Bible Dictionary G 1

Gaal. [Ga'al]

Son of Ebed: he led the Shechemites against Abimelech. Judges 9:26-41.

Gaash. [Ga'ash]

A hill in the district of mount Ephraim, on the side of which Joshua was buried. Joshua 24:30; Judges 2:9. Hiddai, or Hurai, was of or from 'the brooks [valleys, margin] of Gaash.'  2 Sam. 23:30; 1 Chr. 11:32.

Gaba. [Ga'ba]

See GEBA.

Gabbai. [Gab'bai]

Benjamite who returned from exile. Neh. 11:8.

Gabbatha. [Gab'batha]

The Aramaic name of the place of judgement in Jerusalem, where the Lord was condemned. The meaning of Gabbatha is 'elevated place' and its Greek name was λιθόστρωτος, 'the pavement.' It was doubtless a raised platform, with a tesselated pavement, which the Romans so often made. It would thus answer both descriptions. John 19:13.

Gabriel. [Ga'briel]

The angel who was sent to Daniel to explain the vision he had seen of the ram and the he-goat, and to reveal to him the prophecy of the Seventy Weeks. Daniel calls him 'the man Gabriel,' and one that had 'the appearance of a man.' Dan. 8:15; Dan. 9:21. He was also sent to Mary the mother of Jesus, and to Zacharias the father of John the Baptist, to foretell the birth of their sons. To Zacharias he said, "I am Gabriel that stand in the presence of God." Luke 1:19, 26.

Gad.

The seventh son of Jacob, and the first of Zilpah, Leah's maid. Very little is recorded of Gad, except that he had seven sons. Gen. 30:11; Gen. 46:16; 1 Chr. 5:11. Jacob in blessing his sons said of Gad, "A troop shall overcome him: but he shall overcome at the last." Gen. 49:19. Moses said, "Blessed be he that enlargeth Gad: he dwelleth as a lion, and teareth the arm with [or rather, 'even'] the crown of the head. And he provided the first part for himself, because there, in a portion of the lawgiver, was he seated; and he came with the heads of the people, he executed the justice of the Lord, and his judgements with Israel." Deut. 33:20, 21. On leaving Egypt the number of those able to bear arms was 45,650, but on the crossing of the Jordan their number was about five thousand less.

Being on the east of Jordan, this tribe, with Reuben and Manasseh, would necessarily have to bear the shock of the enemies that attacked Israel on the east. 1 Chr. 5:18-22. They were a warlike tribe, suitable for such an exposed position. Of those who joined David it is said they were "men of might, and men of war fit for the battle, that could handle shield and buckler, whose faces were like the faces of lions, and were as swift as the roes upon the mountains." 1 Chr. 12:8-15. Jephthah and Barzillai were of this tribe.

Gad possessed a large district from a little above the north corner of the Dead Sea to near the south corner of the Sea of Galilee, then a very fertile plain suitable for their flocks and herds, including the highlands of Gilead. The tribes on the east of the Jordan were the first carried away by the king of Assyria, about B.C. 740; and the Ammonites took possession of the territory of Gad. 1 Chr. 5:25, 26; Jer. 49:1. Twelve thousand of this tribe will in a future day be sealed for blessing. Rev. 7:5. Their allotment will be in the extreme south in the restoration of Israel. Ezek. 48:27.

Gad, the Prophet.

He was with David when he fled from Saul, and gave him counsel. 1 Sam. 22:5. Whether he continued with David during his rejection is not recorded. He was with him at the close of his reign, and to him was given the painful duty of announcing God's judgements upon David for numbering the people. He is called David's 'seer,' which would seem to imply that he had been with him all along. 2 Sam. 24:11-19; 1 Chr. 21:9-19; 2 Chr. 29:25. The acts of David were written in "THE BOOK OF GAD the seer," of which there is no further record, and which has not been handed down. 1 Chr. 29:29.

Gad, River of.

This occurs only in 2 Sam. 24:5; 'valley of Gad' in the margin. Identified with Wady Mojib, the same as the ARNON that runs into the Dead Sea about midway north and south.

Gadara. [Ga'dara]

The capital of the Roman province of Peraea. It is referred to in the Gospels as in 'the country of the Gadarenes.' It has been identified with the ruins at Umm Keis, 32 40' N, 35 40' E, that is S.E. of the Sea of Galilee, but the town is too far from the sea to have been the scene of the miracle; besides which there is a deep ravine between the ruins of the town and the sea. There are many large tombs in the district, in which some of the rude inhabitants still take up their abode, as the demoniac had done. Mark 5:1-3.  See GADARENES.

Gadarenes.

These are also called GERGESENES and GERASENES in the different Greek MSS. As the Sea of Galilee had various names, so had the inhabitants according as they were associated with different districts in the vicinity. The Gadarenes abode on the east of the Sea of Galilee, where the Lord cured the two demoniacs, though Mark and Luke mention but one. One of them said his name was Legion. The demons obtained permission to go into a herd of swine, which, being possessed, rushed down into the water and were drowned. Travellers have found a place in the locality which has a steep decline into the sea and which exactly answers to the details of the gospel narrative. Matt. 8:28-34; Mark 5:1-20; Luke 8:26-39.

Gaddi. [Gad'di]

Son of Susi, and one of the twelve spies. Num. 13:11.

Gaddiel. [Gad'diel]

Son of Sodi, and one of the twelve spies. Num. 13:10.

Gadi. [Ga'di]

Father of Menahem who killed Shallum, and reigned as king of Israel. 2 Kings 15:14, 17.

Gadites. [Gad'ites]

Members of the tribe of Gad. Deut. 3:12; Joshua 22:1; etc.

Gaham. [Ga'ham]

Son of Nahor by Reumah. Gen. 22:24.

Gahar. [Ga'har]

Ancestor of some Nethinim who returned from exile. Ezra 2:47; Neh. 7:49.

