean state the Lord is outside knocking for admission at the door of the assembly, so that the individual may hear, with a promise of blessing to those who open to Him. Rev. 3:20.

Doors in the East are usually made of wood; but in the deserted cities of Bashan doors are found cut out of stone, with a projection top and bottom which served as pivots on which the door turned.

Dophkah. [Doph'kah]

One of the stations of Israel. Num. 33:12, 13.

Dor.

Ancient royal city of Canaan, on the most southern border of the coast of Phoenicia. Its king was slain, but Manasseh could not drive out its inhabitants. It was tributary to David and Solomon. Joshua 11:2; Joshua 12:23; Joshua 17:11; Judges 1:27; 1 Kings 4:11; 1 Chr. 7:29. Identified with Tantura, 32 37' N, 34 55' E.

Dorcas. [Dor'cas]

See TABITHA.

Dothan. [Do'than]

City of Manasseh, west of the Jordan. Gen. 37:17; 2 Kings 6:13. Identified with Tell Dothan, 32 25' N, 35 14' E.

Dove,  

yonah, περιστερά. The well-known bird of the pigeon tribe, of which there are many species. These words are translated both 'dove' and 'pigeon.' For the turtle-dove the words tor, ατρυγών, are used, names supposed to be derived from the note of the bird. Pigeons are very common in Palestine, and if any persons were too poor to buy a pair for an offering the young could easily be caught in the holes of the rocks: thus God graciously ordered it that the poorest could obtain what was needed.

There are four species of doves that inhabit Palestine: of these the most abundant is the Rock Pigeon, or Blue Rock Dove, the Columba livia. They shun the habitation of man, and live in holes in the rocks. There are three species of turtle doves known in Palestine, which are both wild and domesticated. Some may often be seen in Jerusalem. The most abundant of these is perhaps the Turtur auritus.

The dove is commonly taken as the emblem of peace. the Holy Spirit descended on the Lord 'like a dove,' answering to "on earth peace, good will toward men." It is also an emblem of harmlessness: 'wise as serpents, harmless as doves.' Matt. 10:16. In the Canticles the bridegroom three times calls the bride 'my dove,' and says she has 'doves' eyes;' she also says the latter of him. Cant. 1:15; Cant. 2:14; Cant. 4:1; Cant. 5:2, 12; Cant. 6:9. Loving gentleness characterises the dove.

Dove's Dung.

Some take this in 2 Kings 6:25 to represent a kind of herb; we have plants similarly named as cowslip, hart's-tongue, etc., and the Arabs have a herb they call 'sparrows' dung.'

Dowry.

The sum paid by a man to the relatives of the woman who becomes his wife. Gen. 34:12; Ex. 22:16, 17; 1 Sam. 18:25: cf. Hosea 3:2.  Leah, on having her sixth son, piously said, "God hath endued me with a good dowry." Gen. 30:20. The dowry which Jacob gave for his wives was seven years' service for each. Gen. 29:18, 27.

Drag.

Fishing net. Habakkuk 1:15, 16: margin, flue-net.

Dragon,

tannin, δράκων. It may signify any great serpent or sea monster, symbolical of a huge destructive creature. Nations doomed to destruction and desolation, including Jerusalem, are said to become habitations of dragons. Isa. 34:13; Isa. 35:7; Jer. 9:11; Jer. 10:22; Jer. 51:37.  Pharaoh, king of Egypt, is called the great dragon. Ezek. 29:3. As one of God's creatures the dragon is called upon to praise Jehovah. Ps. 148:7.  In the N.T. the dragon is a type of Satan and those energised by him. In Rev. 12:3  the "great red dragon, having seven heads and ten horns," is symbolical of Satan's power in the form of the Roman empire: it endeavoured, in the person of Herod, to destroy Christ when born. In Rev. 13:2, 4 it is Satan who gives the resuscitated Roman empire in a future day its throne and great authority. In Rev. 13:11 the Antichrist, who has two horns like a lamb, speaks as a dragon. In Rev. 16:13 it is Satan, and in Rev. 20:2 he is described as "that old serpent, which is the Devil and Satan."

Dragon Well.

Supposed to be a pool on the south of Jerusalem. Neh. 2:13.

Dram.

See WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.

Draught-house.

Place for refuse. 2 Kings 10:27.

Dreams.

Though associated in some passages with trifles and vanities, Job 7:14; Ecc. 5:7, there is yet abundant evidence in the scriptures that God often conveyed His mind to people by means of dreams, and this not only to those who obeyed Him, but also to the heathen. Gen. 20:3, 6; Judges 7:13. "God speaketh once, yea twice, yet man perceiveth it not. In a dream, in a vision of the night, when deep sleep falleth upon men, in slumberings upon the bed: then he openeth the ears of men, and sealeth their instruction, that he may withdraw man from his purpose, and hide pride from man." Job 33:14-17. God said that He would instruct His prophets in dreams. Num. 12:6. He also used dreams in the case of Nebuchadnezzar and of Daniel in order to reveal His will and purpose concerning, the future.

Joseph, the reputed father of the Lord, was directed several times by means of dreams; and Pilate was warned by his wife to have nothing to do with that just man because of what she had suffered in a dream. Matt. 1:20; Matt. 2:12-22; Matt. 27:19. It is to be remarked that in the last days when God pours out His Spirit on all flesh the sons and daughters will prophesy, and the young men shall see visions, and the old men shall dream dreams. Joel 2:28; Acts 2:17. This will be the way that God will make known His mind in those days.

Dreamer of Dreams.

Such are classed with false prophets. Possibly an hypnotic state which evil spirits could use, the object being to turn the people from the Lord to idolatry. If what they prophesied came true, they must not on that account be listened to: it was a test allowed of God to prove whether Israel loved the Lord. Deut. 13:1-5. We have the same caution in the N.T. as to the gospel and the confession of Jesus Christ come in flesh. Gal. 1:8, 9; 1 John 4:1. In Jer. 27:9 the 'dreamers' are classed with 'diviners,' and in Jude 8 they are those that defile the flesh.

Dress.

See GARMENTS

Drink Offerings.

See OFFERINGS.

Dromedary.

See CAMEL.

Dropsy,

ὑδρωπικός, The Greek word implies that the disease was a collection of water, which is the well known characteristic of dropsy. Luke 14:2.

Drunkenness.  

One of the common sins of mankind. We read of it as early as Noah. Gen. 9:21. Its grave character is shown in the N.T. by the drunkard being classed along with fornicators, thieves, idolaters, etc., and the declaration that no drunkard shall inherit the kingdom of God. 1 Cor. 5:11; 1 Cor. 6:10.

Drusilla. [Drusil'la]

Daughter of Herod Agrippa I: and Cypros, and sister of Agrippa II. She married Aziz king of Emesa on his becoming a Jew, but was subsequently seduced into leaving her husband and marrying Felix, procurator of Judaea. She was present when Paul was heard before Felix. Acts 24:24. With her son Agrippa she perished at an eruption of Vesuvius.

Duke.

A title often given in the early genealogies, signifying head of a family or of a tribe, which were called after his name. Gen. 36:15-43; 1 Chr. 1:51-54.

Dulcimer,

sumponyah. A musical instrument formed of two pipes inserted into a leathern bag, somewhat like the bagpipes, or the Italian sampogna. Dan. 3:5, 10, 15. It was not, like the modern dulcimer, formed with strings.

Dumah. [Du'mah]

1.  Son of Ishmael and founder of a tribe in Arabia. Gen. 25:14; 1 Chr. 1:30.

2.  city or district prophesied against; probably in Edom, and perhaps connected with No. 1. Isa. 21:11.

3.  Town in the highlands of Judah. Joshua 15:52. Identified with ed Domeh, 31 26' N, 34 59' E.

Dungeon.

Pit used for water, but sometimes dry and used as a prison. Joseph called his prison a dungeon, though perhaps it was not a pit. Gen. 40:15; Gen. 41:14. Jeremiah was put into a pit, and he sank in the mire. Jer. 38:6-13; Lam. 3:53, 55.

Dung-gate.

Dung was used both for fuel and manure. It may have been carried out of the city by one particular gate, and this would attach the name to the gate. The one now so called in Jerusalem may have no reference to the above, which may not now exist. Neh. 2:13; Neh. 3:14; Neh. 12:31.

Dura. [Du'ra]

Plain in the province of Babylon, where Nebuchadnezzar's golden image was set up. Dan. 3:1. Perhaps the same as Duair, S.E. of Babylon.

Dust.