Gaius. [Ga'ius]

1.  Christian of Macedonia, and companion of Paul. He with Aristarchus was seized and carried into the theatre during the uproar at Ephesus. Acts 19:29.

2.  Convert of Derbe in Lycaonia, and companion of Paul. Acts 20:4.

3.  Christian at Corinth whom Paul baptised and who was his 'host' and of the whole church. Rom. 16:23; 1 Cor. 1:14.

4.  Convert of John, whose walk in the truth and in love was commended by the apostle, and to whom he addressed his third Epistle. 3 John 1.

Galal. [Ga'lal]

1.  Levite who dwelt at Jerusalem. 1 Chr. 9:15.

2.  Levite, son of Jeduthun. 1 Chr. 9:16.

3.  Levite, son of another Jeduthun, Neh. 11:17.

Galatia. [Gala'tia]

A large district in the centre of Asia Minor, having Bithynia on its north, Pontus on its east, Lycaonia and Cappadocia on its south, and Phrygia on its west. The inhabitants, being emigrants from Gaul, were called the Galli or Gauls of the East. They settled themselves in Asia Minor, and being restless and warlike they became a scourge to their neighbours. When restrained, they hired themselves out as mercenary soldiers. They were brought under the power of Rome, and eventually Galatia became a Roman province.

Paul travelled through Galatia twice and churches (in the plural) were formed there. To these his Epistle was addressed. Gal. 1:2. It is not known at what towns these churches were gathered. Though the inhabitants were principally Gentiles, we learn from 1 Peter 1:1 that there were Jews there also. Acts 16:6; Acts 18:23; 1 Cor. 16:1; 2 Tim. 4:10. The inhabitants were addressed as GALATIANS. Gal. 3:1.

Galatians, [Gala'tians] Epistle to the.

The date when this Epistle was written has been disputed more than that of any of the others, some placing it early, and others later. The events seem best to agree thus: on Paul's second missionary journey he went throughout Phrygia and the region of Galatia. Acts 16:6. We learn from Gal. 4:13-15 that he had preached the gospel to them, and that they had received him as an angel and would have plucked out their eyes for him. This visit would have been about A.D. 51. Then about 54 Paul again visited them; all we read as to this journey is that he went over all the country of Galatia, strengthening, or confirming, all the disciples. Acts 18:23. They may, alas, have as readily received the Judaising teachers, and when this came to the ears of Paul, he wrote this Epistle to them. He grieved that they were so soon diverted to another gospel which was not another. In 1 Cor. 16:1 we read that Paul had instructed the churches in Galatia as to the collection for the poor. This was written to Corinth about A.D. 55. The collection is not mentioned in his Epistle to the Galatians, and as far as we know he did not visit them again. This has caused some to suppose that Paul wrote the Epistle to them after his first visit; and that he gave them the directions as to the collection on his second visit; but they may have been given by another letter or by a private messenger.

Gal. 1.   After a brief opening, in which the intent of the Lord's giving Himself for our sins is set forth, namely, to deliver us from this present age according to the will of God, the apostle proceeds directly to the point and marvels at the rapid departure of the Galatian converts from the gospel. In the strongest terms he denounces the efforts made to pervert them from the grace of Christ to other ground. Paul would have them know that his apostleship was not by man, but by Jesus Christ and God the Father; that the gospel he preached was by the revelation of Jesus Christ. The Jews' religion, by which they were so attracted, had led him to be a bitter persecutor, but it had pleased God to reveal His Son in him that he might preach Him among the Gentiles. His commission and authority had come direct from on high, and had no connection with Jerusalem as a source. The saints in Judaea did but glorify God in him.

Gal. 2.   Fourteen Years after [his conversion] he went up to Jerusalem and communicated to those there the gospel he preached to the Gentiles. He utterly refused to submit to pressure from Judaising brethren in the case of the Gentile convert Titus, and in result received the full fellowship of the three pillars — James, Cephas, and John — in regard to his ministry among the heathen. Subsequently, at Antioch, Paul had actually withstood Peter to the face as to the truth of the gospel, which Peter was fatally compromising from fear of the Jews. Peter's conduct was wholly inconsistent. Peter and Paul had themselves left the law for justification, to find it alone on the principle of faith in Christ. Had Christ become the minister of sin in their doing this? If not, in going back to the law they built anew what they had destroyed, and were confessedly transgressors; for if right in leaving it for Christ, they were wrong in returning to it. For Paul, however, it was true that through law he had died to law, in order to live to God. With Christ he was crucified (was judicially dead); yet he lived, but no longer himself, for Christ lived in him, and his life as still in this world was by faith — the faith of the Son of God, a living object whose love filled his soul. Christ had died in vain if righteousness came by the law.

Gal. 3.   The Galatians were as though bewitched. Had they received the Spirit on the principle of law or of faith? To this there could be but one answer. Having begun in the Spirit, were they now to be made perfect by the flesh ? Faith was the principle on which Abraham, the head of promise and blessing, was reckoned righteous, and on which the Gentiles would, with believing Abraham, receive blessing, according to God's promise to him. Those under law were under the curse; and on that ground none could be justified. Christ had borne the curse that Abraham's blessing might come on the Gentiles in Christ Jesus, and that through faith they might receive the promise of the Spirit. The law, given four hundred and thirty years after the promise, could not set the latter aside, which was made not only to Abraham, but to his Seed, even to Christ. The law came in by the way till the Seed should come: it proved transgressions; it had been useful as a guard: it had been for those under it a tutor up to Christ. Now faith had come, such were no longer under a tutor; the Gentile believers were now God's sons by faith in Christ Jesus. In Christ distinctions between Jew and Gentile disappeared: all were one, and the Gentile believers being of Christ were Abraham's seed and heirs according to promise.

Gal. 4.   Though heirs, the Jews were, under law, in the condition of children under age, held in bondage under the elements of the world, with which indeed the law had to do. But now God had sent forth His Son, to redeem those under law, that believers might receive sonship. He had sent the Spirit of His Son into their hearts, giving the cry of relationship, 'Abba, Father.' They were therefore no longer bondmen, but sons; and if sons, then heirs through God. Were the Gentile believers (formerly in heathen darkness, but now knowing God) going to turn back to the principles of law, which the apostle does not hesitate to call weak and beggarly elements? They observed days, and months, and times, and years, as though Christianity were a system for man in the flesh. But he reminds them of their former affection for him, and how they had received him as an angel of God. Was he now their enemy because he told them the truth? These Judaising teachers had sown this discord in order that they might supplant the apostle in their affections. Spiritually he again travailed in birth with them till Christ should be formed in them. He knew not what to make of them. Let those who wanted to be under law listen to it. He then submits to them the allegory of Sarah and Hagar, in which the principles of law and faith in God's promise are seen in conflict. The promise is secured in Isaac, that is, in Christ. Believers, as Isaac was, are children of promise, they are not children of the maid-servant but of the free woman.

Gal. 5.   He exhorts the Galatians to stand fast in the liberty wherewith Christ made free. If circumcised they were debtors to do the whole law, and were deprived of all profit from the Christ. They had in such case fallen from grace. Christians awaited the hope of righteousness, by the Spirit, on the principle of faith. For those in Christ faith wrought through love. The Galatians had run well, but who had now hindered them? The guilt of this mischief should be borne by the troubler, whoever he was. The scandal of the cross was done away if circumcision was preached, for it was rehabilitating the flesh. But love was the fulfilment of the law. The flesh and Spirit were in fact utterly opposed, but if led by the Spirit they were not under law. The works of the flesh are set forth in contrast to the fruit of the Spirit. Those that were of Christ had crucified the flesh with its lusts, the Spirit being the only power for christian walk.

Gal. 6.   Some closing exhortations follow. The spiritual were to restore those taken in a fault, remembering what they were in themselves. They were to care for one another — to think nothing of themselves — to care for those who ministered to them in the word. He warns them of the consequences of sowing to the flesh, but in sowing to the Spirit they should reap eternal life. Let them do good then to all, but especially to the household of faith. He tells them he had written this letter with his own hand as evidence of his deep concern as to them. He once again refers to the mischief-makers in scathing terms. But the cross of the Lord Jesus Christ was his only boast, through whom the world was crucified unto him, and he to it. In Christ Jesus nothing availed but a new creation; and upon those who walked according to this rule peace and mercy are invoked. This Epistle, in which the grief of the apostle is mingled with indignation, is concluded by an affecting allusion to the sufferings he had endured in the maintenance of the truth which they were so lightly turning from: he bore in his body the marks of the Lord Jesus. There are none of the customary salutations.

The epistle is an example of the energy and rapidity of the apostle's style, and of the spiritual power of his argument. We see him deeply moved by the baneful influence of the Judaisers in Galatia and at their success. Alas! it is what has extended everywhere throughout Christendom.

Galbanum.

An ingredient in the compound that was burnt in the tabernacle as sweet incense. Ex. 30:34. It is not known from what plant or tree it was obtained. The galbanum of commerce is a resinous gum of a disagreeable odour.

Galeed.

The name given by Jacob to the heap of stones raised to witness the covenant made between him and Laban. It signifies, as in the margin, "heap of witness." Gen. 31:47, 48.

Galilaeans. [Galilae'ans]

The inhabitants of Galilee. Mark 14:70; John 4:45; Acts 2:7; etc.

Galilee. [Gal'ilee]

This was a much smaller district in the O.T. than in the N.T., although its area is not very defined. It seems formerly to have included a portion of Naphtali, and perhaps a portion of Asher. 'Kedesh in Galilee,' one of the cities of refuge was in Naphtali. Joshua 20:7; Joshua 21:32; 1 Chr. 6:76. Solomon gave Hiram twenty cities in Galilee. These are not named, but they would naturally be near to Tyre. When Hiram went to view them he called them the 'land of Cabul,' as if he included them all under the one name of 'Cabul,' worthless. Now there was and is a village of this name on the frontier of Asher, which would seem to indicate that Asher was in the district of Galilee. 1 Kings 9:11-13. About B.C. 740 Tiglath-pileser carried away captive all the inhabitants of Naphtali, etc. 2 Kings 15:29. This was doubtless followed by the district being inhabited by foreigners, who, when the captivity of Israel was completed, would be able to spread themselves southward. Hence the term 'Galilee of the Gentiles,' or nations, which does not occur until Isa. 9:1; the prophecy is quoted in Matt. 4:15.

In N.T. times Galilee had become a much larger district, including the portions of Asher, Naphtali, Zebulon, and Issachar. It had over 200 towns and villages, and about three million inhabitants in Josephus' time. It was bounded on the south by Samaria, and embraced the whole of the north part of Palestine. It included the towns of Nain, Nazareth, Cana, Tiberias, Magdala, Dalmanutha, Bethsaida, Chorazin, and Capernaum.

It is probable that the Galilaeans had a different manner of pronunciation, or the language spoken in Galilee was not so refined as that spoken at Jerusalem, which led to Peter being detected by his speech. Matt. 26:69, 73; Mark 14:70. But the voice of the same Peter, under the power of God, was mighty on the day of Pentecost, though the hearers said "are not all these which speak Galilaeans?" Acts 2:7. They were surprised to hear such men speak in foreign tongues, the more so because no prophet was ever looked for from thence, nor any good thing from Nazareth. John 1:46; John 7:52. Still in that despised district the Lord spent His youth: thus early was He as One separated from the course of the nation of Israel, a Nazarene; and the principal part of His ministry was among the poor of the flock in that locality; fulfilling thus the will of God and the prophetic word, on which God had caused His people to hope.