Small particles of matter found on the ground, out of which man was formed, to whom it was said, "Dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return." Gen. 2:7; Gen. 3:19. "The first man is of the earth, earthy." 1 Cor. 15:47. It is used as a symbol of weakness: "he remembereth that we are dust." Ps. 103:14. To 'lick the dust' is figurative of defeat. Ps. 72:9. To 'cast dust upon the head' was a sign of grief. Ezek. 27:30; Rev. 18:19. To 'shake the dust off the feet' on leaving a city where the servants of Christ had been rejected, was leaving them to judgement: not even the dust of their city should be presented before the messengers' Master. Matt. 10:14; Acts 13:51. Similarly dust was cast or shaken into the air by men in great indignation. Acts 22:23.

Dwellers on Earth.

This is an emphatic expression in the Revelation characterising those that seek their portion on earth at the time when the Lord Jesus Christ is refused His rights in it: a great trial awaits them. Rev. 3:10. Others, persecuted by them, call upon God to avenge their blood. Rev. 6:10. The dwellers on earth will rejoice over the death of the two witnesses who stand before the God of the earth: they will worship the first beast, and be deceived by the miracles of Antichrist; yet the everlasting gospel will be preached to them, calling them to "Fear God, and give glory to him: for the hour of his judgement is come." We do not read of their repentance. Rev. 11:10; Rev. 13:8, 12, 14; Rev. 14:6;

Dyeing.

This art must have been acquired early. When the Tabernacle was erected the rams' skins were dyed red. Ex. 25:5; Ex. 26:14. The tombs in Egypt show that the art was well understood there by the various colours yet visible. The word rendered "dyed attire" in Ezek. 23:15 signifies head-bands, tiaras, turbans, of different colours. In Isa. 63:1 the Lord Jesus is represented as coming from Edom and Bozrah with His garments dyed with the blood of His enemies, as one that treadeth in a wine-press is stained with the juice of the grape.

Eagle,

nesher, ἀετός. This is supposed to be the bird known as the Griffon Vulture or Great Vulture — the Gyps fulvus of the naturalists — though it may include other species. Its habits agree with those related of the eagle in scripture, and they are plentiful in Palestine. No sooner does an animal fall than these birds congregate in numbers on its carcase, according to Job 9:26; Matt. 24:28. The true eagle is a solitary bird, but vultures are seldom found alone. The expression "beareth them on her wings" exactly describes the way the vultures bear up their young, and teach them to fly. Ex. 19:4; Deut. 32:11. The vulture also agrees with Micah 1:16 which speaks of its baldness, for the vulture's head and neck are without feathers. Its swiftness is proverbial, Lam. 4:19, and it rests on the highest rocks. Job 39:27; Jer. 49:16. In Ezekiel and in the Revelation the living creatures have the eagle character as portraying the swiftness in execution of God's power in creation and judicial government. Ezek. 1:10; Ezek. 10:14; Rev. 4:7.

Ear.

The organ of hearing is often used symbolically in scripture. When a servant, whose time of service had expired, preferred to stop with his master, saying, "I love my master, my wife, and my children; I will not go out free," his ear was bored with an awl to the door post, and his ear belonged to his master perpetually, he was to hear only that one as master: type of Christ and His love to the church. Ex. 21:5, 6; Deut. 15:17. Of Christ also it is said, "mine ears hast thou opened." Ps. 40:6; quoted in Heb. 10:5 from the LXX, "a body hast thou prepared me," both signifying that He was the obedient one. "He that hath ears to hear, let him hear" was said by the Lord to His hearers, and to each of the seven churches in Asia, and also said when the beast, representing the future Roman power, is worshipped, signifying that a spiritual discernment was needed to catch the meaning of what was uttered. Matt. 13:9, 43; Rev. 2:7, 11, 17, 29; Rev. 3:6, 13, 22; Rev. 13:9.

Eared, Earing.

'Ploughed' and 'ploughing,' as the same Hebrew word is elsewhere translated. Gen. 45:6; Ex. 34:21; 1 Sam. 8:12.

Earnest.

See HOLY SPIRIT.

Ear-ring.

The well-known ornament worn by women and men in the East. Gen. 24:22, 30, 47; Job 42:11; Hosea 2:13; etc. In Isa. 3:20 the allusion is not to a ring for the ear, but to an amulet on which a charm could be written.

Earth.

Several Hebrew words are translated 'earth,' but they are not employed to distinguish the earth as a sphere from the surface of the earth, or ground; nor to discriminate between the general surface of the earth, and any portion of it as 'land,' or the soil of the earth. Thus adamah generally refers to the earth as ground or soil: the rain falleth on 'the earth,' Gen. 7:4; 'an altar of earth,' Ex. 20:24; man 'returneth to his earth,' Ps. 146:4; but it often refers to the 'land' of Israel: 'prolong your days upon the land;'  'dwell in the land;'  'live in the land;'  'the land which I sware unto their fathers.' Deut. 30:18, 20; Deut. 31:13, 20.

Another word, erets, has wider significations: sometimes the earth as a sphere: "God created the heaven and the earth," Gen. 1:1; He "hangeth the earth upon nothing," Job 26:7: but in other places it is restricted to districts: "out of that land went forth Asshur;" "after their tongues in their countries;" "in his days was the earth divided." Gen. 10:11, 20, 25.

In the N.T. the word γῆ is employed for all the above various significations. It is used symbolically as a characteristic of man according to his natural estate. "He that is of the earth is earthly, and speaketh of the earth." John 3:31.

From the above examples it will be seen that in some instances where the A.V. has 'earth,' the 'land' only, or the land of Canaan, may be intended; the context must be studied in each case.

Earthquake.

The first earthquake mentioned is when Elijah was told to stand before the Lord. There passed by a strong wind that rent the rocks, then an earthquake, and fire; but the Lord was not in the earthquake, nor in the fire; but in a still small voice: a lesson for Elijah when he was thinking much of himself. 1 Kings 19:11, 12. In the days of Uzziah there was a great earthquake, from which the people fled. Amos 1:1; Zech. 14:5. Josephus (Ant. ix. 10, 4) states that this happened when the king went into the temple and was struck with leprosy. 2 Chr. 26:16-21.

There was an earthquake at the death of the Lord, and the rocks were rent, which drew from the centurion the saying, "Truly this was the Son of God." Matt. 27:51, 54. There was also a great earthquake at the resurrection of the Lord. Matt. 28:2. When Paul and Barnabas were in the prison at Philippi there was a great earthquake that shook the prison, which led to the conversion of the jailer. Acts 16:26. Josephus (Ant. xv. 5, 2) relates the particulars of a dreadful earthquake in Palestine about B.C. 31, when as many as 10,000 of the inhabitants lost their lives.

In the future judgements on the earth, earthquakes are often mentioned. Isa. 29:6; Matt. 24:7; Mark 13:8; Luke 21:11; Rev. 6:12; Rev. 8:5; Rev. 11:13, 19; Rev. 16:18. Symbolically they point to the upheaval of the lower masses of society, overthrowing the social system either partially or entirely.

Earthy,

χοι>κός. A characteristic of man as made out of the earth, of dust. 1 Cor. 15:47-49. "The first man is of the earth, earthy," in contrast to "the second man, out of heaven." A man cannot rise morally above the earth except by the power of God in new creation.

East.

Several words are used to express the East, which imply 'going forth,' 'rising,' 'that which is before,' having reference to the sun and its rising. Nearly all the references in scripture to the East or to other quarters are of course reckoned from Palestine; so that 'children of the East,' 'men of the East,' point out Assyria, Babylon, etc.

THE EAST WIND was distressing and destructive to vegetation, Gen. 41:6, 23, 27; dangerous to vessels at sea, Ps. 48:7, Ezek. 27:26; and is symbolical of the withering power of God's judgements. Hosea 13:15.

Easter,

πάσχα. Simply 'the Passover,' Acts 12:4, as the word is elsewhere translated.

Eating.

Besides the common use of this word, it is employed symbolically for to 'consume, destroy:' they "eat up my people as they eat bread." Ps. 14:4; cf. Prov. 30:14; Habakkuk 3:14; 2 Tim. 2:17. Also for receiving, digesting, and delighting in God's words: "Thy words were found, and I did eat them; and thy word was unto me the joy and rejoicing of mine heart: for I am called by thy name, O Lord God of hosts." Jer. 15:16.  To eat together of the same bread or food is a token of friendship. Joshua 9:14; Ps. 41:9; Cant. 5:1; John 13:18; and such an expression of intimacy is forbidden towards those walking disorderly. 1 Cor. 5:11. It is used to express the satisfaction of doing the work that is before the soul: the Lord said, "I have meat to eat that ye know not of." John 4:32. Also to express appropriation to the eater of the death of Christ: "except ye eat the flesh of the Son of man, and drink his blood, ye have no life in you." John 6:53. (In John 6:51, 53 there is eating for reception, φάγω; and in John 6:54, 56, 57, eating as a present thing for the maintenance of life, τρώγω.) In the Lord's Supper the Christian eats that which is a symbol of the body of Christ, Matt. 26:26, and in eating he has communion with Christ's death. 1 Cor. 10:16.

Ebal. [E'bal]

1.  Son of Shobal, a son of Seir. Gen. 36:23; 1 Chr. 1:40.

2.  Son of Joktan, a descendant of Shem. 1 Chr. 1:22. Called OBAL in Gen. 10:28.

Ebal, Mount.

Mountain in Ephraim from which were proclaimed the curses that would fall upon Israel if they disobeyed the Lord. Great stones covered with plaster, on which the law was written, were set up on this mount. Thus the law and the curse were associated with the same mountain, Deut. 11:29; Deut. 27:4, 13; but along with these Joshua also erected an altar unto the Lord God of Israel, before the blessings on Gerizim and the curses on Ebal were rehearsed. Joshua 8:30 , 33. Parties of travellers often separate themselves, some going up mount Ebal, and others on mount Gerizim, and prove that the congregation in the valley could hear the voice from both mountains. Mount Ebal is now called Jebel Eslamiyeh, 32 14' N, 35 16' E.  Its highest point is 3077 feet.

Ebed.

1.  Father of Gaal who rebelled against Abimelech, when God had sent an evil spirit between Abimelech and the men of Shechem. Judges 9:26-41.

2.  Son of Jonathan, of Adin. Ezra 8:6.

Ebedmelech.  [E'bed-me'lech]

Ethiopian eunuch in the service of king Zedekiah. He aided Jeremiah and God sent word to him that he should be delivered from death at the taking of Jerusalem. Jer. 38:7-12; Jer. 39:16-18.

Ebenezer.  [E'ben-e'zer]

A stone thus called, signifying 'stone of help,' set up by Samuel, after obtaining victory over the Philistines, as a memorial of the help received from God. 1 Sam. 4:1; 1 Sam. 5:1; 1 Sam. 7:12.  It would appear in the texts as if the stone had had the name prior to Samuel's thus designating it; but this may be accounted for by the whole account having been written after the stone was so named. The word has become symbolical for the expression "Hitherto hath the Lord helped us."

Eber. [E'ber]

1.  Son of Salah and great-grandson of Shem. Gen. 10:21, 24, 25; Gen. 11:14-17; Num. 24:24; 1 Chr. 1:18, 19, 25. Called HEBER in Luke 3:35.

2.  Son of Elpaal, a Benjamite. 1 Chr. 8:12.

3.  Priest of the family of Amok. Neh. 12:20. The same Hebrew word is sometimes translated HEBER in the A.V.

Ebiasaph. [Ebi'asaph]

See ABIASAPH.

Ebony.

The well-known hard black wood: it was imported with ivory into Tyre. Ezek. 27:15.

Ebronah. [Ebro'nah]

One of the stations of the Israelites in the wilderness. Num. 33:31, 35.

Ecclesiastes, Book of.

The first two or three verses give the subject of this book. "Vanity of vanities, saith the Preacher, vanity of vanities; all is vanity. What profit hath a man of all his labour which he taketh under the sun?" This expression 'under the sun' occurs no less than twenty-eight times in the twelve chapters, and gives the character of the book. It describes life 'in Adam,' and seeks an answer to the questions, What is best for man? how should he spend his life to be happy on earth? The writer speaks as a human philosopher in his wanderings. Sometimes he gets near the truth, but at other times he is far removed from it. Hence some passages state man's false conclusions: cf. for example, Ecc. 3:18-22; Ecc. 7:16, 17; Ecc. 8:15. The direct divine teaching is contained in the last few verses of the book. The last two verses answer the searchings of Ecc. 1:13; Ecc. 2:3.

Solomon, who is the writer, goes through his experience both of wisdom and of riches, of labour, and of all that his heart as a man could desire (and who can come after the king?); and records it by inspiration, so that when he proves it all to be but vanity and vexation of spirit it is not the mere utterance of a disappointed man, but divinely recorded conviction. The actions are characterised by being done 'under the sun,' and without any thought of their being performed Godward. Man is not regarded as in direct relationship with God, though responsible to his Creator. The name of Jehovah does not once occur.

Ecc. 1, Ecc. 2.   "The eye is not satisfied with seeing, nor the ear filled with hearing," therefore Solomon searched his heart (Ecc. 1:13, 16; Ecc. 2:1, 3) as to mirth, wine, wisdom, folly, and great works. His heart was in despair, and he concluded that there was nothing better than for a man to enjoy good in his labour and in the gifts of God.

Ecc. 3.   Man is shown that he is in a time state: there is a time for everything 'under the heaven,' but only 'a time.' God made everything beautiful in its time: He hath set 'the age' in man's heart. Ecc. 3:11. (The word rendered 'world' in the A.V. in this verse is olam, often translated 'ever' and 'everlasting.' Some translate 'he hath set eternity in their heart,' but the sense doubtless is that man's heart can only naturally embrace the age characterised by time.) "No man can find out the work that God maketh from the beginning to the end." God is working out His own end during this time state: man lives in time, but what God does shall be for ever. God will judge the righteous and the wicked, but as far as man's real knowledge extends he dies as the beast dies. This is only man's conclusion drawn from beholding what takes place under the sun.

Ecc. 4.   Sorrow is expressed for the oppression and injustice that exist in a sinful world, with no effectual comfort and remedy. The poor, the rich, and the sluggard are spoken of, and the evil results of folly in private affairs (Ecc. 4:7-11), and in political life. Ecc. 4:13-16.

Ecc. 5.   Piety is brought in, and conduct in the house of God; caution as to vows, and a call to fear God. He is above every oppression on the earth, and takes knowledge of it all. In Ecc. 5:9-17 agricultural life is contrasted with commercial life, with its anxieties and varying fortunes. Again the writer concludes that it is good and comely to eat and drink and enjoy the good that God gives.

Ecc. 6.   There is vanity in connection with having riches and not being able to enjoy them; respecting children, old age, and the wanderings of man's desire: life is a shadow.

Ecc. 7.   Divers things are compared: the better things are a good name, sorrow, the rebuke of the wise, the end of a thing, and wisdom. The strange sight in Ecc. 7:15 makes the writer try a middle course between righteousness and wickedness, still retaining a certain fear of God. But in that middle course he was wrong: wisdom was far from him. Wisdom has its difficulties, which man cannot solve. He learned that there is not a just man upon the earth that sinneth not: God made man upright, but they sought out many inventions.

Ecc. 8.   Kings should be respected: they are God's ministers to repress evil. The sinner and the righteous are contrasted, and it is well with them that fear God; but the work of God, in His providential dealing, is mysterious and past finding out.

Ecc. 9.   Things happen alike to the righteous and the wicked; both die. Hence the writer wrongly advises a life of self-indulgence, for God appears indifferent to all that is done. A 'poor wise man' delivered a city by his wisdom, but he was forgotten.

Ecc. 10.   Observations on wisdom and folly. Wisdom has its advantages for this life, both to the wise man himself and to others. It is not good for a land for its king to be a child and the princes incapable.

Ecc. 11.   Exhortations are given to cast 'bread' and 'sow seed' on all occasions and in all places: all will not be lost. The works of God cannot be fully known: the more that is known shows how much there is unknown. The wisest arrives as it were at a blank wall, beyond which all is unknown. The young man is advised to enjoy himself while he yet lives, but God will bring him into judgement for all.

Ecc. 12.   The Creator is to be remembered in the days of youth. Decrepitude and death are described: man is overtaken by death ere he has found out true wisdom. In Ecc. 12:8 the gropings of the philosopher under the sun are over: he comes back to his starting point, "Vanity of vanities, saith the Preacher; all is vanity." A distinct division follows. Sinful man should not expect happiness except in God. "The whole of man " (not his duty, but the one thing for man, the one principle of life), is to "fear God and keep his commandments." God will bring every work into judgement.

Such is a slight sketch of the contents of the Book of Ecclesiastes. There is no question therein of grace or of redemption. It is the experience of a man, and he a king with wisdom and riches, respecting human life, with an attempt to solve all the anomalies that exist in the world, while viewing them 'under the sun.' They can only be solved, or peacefully left unsolved, by the wisdom which cometh from above. It is only in the N.T. that we get 'new creation,' that rises above the perplexities of fallen humanity, and reveals 'eternal life' that is in God's Son.