Galilee, Sea of.

This was situate about the centre of the district of Galilee on the east. The Jordan enters it on the north, and leaves it on the south. Its waters are about 630 feet below the level of the Mediterranean, and its depth about 156 feet. Its length is about thirteen miles, and its widest part about eight miles. On the east of it was the country of the Gergesenes and the Gadarenes. Chorazin was on its north; Capernaum on its N.W.; then, coming southward, was Bethsaida of Galilee, with the plain of Gennesaret (or Chinnereth) near; then Magdala, Dalmanutha and Tiberias on the west. These places being near accounts for the sea being called the LAKE OF GENNESARET and the SEA OF TIBERIAS and of CHINNERETH.

The Lord crossed the sea several times, and taught from a ship near the shore, and once He walked upon its waters. Storms often arise suddenly, as did the one when the Lord was asleep on a pillow. Mark 4:37-41; Luke 8:22-25.

Gall.

1. merorah, the gall or bile of animals. It is symbolical of 'bitterness:' "he poureth out my gall upon the ground." Job 16:13. It is also used for the 'poison' of asps. Job 20:14, 25.

2.  rosh, χολή, some exceedingly bitter or poisonous plant not definitely identified. This word is used as symbolical of 'bitterness.' To turn to idolatry was like "a root that beareth gall and wormwood." Deut. 29:18. God's judgements were given them as water of gall to drink. Jer. 8:14; Jer. 9:15; Jer. 23:15: cf. Deut. 32:32; Lam. 3:5, 19; Amos 6:12. Gall, mixed with the sour wine or vinegar drunk by the Roman soldiers, was given to those about to be crucified, for the purpose, as is now supposed, of making them the less sensitive to the torture. It was offered to the Lord, but refused. Ps. 69:21; Matt. 27:34. In Mark 15:23 myrrh is read instead of gall; the meaning would be the same.

Gall of Bitterness.

See BITTERNESS.

Gallery.

1.  attiq. The signification of this word is not now definitely known: some suppose it to signify a colonnade. Ezek. 41:15, 16; Ezek. 42:3, 5.

2.  rahat, 'to be collected or drawn together.' It is translated 'gutters ' in Gen. 30:38, 41, and 'troughs' in Ex. 2:16, in which water was collected for the cattle. Cant. 7:5 is better translated "The king is held by the tresses" of the 'hair' mentioned in the line before.

Galley.

See SHIP.

Gallim. [Gal'lim]

Apparently a city of Benjamin, associated with Laish, Aiath, Migron, etc., also in Benjamin.1 Sam. 25:44; Isa. 10:30.

Gallio. [Gal'lio]

Roman proconsul of the province of Achaia, before whom Paul was accused; but who drove the Jews away, saying he would be no judge of words, and names, and of their law. Sosthenes was beaten before the judgement seat, but Gallio cared for none of these things. Acts 18:12, 14, 17. History states that Gallio was the brother of the philosopher Seneca, who speaks favourably of him. He was involved in the ruin of Seneca under Nero, and though he at first escaped, he afterwards perished.

Gallows.

The word is ets, frequently translated 'tree' and 'wood,' and gives no idea of the form of the gallows. It was some frame-work made or erected on which Mordecai was to have been hanged. Haman no doubt intended by the great height of the gallows (about 23 yards) that the hanging of his victim should have been well seen in the city. It was seen from the palace, and, under the providence of God, he was himself hanged thereon. Esther 5 — Esther 9

Gamaliel. [Gama'liel]

1.  Son of Pedahzur and prince of the tribe of Manasseh. Num. 1:10; Num. 2:20; Num. 7:54, 59; Num. 10:23.

2. Renowned doctor of the law, and member of the Sanhedrim, under whom Paul was educated. He gave the wise advice in the council that if the work of the apostles was of God it was useless to resist it; and if not, it would come to naught of itself. The Jews say he died a Pharisee, but ecclesiastical tradition records that he became a Christian. Acts 5:34; Acts 22:3.

Gammadim.

A Hebrew word, the definite meaning of which is not known. By the connection ("the Gammadims were in thy towers") it appears to refer to the 'guards,' as translated in the LXX. Ezek. 27:11. The margin of the R.V. has 'valorous men.'

Gamul. [Ga'mul]

Head of the twenty-second course of priests. 1 Chr. 24:17.

Garden, Gardener.

In the East the gardens were portions of ground under culture, and often enclosed by walls, in which fruit and herbs were grown. Water was always necessary: in the garden of Eden there was a river by which it was watered; and hence a fruitful place was described as well watered, 'as the garden of the Lord.' Gen. 13:10. It is also used figuratively of great blessing: when Israel is restored, "their soul shall be as a watered garden," Jer. 31:12; whereas under God's judgements they were like a garden that had no water. Isa. 1:30.

The garden was also looked upon as a place of delights, and is often used figuratively in this sense in the Canticles; Cant. 4:12-16; Cant. 5:1; Cant. 6:2, 11; Cant. 8:13. Gardens were also secluded places of secret sin. Isa. 65:3 ; Isa. 66:17.

The two most noted gardens in scripture were the gardens of EDEN and of GETHSEMANE, q.v. Once only we read of a GARDENER, John 20:15, though, since the curse upon the ground, there must always have been some who laboured in gardens: cf. Gen. 3:19; Cant. 1:6; and in Eden, before the curse, Adam was placed in the garden 'to dress it and to keep it.' Gen. 2:15.

Gareb. [Ga'reb]

1.  An Ithrite, one of David's mighty men. 2 Sam. 23:38; 1 Chr. 11:40.

2.  A hill near Jerusalem. Jer. 31:39.

Garlic, [Garlick]

shum. The well-known vegetable much esteemed as a condiment in the East. The garlic of Egypt is the Allium sativum of the botanists, but there are different species in Palestine, where it is cultivated and prized. The Israelites longed for it when in the wilderness. Num. 11:5.