The Book of Ecclesiastes has been a great puzzle to many of the learned. They cannot understand how a king like Solomon could have had such an experience or have written such a book. They judge that it must have been written long after, as when the Jews were under the rule of the Persians, and that Solomon was only personated by the writer. It is plainly seen in their arguments that they overlook that which runs through the book, and which is the key to its being understood, namely, that all is viewed from man's point of view, expressed as 'under the sun.' When Solomon rises above this, as he does in the Proverbs, how different his experience, and the wisdom is divine. Then he speaks much of Jehovah, the name of relationship, which name, as said above, does not occur in the Book of Ecclesiastes.

Ed.

This word, signifying 'witness,' is added in the A.V. in Joshua 22:34. Instead of 'called the altar Ed,' it has been translated 'gave a name to the altar.' The word 'Ed' is in some Hebrew MSS, and in the Syriac and Arabic versions, but not in the LXX.

Edar, [E'dar] Tower of.

This occurs only in Gen. 35:21, and signifies 'Tower of the flock.' Probably a tower built by the shepherds for the protection of their flocks. It was apparently a little south of Bethlehem. Jacob halted there with his flocks. The expression 'tower of the flock' occurs in Micah 4:8 (Edar in the margin) as the stronghold of the daughter of Zion.

Eden. [E'den]

The garden of Eden (that is 'delights'), in which dwelt Adam and Eve for the short time before they sinned. In it God made to grow every tree that was pleasant to the sight and good for food: in it also was the tree of life and the tree of knowledge of good and evil. Gen. 2:8-15.  A fruitful place is described as being like the garden of Eden. Isa. 51:3; Ezek. 36:35; Joel 2:3. The fall of Pharaoh, under the figure of an exalted tree, is said to comfort the trees of Eden, which is called the 'garden of God,' etc. Isa. 51:3; Ezek. 28:13; Ezek. 31:9, 16, 18. The trees of Eden having been planted by God, they are in this last passage used as a symbol for the various nations placed by God in the earth, Israel being the centre. Deut. 32:8. Adam was put in the garden to dress and to keep it; but on his fall he was driven out and cherubim were placed to keep the way of the tree of life. Gen. 3:23, 24.

A river ran out of Eden to water it, and then divided into four. Only two of these can be identified, the Euphrates, and the Hiddekel denoting the Tigris. There are no others to be found to make up the four, and all efforts to find out where the garden of Eden was situated have utterly failed. It belonged to the time of innocence, and as that has gone, the earthly paradise has long ceased to exist. See PARADISE.

Eden. [E'den]

1.  Son of Joah, a Gershonite, 2 Chr. 29:12; perhaps the same that assisted in distributing the oblations in 2 Chr. 31:16.

2.  A people called 'the children of Eden,' dwelling in Thelasar, or Telassar, which had been conquered by Assyria. They supplied Tyre with costly fabrics. 2 Kings 19:12; Isa. 37:12; Ezek. 27:23.  Its locality is not known.

3.  HOUSE OF EDEN or BETH-EDEN. Amos 1:5. Apparently a residence of the kings of Damascus, probably situated in some pleasant place.

Eder. [E'der]

1.  Town in the south of Judah. Joshua 15:21.

2.  Son of Mushi and grandson of Merari. 1 Chr. 23:23; 1 Chr. 24:30.

Edification.

From οἰκοδομέω 'to build, to build up.' The same word is used for the building of the Temple at Jerusalem, John 2:20, and by the Lord when He said He would build His assembly. Matt. 16:18.  Οἰκοδομή occurs often in the epistles with the exhortation that all things in the church should be done to edification. Rom. 14:19; Rom. 15:2; 1 Cor. 14:3-26; Eph. 4:16, 29. The gifts in the church were also for the edifying of the body of Christ, Eph. 4:12; and when things were at their worst Christians were exhorted to be building up themselves on their most holy faith. Jude 20. As a building is increased and strengthened, so the body of Christ is built up by the ministry of the Spirit through the word until all come "unto a perfect man, unto the measure of the stature of the fulness of Christ." Eph. 4:13.

Edom. [E'dom]

Name given to Esau because he craved the red pottage of Jacob, Edom signifying red, Gen. 25:30; Gen. 36:1, 8, 19; but the name is more usually given to his tribe and the territory they possessed. This extended from the land of Moab, southward to the Gulf of Akaba, in length about 100 miles, from about 29 30' to 31 N, and about 35 30' E. It is a remarkably mountainous district with lofty peaks and deep glens, but also with very productive plains. It had been called mount Seir. Gen. 36:8.  Some of the rocks were so precipitous that Amaziah killed 10,000 of the children of Seir (Edomites) by casting them down from the rocks, whereby they were dashed to pieces. 2 Chr. 25:11. Bozrah and Sela, or Selah, were its chief cities.

When Israel was approaching the land of Palestine, Moses appealed to Edom to let them pass through their country, but they refused. The Israelites therefore returned south by way of the Red Sea (Gulf of Akaba) in order to compass the land of Edom, and then kept to the east of Edom until they reached the land of Moab. Num. 21:4.

Edom is constantly referred to in the prophets as having had relations with Israel, and is judged because of its perpetual hatred against them. Ezek. 35:5. God at one time stirred up the king of Edom to punish Israel (1 Kings 11:14), and then again strengthened Israel to punish Edom. 2 Chr. 25:10, 11. Some of the prophecies however extend to the future. Edom took pleasure in the punishment of Judah when judgement was falling upon it. Of Jerusalem they said, "Rase it, rase it, even to the foundation thereof," Ps. 137:7, evincing, as also do other passages, the hatred and jealousy of the descendants of Esau.

Many prophecies speak of its punishment. When the king of the north in a future day invades Palestine and overthrows countries as far as Egypt, "Edom, and Moab, and the chief of the children of Ammon" will escape, being reserved to be subdued by Israel. Dan. 11:41; Isa. 11:13, 14; Oba 18, 19. It is from 'Edom' that the Lord Jesus is represented as coming 'with dyed garments' because of His having executed judgements. Isa. 63:1. Its destruction will be complete. Oba. 10.

During the captivity the Edomites extended their dominion in the West and possessed Hebron; and some 300 years B.C. the Nabatheans took Petra (which is supposed to be the same as Sela, q.v.), and established themselves in the district. They settled down and engaged in commerce, and formed the kingdom called by Roman writers Arabia Petraea. Under the Maccabees the Edomites in the west were conquered, and Hebron was recovered. After possession by the Romans, under the withering influence of Islamic rule the district came to ruin.

The Greek form of Edom is IDUMEA, which occurs only in Isa. 34:5, 6; Ezek. 35:15; Ezek. 36:5; Mark 3:8.

Edomites. [E'domites]

In addition to the above remarks on Edom there remain a few things to notice which are said of the people themselves. Isaac said of Esau, "Thy dwelling shall be the fatness of the earth, and of the dew of heaven from above. And by thy sword shalt thou live, and shalt serve thy brother: and it shall come to pass when thou shalt have the dominion, that thou shalt break his yoke from off thy neck." Gen. 27:39, 40. This prediction was fulfilled, for though they were defeated again and again by the kings of Israel, they were at length able to declare their freedom. The fierce way they replied to Moses when he wanted Israel to pass through their border, manifested their disposition. They must have greatly increased, as is shown by the numbers that were slain in some of the wars; and though in the time of David we read of every male in Edom being slain, 1 Kings 11:15, 16, they again became numerous and were again defeated. In the time of the Maccabees John Hyrcanus compelled the Edomites to be circumcised and to conform to the Jewish laws, or leave the country. They were circumcised, and one of them became procurator Of Judaea — Antipater, the father of HEROD THE GREAT, who was an Edomite, or Idumean, by birth, though nominally a Jew.

Edrei. [Ed'rei]

1.  One of the chief towns of Bashan, where Og was defeated by the Israelites. Num. 21:33-35; Deut. 1:4; Deut. 3:1, 10; Joshua 12:4; Joshua 13:12, 31.  It fell to the lot of Manasseh. It is identified with ed Deraah, 32 38' N, 36 6' E. It is a place of great natural strength, being surrounded by a labyrinth of clefts and crevasses in the rock. The houses are of stone, with stone roofs and stone doors. There is no water there, and the spot seems chosen for security. About 50 families of desperate character inhabit the place. Underneath the city are many large caves, forming a subterranean city, with streets and houses; but a recent traveller found the entrance blocked by a rock, and was told that the passage had been blown up to prevent the caves being used as a hiding place from justice.