Garments.

Several words are used both in the O.T. and in the N.T. for raiment, clothing, or apparel, without defining what particular garments are alluded to; and when a single garment is intended it is variously translated in the A.V.  In the East few garments were needed, and they were probably much the same as those worn there at present by the natives.

1.   The inner garment is the kethoneth, a long tunic worn by men and women. It was made of wool, cotton, or linen. This was the garment God made of skins for Adam and Eve, and what Jacob made of many colours for Joseph. Gen. 3:21; Gen. 37:3, 23-33. It formed part of the priests dress. At times another is worn over it. The bride said she had put off her 'coat' for the night, which was probably the outer one, though the Hebrew word is the same. Cant. 5:3. The kethoneth answers to the χιτών of the N.T., mostly translated 'coat.' The disciples were not to take two when the Lord sent them out. Matt. 10:10. It was this garment of the Lord's that was woven in one piece, John 19:23; and the word is used of the coats made by Dorcas. Acts 9:39.

2.   The other principal garment was the simlah, a cloak, or wide outer mantle, worn by men and women, and in which they wrapped themselves at night. This might be of any texture according to the season, and according to the station in life of the wearer. The peasants often wear such, called an 'abba' of camels' or goats' hair. This garment if taken in pledge had to be returned in the evening, for without it 'wherein shall he sleep?'  Ex. 22:26, 27; cf. Deut. 24:13. The simlah is the garment that was rent in grief. Gen. 37:34; Gen. 44:13; Joshua 7:6. This corresponds to the ἱμάτιον in the N.T. It is translated 'cloak ' in Matt. 5:40; Luke 6:29; and it is the robe of purple with which the soldiers mocked the Lord. John 19:2, 5. It is the 'garment' the edge of which the woman touched, Matt. 14:36; and the 'garments' of which the scribes and Pharisees enlarged the borders. Matt. 23:5. It is otherwise used for 'garments' in general, as in Matt. 27:35; John 19:23, 24; and is often translated 'raiment' and 'clothes.'

3.   Another prominent article of apparel and one often richly ornamented was the GIRDLE. These three, with sandals, and a handkerchief or other covering for the head, constituted the usual dress in the East.

Besides the above we read of 'changeable suits of apparel' for women. Isa. 3:22.

Also 4.   The MANTLE, or ROBE meil, described as 'a large tunic, worn over the common one, but without sleeves.' It was worn by priests, Ex. 28:31; 1 Sam. 28:14; Ezra 9:3, 5; by kings and princes, 1 Sam. 18:4; 1 Sam. 24:4, 11; by men of rank, Job 1:20 Job; 2:12: and by women, 2 Sam. 13:18.

5.   The WIMPLE or VEIL, a wide upper garment or shawl, which covered the head and part of the body. Ruth was able to carry in such a veil six measures of barley. Ruth 3:15; Isa. 3:22. There are four other Hebrew words translated 'veils.'

6.   The STOMACHER, apparently a wide ornamented girdle. The word occurs only in Isa. 3:24.

Garmite. [Gar'mite]

Designation of Keilah son of Naham. 1 Chr. 4:19.

Garner.

Same as 'granary,' a storehouse for threshed grain and for the fruits of the earth. It is mentioned in the N.T. as a receptacle for wheat. Ps. 144:13; Joel 1:17; Matt. 3:12; Luke 3:17.

Garrison.

A place strengthened temporarily for war, or permanently for the protection of the country. The same name is applied to the soldiers who guarded such places. 1 Sam. 13:3, 4, 23; 1 Sam. 14:1-15; 1 Chr. 11:16; 1 Chr. 18:13; 2 Chr. 17:2; 2 Cor. 11:32.

Gashmu. [Gash'mu]

See GESHEM.

Gatam. [Ga'tam]

Son of Eliphaz, and duke of Edom. Gen. 36:11, 16; 1 Chr. 1:36.

Gate.

Beside the ordinary use of gates for the protection of a city, 'in the gate' was the place where many important things were transacted. When Boaz wanted the question settled respecting Ruth and the inheritance, he went up to the gate: the subject was debated with a nearer relative, then concluded, and witnessed by the elders. Ruth 4:1-12; cf. Joshua 20:4; 1 Sam. 4:18; 2 Sam. 15:2; Acts 14:13. To 'sit in the gate' was a place of honour: "they that sit in the gate speak against me." Ps. 69:12. It should have been the place of true judgement and justice, but was not always so. Isa. 29:21; Amos 5:10, 12; Zech. 8:16. It was, at least at times, the king's chief place of audience. 2 Sam. 19:8; 1 Kings 22:10; Job 29:7; Lam. 5:14. From this it would be a symbol of power: thus the gates of hell shall not prevail against the church which Christ builds. Matt. 16:18.

The gates of cities were of wood cased with iron to strengthen them and prevent them being burnt with fire. cf. Judges 9:52. The prison at Jerusalem had an outer gate of iron, the only iron one we read of.  Acts 12:10.

Doubtless the gates of Solomon's temple were adorned to agree with the rest of the work. In the N.T. we read of THE BEAUTIFUL GATE of the temple, Acts 3:10; and Josephus relates that Herod made an outer gate of Corinthian brass, costing more than those adorned with gold and silver. The gates of the New Jerusalem are described as pearls: "every several gate was of one pearl," Rev. 21:12-25: the entrances must be in keeping with the rest of the city. The pearls represent the glories of Christ as seen in the church: cf. Matt. 13:46.

The gate is used symbolically as the entrance both to life and to destruction: the former is narrow and the way straitened, and alas, there are but few that find it; whereas for the latter the gate is wide and the way is broad, and many there are that enter through it. Matt. 7:13, 14.

Gath.

One of the five royal cities of the Philistines, and to which Goliath belonged. It is not mentioned as having been given to any of the tribes. It was to this city that the ark was carried when taken in war. 1 Sam. 5:8. To Achish king of Gath David resorted when his faith failed him as to God's protection. 1 Sam. 27:2-4: cf. 1 Sam. 21:10, 12. Afterwards when he was king and in power he took Gath and her towns out of the hand of the Philistines. Uzziah also fought against the place and broke down its walls. 1 Chr. 18:1; 2 Chr. 26:6. After Micah 1:10 we hear no more of Gath among the cities of the Philistines: cf. Zeph. 2:4; Zech. 9:5, 6. It may have been ruined. Its site is identified with Tell es Safl, 31 43' N, 34 51' E, where there are extensive ruins and cisterns hewn out of the rock. It commanded the entrance to the valley of Elah.

Gathhepher.  [Gath-he'pher]

Town in the border of Zebulun. 2 Kings 14:25: named also GITTAH-HEPHER in Joshua19:13. Identified by some with el Meshhed, 32 44' N, 35 19' E.

Gathrimmon.  [Gath-rim'mon]

1.  Levitical city in the southern territory of Dan.  Joshua 19:45; Joshua 21:24.

2.  Levitical city in Manasseh, west of the Jordan. Joshua 21:25. In 1 Chr. 6:69 there is also a Gath-rimmon given to the Levites, situate in the tribe of Ephraim; but this does not agree with Joshua, and by comparing the two lists, this appears to be the same as No. 1. in Dan. Then in verse 70 is the name of BILEAM, (q.v.) and this is supposed to be the same place as Gath-rimmon in Joshua 21:25.

Gaza. [Ga'za]

1.  One of the five royal cities of the Philistines. We read of it as early as Gen. 10:19 as a border of the Canaanites. The Anakim dwelt there, but Judah was able to take Gaza and the coasts thereof. Joshua 11:22; Judges 1:18. In the time of Samson, however, the Philistines were in possession, and he was made a prisoner there. Judges 16:21. It was held afterwards by Solomon, 1 Kings 4:24 (where it is called AZZAH, as it is also in Deut. 2:23 and Jer. 25:20); but had to be taken again by Hezekiah. 2 Kings 18:8. It was afterwards smitten by Pharaoh. Jer. 47:1, 5. Having been a stronghold of the Philistines, woes were pronounced against it by the prophets. Amos 1:6, 7; Zeph. 2:4; Zech. 9:5.

Gaza was the S.W. frontier town of Palestine, and did a large trade with the caravans to and from Egypt. It was taken by Cambyses, the Ptolemies, and by Alexander the Great, and was held in the twelfth century by the Knights Templars. Gaza is now under Palestinian rule. It is situate at 31 30' N, 34 28' E.  Acts 8:26 signifies that the way from Jerusalem to Gaza was desert. This is supposed to refer to the road through Hebron, for after leaving that city it is comparatively desert.

2.    City of Ephraim, 1 Chr. 7:28; but here many MSS read Ayyah.

Gazathites, [Ga'zathites] Gazites. [Ga'zites]

Inhabitants of Gaza. Joshua 13:3; Judges 16:2.

Gazer. [Ga'zer]

See GEZER.

Gazez. [Ga'zez]

1.  Son of Caleb by Ephah. 1 Chr. 2:46.

2.  Son of Haran and grandson of Caleb. 1 Chr. 2:46.

Gazites. [Ga'zites]

See GAZATHITES.

Gazzam. [Gaz'zam]

Ancestor of some Nethinim who returned from exile. Ezra 2:48; Neh. 7:51.

Geba. [Ge'ba]

Levitical city in Benjamin. Joshua 21:17; 2 Sam. 5:25; 2 Kings 23:8; 1 Chr. 6:60; 1 Chr. 8:6; Neh. 11:31; Neh. 12:29; Isa. 10:29; Zech. 14:10. Apparently while Saul was king the Philistines had a garrison there, which Jonathan smote. 1 Sam. 13:3. The city was built or rebuilt long afterwards by Asa. 1 Kings 15:22; 2 Chr. 16:6. It is called GABA in Joshua 18:24; Ezra 2:26; Neh. 7:30; and GIBEAH in 1 Sam. 13:2-16; 1 Sam. 14:2-16. In 2 Sam. 5:25 Geba should probably be read Gibeon: cf. 1 Chr. 14:16. Identified with Jeba, 31 52' N, 35 15' E.

Gebal. [Ge'bal]

1. Maritime city of Phoenicia. Identified with Jebeil, the ancient Byblus, near the mouth of the river Adonis, 34 7' N, 35 39' E. Its inhabitants are called GIBLITES in Joshua 13:5. Some were workers in stone and assisted in the work of the temple. 1 Kings 5:18, margin. Others were calkers. Ezek. 27:9. In this last passage the LXX reads 'Biblians,' and the Vulg. 'Giblians.'

2.  Apparently part of the mountainous range of Edom. Ps. 83:7. But some believe that this passage also refers to No. 1.

Geber. [Ge'ber]

1.  Father of one of Solomon's commissariat officers in Ramoth-gilead. 1 Kings 4:13.

2.  Son of Uri, another like officer in Gilead. 1 Kings 4:19. At the end of this verse the A.V. reads "He was the only officer which was in the land." This does not seem to agree with 1 Kings 4:13, 14, for those mentioned therein were also on the east of the Jordan. The Hebrew word for 'officer' in 1 Kings 4:19, though a kindred word, is not the same as in 1 Kings 4:7 and 27, and may be translated 'superintendent.'

Gebim. [Ge'bim]

Apparently a city of Benjamin, near to Jerusalem. Isa. 10:31. Not identified.