2.  City of Naphtali in the north, near Kedesh. Joshua 19:37. Identified by some with Yater, 33 9' N, 35 20' E.

Eglah. [Eg'lah]

One of David's wives, and mother of his son Ithream. 2 Sam. 3:5; 1 Chr. 3:3.

Eglaim. [Egla'im]

City of Moab. Isa. 15:8. The name signifies 'two ponds.'

Eglon. [Eg'lon]

1.  One of the five confederate cities which attacked Gibeon, but were conquered by Joshua. Joshua 10:3-37; Joshua 12:12; Joshua 15:39. Identified with the ruins at Ajlan, 31 35' N, 34 43' E.

2.  King of the Moabites, who, aided by Ammon and Amalek, crossed the Jordan and captured the city of palm trees, or Jericho, and ruled over Israel eighteen years. He was stabbed by Ehud in his summer parlour. Judges 3:12-17.

Egypt.

In Hebrew Mizraim (though really it is Mitsraim). It is a dual form, signifying 'the two Matsors,' as some think, which represent Lower and Upper Egypt. Egypt is also called THE LAND OF HAM in Ps. 105:23, 27; Ps. 106:22; and RAHAB, signifying 'the proud one' in Ps. 87:4; Ps. 89:10; Isa. 51:9. (This name in Hebrew is not the same as Rahab, the harlot, which is really Rachab.) Upper Egypt is called PATHROS, that is, 'land of the south,' Isa. 11:11. Lower Egypt is MATSOR in Isa. 19:6; Isa. 37:25, but translated 'defence' and 'besieged places' in the A.V.  Egypt is one of the most ancient and renowned countries, but it is not possible to fix any date to its foundation.

   The history of ancient Egypt is usually divided into three parts.

1.  The Old Kingdom, from its commencement to the invasion of Egypt by those called Hyksos or Shepherd-kings. This would embrace the first eleven dynasties. In some of these the kings reigned at Memphis, and in others at Thebes, so that it cannot now be ascertained whether some of the dynasties were contemporaneous or not. To the first four dynasties are attributed the building of the great Pyramid and the second and third Pyramids, and also the great Sphinx.

2.  The Middle Kingdom commenced with the twelfth dynasty. Some Hyksos had settled in Lower Egypt as early as the sixth dynasty; they extended their power in the fourteenth dynasty, and reigned supreme in the fifteenth, sixteenth, and seventeenth dynasties. These were Semites from Asia. They established themselves in the north of Egypt at Zoan, or Tanis, and Avaris, while Egyptian kings reigned in the south. They are supposed to have held the north for about 500 years, but some judge their sway to have been much shorter.

3. The New Kingdom was inaugurated by the expulsion of the Hyksos in the eighteenth dynasty, when Egypt regained its former power, as we find it spoken of in the O.T.

The first mention of Egypt in scripture is when Abraham went to sojourn there because of the famine. It was turning to the world for help, and it entangled the patriarch in conduct for which he was rebuked by Pharaoh, the prince of the world. Gen. 12:10-20. This would have been about the time of the twelfth dynasty. About B.C. 1728 Joseph was carried into Egypt and sold to Potiphar: his exaltation followed; the famine commenced, and eventually Jacob and all his family went into Egypt. See JOSEPH. At length a king arose who knew not Joseph, doubtless at the commencement of a new dynasty, and the children of Israel were reduced to slavery. Moses was sent of God to deliver Israel, and the plagues followed. See PLAGUES OF EGYPT. On the death of the firstborn of the Egyptians, Israel left Egypt. See ISRAEL IN EGYPT and the EXODUS.

Very interesting questions arise — which of the kings of Egypt was it who promoted Joseph? which king was it that did not know Joseph? and which king reigned at the time of the Plagues and the Exodus? The result more generally arrived at is that the Pharaoh who promoted Joseph was one of the Hyksos (who being of Semitic origin, were more favourable to strangers than were the native Egyptians), and was probably APEPA or APEPI II, the last of those kings. It was to the Egyptians that shepherds were an abomination, as scripture says, which may not have applied to the Hyksos (which signifies 'shepherds' and agrees with their being called shepherd-kings), and this may account, under the control of God, for 'the best of the land' being given to the Israelites.

The Pharaoh of the oppression has been thought to be RAMESES II of the nineteenth dynasty, and the Pharaoh of the Exodus to be MENEPHTHAH his son. The latter had one son, SETI II, who must have been slain in the last plague on Egypt, if his father was the Pharaoh of the Exodus. The monuments record the death of the son, and the mummy of the father has not been found, but he is spoken of as living and reigning after the death of his son. This would not agree with his perishing in the Red Sea. Scripture does not state positively that he fell under that judgement, but it does say that God "overthrew Pharaoh and his host in the Red Sea." Ps. 136:15. God also instructed Moses to say to Pharaoh, "Thou shalt be cut off from the earth. And in very deed for this cause have I raised thee up, for to show in thee my power." Ex. 9:15. Menephthah has been described as "weak, irresolute, and wanting in physical courage," and it is thought he would never have ventured into the Red Sea. The monuments depict him as "one whose mind was turned almost exclusively towards sorcery and magic." It is no wonder therefore that he was so slow to learn the power of Jehovah. As scripture does not give the names of the Pharaohs in the Pentateuch, there is really no definite link between those mentioned therein and any particular kings as found on the monuments. Some Egyptologers consider other kings more probable than the above, placing the time of Joseph before the period of the Hyksos, while others place it after their exit.

After the Exodus scripture is silent as to Egypt for about 500 years, until the days of Solomon. The Tell Amarna Tablets (to be spoken of presently) reveal that Canaan was subject to Egypt before the Israelites entered the land. Pinetem 2, of the twenty-first dynasty, is supposed to be the Pharaoh who was allied to Solomon.

The first Pharaoh mentioned by name is SHISHAK: he has been identified with Shashank I. first king of the twenty-second dynasty, who held his court at Bubastis. He gave shelter to Jeroboam when he fled from Solomon, and after Solomon's death he invaded Judaea with 1200 chariots, 60,000 horsemen, and people without number. He took the walled cities, and pillaged Jerusalem and the temple: "he took all: he carried away also the shields of gold which Solomon had made." 1 Kings 11:40; 1 Kings 14:25, 26; 2 Chr. 12:2-9. It is painfully interesting to find, among the recorded victories of Shishak on the temple at Karnak, a figure with his arms tied behind, representing Judah as a captive The inscription reads JUDAH MELCHI, kingdom of Judah.

The next person mentioned is ZERAH the Ethiopian, who brought an army of 1,000,000 and 300 chariots against Asa the king of Judah. Asa piously called to the Lord for help, and declared his rest was on Him. God answered his faith, and the Egyptian hosts were overcome, and Judah took 'very much spoil.' 2 Chr. 14:9-13. It will be noticed that scripture does not say that Zerah was a Pharaoh. He is supposed to have been the general of Osorkon 2. the fourth king of the twenty-second dynasty.

The twenty-fifth dynasty was a foreign one, of Ethiopians who reigned in Nubia. Its first king, named Shabaka, or Sabaco, was the So of scripture. Hoshea, king of Israel, attempted an alliance with this king that he might be delivered from his allegiance to Assyria. He made presents to Egypt; but the scheme was not carried out. It led to the capture of Samaria and the captivity of the ten tribes. 2 Kings 17:4.

Another king of this dynasty was Tirhakah or Taharka (the Tehrak of the monuments) who came into collision with Assyria in the 14th year of Hezekiah. Sennacherib was attacking Libnah when he heard that the king of Ethiopia had come out to fight against him. Sennacherib sent a second threatening letter to Hezekiah; but God miraculously destroyed his army in the night. Tirhakah was afterwards defeated by Sennacherib and again at the conquest of Egypt by Esar-haddon. 2 Kings 19:9; Isa. 37:9.

Egypt recovered this shock under Psammetichus I of Sais (twenty-sixth dynasty), and in the days of Josiah, PHARAOH-NECHO, anxious to rival the glories of the eighteenth and nineteenth dynasties, set out to attack the king of Assyria and to recover the long-lost sway of Egypt over Syria. Josiah opposed Necho, but was slain at Megiddo. Necho carrying all before him proceeded as far as Carchemish on the Euphrates, and on returning to Jerusalem he deposed Jehoahaz and carried him to Egypt (where he died), and set up his brother Eliakim in his stead, calling him Jehoiakim. The tribute was to be one hundred talents of silver and a talent of gold. 2 Kings 23:29-34; 2 Chr. 35:20-24; Jer. 26:20-23. By Necho being able to attack the king of Assyria, in so distant a place as Carchemish shows the strength of Egypt at that time, but the power of Babylon was increasing, and after three years Nebuchadnezzar defeated the army of Necho at Carchemish, and recovered every place from the river of Egypt to the Euphrates; and "the king of Egypt came not again any more out of his land." 2 Kings 24:7; Jer. 46:2-12. The Necho of scripture is Nekau on the monuments, a king of the twenty-sixth dynasty.