Gedaliah. [Gedali'ah]

1.  Son of Ahikam: he was made governor over those left in the land, with a Chaldean guard, by Nebuchadnezzar. He was joined by Jeremiah, and apparently ruled well; but he was treacherously murdered by Ishmael of Judah, who, according to Josephus (Ant. 10:9, 3), was a member of the royal family. Gedaliah was duly warned, but had too good an opinion of the man. 2 Kings 25:22-25; Jer. 39:14; Jer. 40:5-16; Jer. 41:1-18; Jer. 43:6.

2.  Levite, son of Jeduthun. 1 Chr. 25:3, 9.

3.  Priest who had married a strange wife. Ezra 10:18.

4.  Grandfather of Zephaniah the prophet. Zeph. 1:1.

5.  Son of Pashur and one of the princes who caused Jeremiah to be cast into a dungeon. Jer. 38:1.

Gedeon. [Ged'eon]

Heb. 11:32: same as GIDEON.

Geder. [Ge'der]

City in the south of Palestine, the king of which was slain by Joshua. Joshua 12:13.

Gederah. [Gede'rah]

City in the lowlands of Judah. Joshua 15:36. Identified with ruins at Jedireh, 31 50' N, 34 57' E.

Gederathite. [Gede'rathite]

Inhabitant of Gederah. 1 Chr. 12:4.  1 Chr. 12:2 speaks of Josabad as a Benjamite, so that this Gederah is judged to be identified with Jedireh in Benjamin, 31 51' N, 35 11' E.

Gederite. [Gede'rite]

Inhabitant of Geder, or Gederah. 1 Chr. 27:28.

Gederoth. [Gede'roth]

City in the lowlands of Judah. Joshua 15:41; 2 Chr. 28:18.  Identified by some with Katrah, 31 50' N, 34 46' E.

Gederothaim. [Gederotha'im]

City in the lowlands of Judah.  Joshua 15:36.

Gedor. [Gedor']

1.  City in the highlands of Judah. Joshua 15:58. Identified with ruins at Jedur, 31 38' N, 35 5' E.

2.  Native place of Jehoram, a Benjamite. 1 Chr. 12:7.

3.  Valley in the south of Judah, where the tribe of Simeon found rich pasture. 1 Chr. 4:39.

4.  Son of Jehiel, a Benjamite. 1 Chr. 8:31; 1 Chr. 9:37.

5.  Son of Penuel, a descendant of Judah. 1 Chr. 4:4.

6.  Son of Jered, a descendant of Judah. 1 Chr. 4:18.

Gehazi. [Geha'zi]

Servant to the prophet Elisha. He had seen Elisha's miracles, even to the raising of the dead, and yet was tempted to deceive him and fraudulently gain a present from Naaman. He was in consequence smitten with leprosy. In after years he was entertaining the king of Israel with the great works of the prophet, when the Shunammite whose son Elisha had raised to life came to petition the king for her land, and she confirmed the servant's narration. 2 Kings 4:12-36; 2 Kings 5:20-27; 2 Kings 8:4, 5. Gehazi is a remarkable instance of how slow man is to realise the goodness and power of God, though plainly manifested before his eyes, until judgement falls upon him.

Gehenna. [Gehen'na]

See HELL.

Geliloth. [Geli'loth]

A place on the border line between Benjamin and Judah. Joshua 18:17. In Joshua 15:7 the same is apparently called GILGAL.

Gemalli. [Gemal'li]

Father of Ammiel one of the twelve spies. Num. 13:12

Gemariah. [Gemari'ah]

1.  Son of Shaphan, and father of Michaiah. He was present at the reading of Jeremiah's prophecy, and begged the king not to burn the roll.  Jer. 36:10-12, 25.

2.  Son of Hilkiah: he was sent by Zedekiah to Babylon with a letter from Jeremiah unto the captives taken by Nebuchadnezzar. Jer. 29:3.

Genealogies.

These were the records of generations: 'the genealogy of their generations ' was reckoned. 1 Chr. 5:7; 1 Chr. 7:9. Though 'generations' are given from the beginning, we do not read of 'genealogies' until Israel was in the land. It was important then that the genealogies should be preserved, because it was a part of the law that the children of Israel should enjoy every man the inheritance of his fathers. The inheritance must not remove from tribe to tribe. Num. 36:8, 9. As the priesthood was restricted to the sons of Aaron, it was essential that they should preserve their genealogy. On the return from the exile some were unable to show their descent from Aaron, and they were put out of the priesthood. Ezra 2:62.

A knowledge of the priestly genealogies extended to the N.T.  Zacharias was of the 'course of Abia,' and Elizabeth was 'of the daughters of Aaron.' So also of the tribes and families generally. At the census Joseph and Mary went to Bethlehem, for they were of the lineage of David; Anna was of the tribe of Asher, and Paul of the tribe of Benjamin.

The prophecies, which reveal that in the seed of Abraham should all the nations of the earth be blessed, and that the Messiah was to be of the royal line of David, made it needful that the genealogies of both these lines should be preserved, as we find them given in the N.T. In the future possession of the land there will be the twelve tribes, and some of each of the twelve will be sealed for blessing. Ezek. 48; Rev. 7:3-8. God, who is guarding them for future events, can also preserve their genealogies.

It is probable that in 1 Tim. 1:4 and Titus 3:9 reference is not made to Jewish genealogies, which could not be called 'endless,' nor were they fabulous; but that reference is made to the aeons of the Gnostics which reach back to eternity, three of which were represented to be Christ, the Holy Spirit, and Jesus. Tertullian quoted the above passage in Timothy when confuting the Gnostics.

Genealogy of the Lord Jesus.