The Greek writers and the Egyptian monuments mention Psamatik 2 as the next king to Necho, and then Apries (Uahabra on the monuments, the letter U being equivalent to the aspirate), the HOPHRA of scripture. Zedekiah had been made governor of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar, but he revolted and formed an alliance with Hophra. Ezek. 17:15-17. When the Chaldeans besieged Jerusalem Hophra, true to his word, entered Palestine. Nebuchadnezzar raised the siege, attacked and defeated him, and then returned and re-established the siege of Jerusalem. He took the city and burned it with fire. Jer. 37:5-11.

Hophra was filled with pride, and it is recorded that he said not even a god could overthrow him. Such arrogance could not go unpunished. Ezekiel was at Babylon: and in his prophecy (Ezek. 29:1-16) he foretells the humbling of Egypt and their king, "the great dragon that lieth in the midst of his rivers." Egypt should be made desolate from Migdol to Syene (margin), even to the border of Ethiopia (from the north to the south) 'forty years.' Abdallatif, an Arab writer, says that Nebuchadnezzar ravaged Egypt and ruined all the country for giving an asylum to the Jews who fled from him, and that it remained in desolation forty years. Other prophecies followed against Egypt. Ezek. 30, Ezek. 31, Ezek. 32 and in Jer. 44:30 Hophra is mentioned. God delivered him into the hands of those 'that sought his life,' which were some of his own people.

When Nebuchadnezzar had destroyed Jerusalem, he left some Jews in the land under Gedaliah the Governor; but Gedaliah being slain, they fled into Egypt, taking Jeremiah with them, to Tahpanhes. Jer. 43:5-7. He there uttered prophesies against Egypt, Isa. 43 and Isa. 44. The series of prophecies give an approximate date for the devastation of Egypt by Nebuchadnezzar. In taking Tyre he had no wages (they carried away their treasures in ships) and he should have Egypt as his reward. Tyre was taken in B.C. 572, and Nebuchadnezzar died B.C. 562, leaving a margin of ten years. Ezek. 29:17-20.

After Nebuchadnezzar, Egypt became tributary to Cyrus: Cambyses was its first Persian king of the twenty-seventh dynasty. On the passing away of the Persian Empire, Alexander the Great had possession of Egypt and founded Alexandria. On the death of Alexander the Ptolemies reigned over Egypt for about 300 years. Some of the doings of the Ptolemies were prophesied of in Dan. 11.  See ANTIOCHUS.  In B.C. 30 Octavius Caesar entered Egypt, and it became a Roman province. In A.D. 639 Egypt was wrested from the Eastern empire by the Saracens, and was held under the suzerainty of the Turks until the nineteenth century. It is a great kingdom in desolation. Joel 3:19.

We have seen that at one time Egypt was able to bring a million soldiers into Palestine; and at another to attack Assyria. History also records their having sway over Phoenicia, and carrying on severe wars with the Hittites, with whom they at length made a treaty, which is given in full on the monuments.

Some prophecies have been referred to, and though they apply to events now long since past, they may have a yet future application. For instance, "The Lord shall be known to Egypt, and the Egyptians shall know the Lord in that day, and shall do sacrifice and oblation, yea, they shall vow a vow unto the Lord and perform it . . . . . in that day shall Israel be the third with Egypt and with Assyria, even a blessing in the midst of the land; whom the Lord of hosts shall bless, saying, Blessed be Egypt my people, and Assyria the work of my hands, and Israel mine inheritance." Isa. 19:21-25: cf. Zeph. 3:9, 10. Surely these statements apply to a time when God will bring Egypt into blessing. This might not have been expected, seeing that Egypt is a type of the world — the place where nature gratifies its lusts, and out of which the Christian is brought — but in the millennium the earth will be brought into blessing, and then no nation will be blessed except as they own Jehovah and His King who will reign over all the earth. Then "Princes shall come out of Egypt; Ethiopia shall soon stretch out her hands unto God." Ps. 68:31.

Egypt too, it must be remembered, was the place of sojourn of God's favoured people Israel. It was a king of Egypt who caused to be translated the Old Testament into Greek, the LXX, quoted by the Lord Himself when on earth; and it was to Egypt that Joseph fled with the young child and His mother from the wrath of Herod. Egypt was a broken reed on which the Israelites rested: it oppressed them and even attacked and pillaged Jerusalem. But it has been punished and remains desolate to this day; and further, as the kingdom of the South it will yet be dealt with: cf. Dan. 11:42, 43. Afterwards God will also heal and bring it into blessing: in grace He says "Blessed be Egypt my People."

THE TELL AMARNA TABLETS.  Comparatively lately a number of clay tablets have been discovered in Upper Egypt.  Many of them are despatches from persons in authority in Palestine to the kings of Egypt, showing that Egypt had held more or less sway over portions of the land. The inscriptions are in cuneiform characters, but in the Aramaic language, which resembles Assyrian. The writers were Phoenicians, Philistines, and Amorites, but not Hittites, though these are mentioned on the tablets. The date for some of these despatches has been fixed as from about B.C. 1480, and they were addressed to the two Pharaohs known as Amenophis 3 and 4. They show that Egypt had withdrawn its troops from Palestine, and was evidently losing all power in the country, the northern part of which was being invaded by the Hittites. The governors mention this in their despatches, and urge Egypt to send troops to stop the invasion. Some of the tablets are from Southern Palestine, and witness of troubles in that region also. The name Abiri occurs, describing a people invading from the desert: these are supposed to be the Hebrews. It is recorded that they had taken the fortress of Jericho, and were plundering 'all the king's lands.' The translator (Major Conder) believes he has identified the names of three of the kings smitten by Joshua: Adoni-zedec, king of Jerusalem; Japhia, king of Lachish; and Jabin, king of Hazor. Joshua 10:3; Joshua 11:1. He also believes that the dates coinciding, with the above-named kings agree with the common chronology of scripture for the book of Joshua. If he is correct in this the Exodus can no longer be placed under the nineteenth dynasty. It may be remarked, however, that not one of the tablets from the South bears any king's name, being merely addressed 'To the King, my Lord,' etc.

A few of the principal Events with their approximate dates are added:

DYNASTIES.
  i. — iii. Twenty-six names of kings are given, commencing with Menes, but some are probably mythical.
  iv. At Memphis.  Khufu or Suphis was the builder of the first great pyramid at Gizeh. Khafra or Shafra built the second, and Menkaura the third.
  v. At Elephantine.
  vi. At Memphis. Some 'shepherd-kings' invaded Lower Egypt.
  vii. - x. Dynasties were contemporaneous: a period of confusion.
  xi. At Thebes. Title claimed over all Egypt by Antef or Nentef.
  xii. At Thebes. Amenemhat I, or Ameres, conquered Nubia (Cush). Amenemhat 3 constructed the lake Moeris, and the Labyrinth, supposed to be a national meeting place. Abraham's sojourn in Egypt was possibly in this dynasty.
  xiii. At Thebes. Troublous times.
  xiv. At Xois. The power of the Hyksos extends.
  xv. {Hyksos kings.  Apepa II supposed to be the king who exalted Joseph. The
  xvi. {Israelites enter Egypt about B.C. 1706.
  xvii. Vassal kings under Hyksos rule, reigned at Thebes.
  xviii. At Thebes. The Hyksos driven out of Egypt. Thothmes I carried his arms into Asia. Thothmes III, the greatest warrior king; built the grand temple of Ammon at Thebes. Amenhotep, or Amenophis III erected the twin Colossi of himself at Thebes.
  xix. At Thebes. Seti I or Sethos, erected the great Hall at Karnak. Rameses II attacked the Hittites on the north, but concluded an alliance. Judged to be the king who oppressed Israel, and Menephthah to be the Pharaoh of the Exodus. (B.C 1491.) His son (Seti-Menephthah) died when young (perhaps at the Passover). A period of anarchy ensued
  xx. At Thebes. Eleven kings named Rameses: they became idle and effeminate, until the priests seized the throne.
  xxi. At Tanis. Priest-kings.  Pinetem II is supposed to be the Pharaoh allied to Solomon. (About B.C. 1014.)
  xxii. At Bubastis. Shashank or Shishak, the ally of Jeroboam of Israel, was conqueror of Rehoboam of Judah. (B.C. 971.) Osorkon I and Thekeleth I succeeded. Osorkon II sent Zerah his general against Asa king of Judah. (B.C. 941.)
  xxiii. At Tanis. Two kings reigned, contemporaneous with dynasty twenty-two.
  xxiv. At Sais. Contemporaneous with dynasty twenty-five.
  xxv. In Nubia. Ethiopian kings.  Shabaka, or Sabaco, the So who was allied with Hoshea of Samaria, was defeated by Sargon of Assyria. (B.C. 720.) Shabataka, defeated by Sennacherib. Taharka, or Tehrak, conquered by Esarhaddon. Thebes destroyed by the Assyrians. (B.C. 666.) Egypt became a province of Assyria.
  xxvi. At Sais. Period of Greek influence in Egypt. Psamatik I. Or Psammetichus I: threw off the yoke of Assyria and ruled all Egypt.  Nekau, or Necho, killed Josiah at Megiddo (B.C. 610) on his way to attack the Assyrians at Carchemish. Afterwards he was defeated by Nebuchadnezzar at the same place. (B.C. 606.) Hophra, or Apries, ally of Zedekiah, was conquered by Nebuchadnezzar (B.C. 581), who afterwards ravaged Egypt as far as Elephantine. Apries was put to death, and Amasis reigned as tributary to Babylon. (B.C. 571.) In after years Amasis became ally of Croesus of Lydia against Cyrus the Persian. Psamatik III was conquered by Cambyses, and Egypt became a province of the Persian empire. (B.C. 526.)
  xxvii. The kings of Persia were the kings of Egypt. (B.C. 526 - 487.)
  xxviii. {Native kings reigned without being subdued by Persia, to Artaxerxes III. (Ochus),
  xxx. {when Egypt was again defeated. (B.C. 350.) On the Persian Empire being conquered by Alexander the Great, Egypt also became a part of the Grecian empire. (B.C. 332.) On the death of Alexander, Egypt was ruled by the Ptolemies. (B.C. 323.) See
ANTIOCHUS.
Egypt became a Roman province. (B.C. 30.)
Egypt was wrested from the Eastern Empire by the Saracens. (A.D. 639.)

Egypt, Land of.

The conformation of Egypt is peculiar. The Nile forms at the Mediterranean what is called the Delta (from the Greek letter Δ inverted); it had formerly seven mouths, Isa. 11:15, but now there are only two branches. On each side of the valley in which the river runs is a range of hills, outside of which is mostly desert. The Nile valley is rarely more than twelve miles wide. The Delta and the valley are very productive. As to rain the country differs materially from Palestine, which "drinketh water of the rain of heaven;" for in Egypt, except by the sea-coast, it rarely rains, the land being watered from the river, which rises once a year, overflowing its banks in many places, and, as it retires, leaving a rich sediment on the soil. Canals convey the water to more distant parts. The land is watered 'by the foot,' that is, by removing the soil, and letting the water flow.

The Delta, and as far south as Noph (Memphis, 29 51' N, 31 20' E), is Lower Egypt: and from Noph southward to the first Cataract (24 N) is Upper Egypt. The emblematic crowns representing the two districts were not the same; but the two were united in one crown when a king reigned over all Egypt. As there were many changes by different dynasties the same boundaries may not always have been preserved. CUSH, or ETHIOPIA, extended much farther south, but is often mentioned in scripture along with Egypt: Ps. 68:31; Isa. 11:11; Isa. 20:4; Isa. 43:3; Isa. 45:14; Nahum 3:9. Ethiopian kings appear to have reigned in Egypt, and are included in their list of kings.

Egyptians.

The ancient Egyptians were descendants of Ham, but his descendants were numerous and diverse. As far as the name implies, Egypt naturally associates itself with Mizraim; but it is judged that the Egyptians of the times of the most ancient monuments were of the Circasian type, and apparently descended rather from Cush than from Mizraim. The examination of the mummies of the old empire show that their structure does not agree with that of the Negroes, who were also descendants of Ham. The ancient Egyptians are classed among the white races: the Ethiopians were darker, and those farther south still darker. The Copts in modern Egypt are considered to be the descendants of the ancient race.

It is proved by the monuments that the ancient Egyptians were a highly civilised and educated people from the beginning: they did not rise from some lower scale, as is sought to be taught of man generally in modern days; but, as far as can be discovered, their first great works are among their best. If man has been found brutal and degraded it is because he has fallen from the intelligent condition in which Adam and Eve were created. Before the flood we read that the use of brass, or copper, and iron had been discovered, and there are proofs that many other arts were known in Egypt. The sciences also were cultivated, including Astronomy. The great Hall of columns at Karnak, by Seti 1 (dynasty xix.) is an illustration of the size of their temples.

The Egyptians were also a religious people, and though their religion was, alas, idolatry, yet it was an idolatry far more seemly and moral than that practised by the cultured Greeks and Romans. It was earlier, and hence nearer a source of knowledge of God. Rom. 1:21. In theory they speak of one god: 'the only living in substance,' and 'the only eternal substance,' and though they speak of two, 'father and son,' as some interpret, yet it did not destroy the unity of their god, 'the one in one.' From this they treated each of his attributes as separate gods; and they had also gods distinct from these. Then they had a number of sacred animals, from the cat to the crocodile, which were said to be symbols of their gods. The bull Apis represented the god Osiris; it was selected with great care, and strictly guarded. It is supposed that it was the remembrance of this Apis that caused the Israelites to choose the form of a calf for their golden idol; and we learn from Ezek. 20:6-8 that Israel had fallen into idolatry when in Egypt.

The Egyptians believed in a future state. One of their illustrations represents the heart of a deceased person being weighed against a figure of the goddess of truth. Two gods superintend the weighing. On the right is the deceased with uplifted hands, introduced by two goddesses. The ibis-headed god has a tablet in hand, recording the result. Next to him is the god Typhon, as a hippopotamus — the Cerberus of the Greeks — accusing the deceased, and demanding her punishment. Osiris is the presiding judge with his crook and whip. If the trial was satisfactory the soul passed into other scenes; if the reverse it passed into some lower animal. Thus did Satan delude these cultivated descendants of Ham !

Their mode of writing, or rather drawing, their language was by hieroglyphics. Most of the figures represented animals, birds, the human figure, or familiar things, which first represented the objects drawn, to which also ideas and sounds were attached. M. Champollion found in the inscriptions 864 different designs! The three major styles are as follows:

1.  Most ancient style. The letters were cut into stone.

2.  Hieratic style. As above, but they were written on papyrus by the priests.

3.  Enchorial or Demotic style (at a much later period), for popular correspondence.

Examples of Hieroglyphic styles

Ehi. [E'hi]

Son of Benjamin. Gen. 46:21. Perhaps the same as AHIRAM in Num. 26:38, and AHARAH in 1 Chr. 8:1.

Ehud. [E'hud]

1.  Son of Bilhan, a Benjamite. 1 Chr. 7:10; 1 Chr. 8:6.

2.  Son of Gera, a Benjamite. He slew Eglon king of Moab, and, according to Josephus, which is confirmed in scripture, he became judge of Israel. Judges 3:15-26; Judges 4:1.

Eker. [E'ker]

Son of Ram, a descendant of Judah. 1 Chr. 2:27.

Ekron. [Ek'ron]

The most northerly of the five cities of the Philistines. It fell to the lot of Judah, and then passed to Dan. It was taken by Judah, but the Philistines kept or gained possession. The ark of God was carried there from Ashdod, and from thence was returned to Israel. It was to Ekron that king Ahaziah sent to inquire of the god Baal-zebub if he should recover from his accident. 2 Kings 1:2, 3, 16. The city is denounced in the prophets. Joshua 15:11, 45, 46; Joshua 19:43; Judges 1:18; 1 Sam. 5:10; 1 Sam. 6:16, 17; 1 Sam. 7:14; 1 Sam. 17:52; Jer. 25:20; Amos 1:8; Zeph. 2:4; Zech. 9:5, 7. Identified with Akir, 31 52' N, 34 49' E.

Ekronites. [Ek'ronites]

Inhabitants of Ekron. Joshua 13:3.

Eladah. [Ela'dah]

Son of Tahath, a descendant of Ephraim. 1 Chr. 7:20.

Elah. [El'ah]

1.  Duke of Edom. Gen. 36:41; 1 Chr. 1:52.

2.  Father of Shimei, one of Solomon's commissariat officers. 1 Kings 4:18.

3.  Son and successor of Baasha king of Israel. He reigned little more than a year, being killed while intoxicated, by Zimri. 1 Kings 16:6-14.

4.  Father of Hoshea the last king of Israel. 2 Kings 15:30; 2 Kings 17:1; 2 Kings 18:1, 9.

5.  Son of Caleb the son of Jephunneh. 1 Chr. 4:15.

6.  Son of Uzzi and a chief of the tribe of Benjamin. 1 Chr. 9:8.

Elah, [E'lah] Valley of.

Where David slew Goliath in the presence of the two armies. 1 Sam. 17:2, 19; 1 Sam. 21:9. Identified with Wady es Sunt, 31 41' N, 34 57' E.

Elam. [E'lam]

1.  Son of Shem. He settled in a highland district east of Babylonia, which became the seat of a powerful monarchy. The district was also called ELAM. Gen. 10:22; 1 Chr. 1:17. In the days of Abraham Chedorlaomer king of Elam was able to make war as far off as the Dead Sea. Gen. 14:1, 9. It subsequently became subject to the great power of the Chaldeans and Assyrians. When Assyria declined, Elam was conquered by its Persian neighbours, and reigned over by the Achaemenian Dynasty. Cyrus was king of Anshan, or Anzan (Elam) as well as of Persia: hence the close connection, and almost identification of Elam with Persia. In scripture Elam often designates Persia. In Isa. 21:2-10 Elam and Media were to destroy Babylon. It afterwards became a part of the Medo-Persian empire. Daniel was at Shushan, which was in the province of Elam. Under the name of Susiana, Elam is represented by the historians as one of the most ancient regions of the East. There are many prophecies against it. Isa. 11:11; Isa. 21:2; Isa. 22:6; Jer. 25:25; Jer. 49:34-39; Ezek. 32:24; Dan. 8:2.

2.  Son of Shashak, a Benjamite. 1 Chr. 8:24.

3.  Son of Meshelemiah, a Korhite. 1 Chr. 26:3.

4.  chief of the people who sealed the covenant. Neh. 10:14.

5.  One whose descendants had married strange wives. Ezra, 10:2, 26

6.  A priest who took part in the dedication of the wall of Jerusalem. Neh. 12:42.

7, etc.  Two or more whose descendants returned from exile. Ezra 2:7, 31; Ezra 8:7; Neh. 7:12, 34.

Elamites. [E'lamites]

Inhabitants of Elam, some of whom were located in Palestine. Ezra 4:9. Some of the same name, 550 years after, were present at Jerusalem on the day of Pentecost, but these were doubtless Jews from Elam. Acts 2:9.

Elasah. [Ela'sah]

1.  Priest who had married a strange wife. Ezra 10:22.

2.  Ambassador whom Zedekiah sent to Nebuchadnezzar. Jer. 29:3. In the Hebrew this name is the same as ELEASAH.

Elath, [E'lath] Eloth. [E'loth]

Seaport town at the extreme north of the Gulf of Akaba branch of the Red Sea. First mentioned in the wanderings of the Israelites; it was afterwards included in the dominion of Solomon, near to which, at Ezion-geber, he had a navy of ships. Afterwards we read that it was built by Azariah, and was restored to Judah; but subsequently it was conquered by Rezin and held by the Syrians, until it became a frontier town of Rome. Deut. 2:8; 1 Kings 9:26; 2 Kings 14:22; 2 Kings 16:6; 2 Chr. 8:17; 2 Chr. 26:2.  It was situate about 29 29' N, 35 2' E. Elath is now called Aqaba and is in Jordan, it is the only sea-port of that country.

Elbethel. [El-beth'-el]

Name given by Jacob to the place of the altar which he built at Beth-el to God who appeared to him when he fled from Esau. Beth-el signifies 'House of God,' and on his return to that place he received the revelation of God's name, Almighty (compare Gen. 32:29), and worshipped the 'God of Beth-el,' "because there God appeared unto him, when he fled from the face of his brother." Gen. 35:7.

Eldaah. [Elda'ah]

One of the sons of Midian. Gen. 25:4; 1 Chr. 1:33.

Eldad. [El'dad]

One of the seventy elders, who, with Medad, received the spirit of prophecy. Num. 11:26, 27.

Elders.

This term occurs first in Gen. 50:7, where it applies to the Egyptians of the house of Pharaoh and to the elders of Egypt. In Num. 22:7 we read also of the elders of Moab and the elders of Midian, so that the term was not confined to Israel. The word is saqen which implies 'aged man;' they were no doubt also men of repute, including heads of houses of each tribe, without having any official place such as was given to the seventy appointed by God to work with Moses: these were chosen from among the elders. Num. 11:16, 17, 24, 25.

Elders would be found in every city, and could act in all matters of the common weal as the responsible members of the community. They could be called on any emergency. For instance, when a dead man was found in a field, and it was not known who had slain him, the elders of the city to which it was nearest, must assemble, and, with their hands over a heifer, beheaded for the occasion, must solemnly declare that they had no knowledge of the murder. The 'judges ' are here named as distinct from the elders. Deut. 21:1-9. In any ratification as to the redemption of an inheritance the elders were called together to be witnesses. Ruth 4:1-12. The elders being heads of houses and related by blood to the people, Israel must have been in a dire condition when the elders were not honoured. Lam. 4:16; Lam. 5:12.

In the N.T. the elders of Israel are often referred to and their traditions spoken of.  Mark 7:3, 5. Such took a prominent part in the condemnation of the Lord, and are mentioned as distinct from the Sanhedrim. Matt. 26:59. 'All the elders' in Matt. 27:1 would include the Sanhedrim: cf. also Acts 6:12. The elders continued their opposition as long as there was any open testimony in Jerusalem. Acts 4:23; Acts 24:1; Acts 25:15.

ELDER IN THE CHURCH.   The word is πρεσβύτερος, and signifies 'aged person.' There were elders at Jerusalem, though we do not read of their appointment, Acts 11:30; Acts 15:2-23; Acts 21:18; but the choice of elders in the Gentile assemblies was by apostolic authority, either direct or delegated. Paul and Barnabas chose, or appointed, elders in every city. Acts 14:23: cf. James 5:14; 1 Peter 5:1. Titus was delegated by Paul to establish elders in every city in Crete. Titus 1:5. In Titus 1:7 they are called bishops, or overseers; so in Acts 20 Paul called for the elders of Ephesus, to whom he said that the Holy Ghost had made them bishops, or overseers, showing that those appointed as elders and bishops were the same persons. Acts 20:28.  See BISHOP.

It is important to note the distinction between 'gift' and 'office.' The former is direct from the Lord; the latter by human appointment. Gift needed no human authority for its exercise, and was held in immediate responsibility to the Head. Elders were such by apostolic authority, direct or delegated. Their appointment was not to preach or teach (though if they took the lead well, and had the gift of teaching, they were worthy of double honour, 1 John 5:17), but 'to shepherd' the assembly of God, Acts 20:28, and to maintain it in order in the locality where they lived. Their authority was over the unbroken local assembly. There can be now no such elders either in the source of their authority, or in the sphere of its exercise.

ELDERS IN HEAVEN.  The four and twenty elders seen by John in heaven are frequently referred to in the Revelation. They were seen round about the throne, sitting on thrones (not seats), clothed in white raiment, with crowns of gold on their heads, and they worship God. Rev. 4:4, 10. In the O.T, when all was in order there were twenty-four courses of the priesthood, each course having an elder as head or chief, 1 Chr. 24:7-18; and the elders in the Revelation being twenty-four in number may be in allusion to them. The elders in heaven have harps and golden vials full of odours, "which are the prayers of saints," showing that they act as priests, Rev. 5:8; and in Rev. 5:9 they celebrate redemption in a song. They are doubtless the redeemed, including both Old and New Testament saints. Rev. 7:11, 13; Rev. 11:16; Rev. 14:3; Rev. 19:4.

Elead. [El'ead]

Son of Zabad, a descendant of Ephraim. 1 Chr. 7:21.

Elealeh. [Elea'leh]

City on the east of the Jordan, possessed by Reuben, but afterwards taken by the Moabites. Num. 32:3, 37; Isa. 15:4; Isa. 16:9; Jer. 48:34. Identified with ruins at el Al, signifying 'the high,' 31 49' N, 35 49' E.  It is 3064 feet above the sea.

Eleasah. [Elea'sah]

1.  Son of Helez, a descendant of Judah. 1 Chr. 2:39, 40.

2.  Son of Rapha, or Rephaiah, a descendant of Saul. 1 Chr. 8:37; 1 Chr. 9:43.