This is given in Matthew 1 and Luke 3.  According to the distinctive character of Matthew in which Christ is emphatically the Messiah and Son of David, the genealogy commences with Abraham; whereas in Luke, in which Christ is displayed as the Son of man, the list is traced up to "Adam who was the son of God." Both lists are the same from Abraham to David; then they differ until they reach Salathiel and Zorobabel, which names are in both lists; and then they again differ. The list in Luke is much fuller, having from David to Joseph forty-one names, where Matthew has only twenty-six. Names are omitted from Matthew, and this enables the whole to be brought into the three divisions of 'fourteen generations.' Ozias is placed as the son of Joram, but on consulting 1 Chr. 3:11, 12 (where for Ozias is read Azariah, as also in 2 Kings 14:21), it will be seen that three kings are omitted, Ahaziah, Joash, and Amaziah. Such omissions are found in the genealogies in the O.T.  In 2 Chr. 22:9 Ahaziah is called the son of Jehoshaphat; whereas he was his grandson; and by comparing the generations in 1 Chr. 6:3-15 with Ezra 7:1-5 seven names will be found to be omitted in the latter.

It will be noted that in Matthew the word 'begat' is used, whereas in Luke it is more indefinite. Jesus was 'supposed' or 'accounted' to be the son of Joseph, and 'Joseph was of Heli' without the word 'begat.' Again, it should be noted that by a Jewish law if a man died childless, his brother was to raise up seed to the deceased by his widow, so that a son born thus might be called the legal son of the deceased, whereas he would be the actual or lineal son of his father, the brother of the deceased. The list in Matthew is clearly the royal line; between David and Salathiel twelve kings are given, all of whom are omitted from Luke. Being the royal line it must also be the legal line.

There is more difficulty as to the genealogy in Luke: is it the lineal line of Joseph or Mary? Women are never quoted as forming a line of succession, yet Christ is spoken of as the 'seed' of the woman, Gen. 3:15; 'come of woman,' Gal. 4:4; 'the seed of Abraham,' Heb. 2:16; 'the seed of David according to flesh,' Rom. 1:3; 2 Tim. 2:8; 'the offspring of David.' Rev. 22:16. And as the Lord was not really the son of Joseph, these scriptures can only be fulfilled through His mother, who must have been a lineal descendant of David and Abraham. It is better therefore to consider that Luke gives the lineal descent of the Lord through Mary. In accordance with the above it will be seen that Matthew in speaking of the birth of the Lord frequently mentions Joseph, seldom Mary; whereas Luke frequently mentions Mary, but seldom Joseph.

Generation.

This is used in various senses in scripture.

1.  As from a father to his son, or from a king to his successor, γενεά, as in the three series of 'fourteen generations' in Matthew 1:17, though the same term is applied where names have been omitted. See GENEALOGY OF THE LORD JESUS.

2.  In a much wider sense, as when the Lord said of the  unbelieving Jews, "This generation shall not pass away till all these things be fulfilled." Matt. 24:34; Luke 21:32: cf. Deut. 32:5, 20.  The unbelieving Jews still exist and will until the events take place.

3.  As offspring, γέννημα, where there was a moral likeness, as "generation of vipers." Matt. 3:7, etc.

4.  As class, family, etc., γένος. Ye are 'a chosen generation.' 1 Peter 2:9.

5.  As signifying perpetuity: God's dominion is 'from generation to generation.' Dan. 4:3, 34.

Genesis, Book of.

The title of this book in the Hebrew is Bereshith, from the first word 'In the beginning.' Our title comes from the LXX, and signifies 'the source or fount' — that is, of the present system of the heavens and earth as they now exist. Genesis contains all the great principles of God's relationship with man, even to the bruising of Satan's head, and in type the union of Christ and the church by a woman being 'builded' out of a rib of Adam, and brought to the man. The creation is the first thing recorded; both the original creating out of nothing, and the ordering of the earth for man.  See CREATION.  Man in the image of God is created last, and all is declared to be 'very good.'  See ADAM

A vast amount of learned labour has been lost in trying to account for the name of 'God' in Gen. 1 and 'Jehovah God' in Gen. 2, often ending with the conclusion that Moses must have had two or more earlier accounts of the creation before him — one called the Elohistic (which used the name of God) and the other the Jehovistic (which had Jehovah God), and that he copied first a piece of the one, and then a piece of the other. Surely this is a very unworthy conclusion to arrive at respecting the work of God by Moses!  In Gen. 1 it is God as Creator; but in Gen. 2 He is in relationship with man, and this calls forth the name of Jehovah (as Jehovah was the name by which He was afterwards especially known to Israel. See Ex. 6:2, 3.) The theory of Moses having copied from various documents, is carried all through the Pentateuch, and with many it has issued in the very sad result of undermining the inspiration of scripture, and attributing to the Lord, when He speaks of Moses having written the law, the use of the common tradition though it was not true!

Sin soon came in, and man, after hiding himself from God, was under sentence of death, and was driven out of Eden lest he should eat of the tree of life and live for ever in his sin. Then the way of approach for a sinner to God is revealed in Abel's sacrifice, and the blindness and hardness caused by sin in that of Cain. Though sin and death reigned, God had His witnesses in Enoch and Noah: the former yields a type of the rapture of the heavenly saints, and the latter of the deliverance of the earthly saints through judgement. God made a covenant with Noah in the new earth. In Babel began the spirit of independence of God. Language was confounded and the people were scattered. In Nimrod commenced conquest and royal power still in independence of God.  See ABEL, CAIN, ENOCH, NOAH.

A new dealing of God commences in the call of Abraham to leave his country and his kindred. Promise was introduced in him both as to his natural seed in Israel, and blessing to all nations through his seed, Christ. He is separated to God by circumcision. In Abraham and Lot we have types of the heavenly man having power over the world, and the earthly-minded one mixing with the world. Melchisedec is introduced as the type of the priesthood of Christ in the millennium as the 'blessing' priest and king.

Respecting Isaac and Ishmael, the bondwoman and her son, type of the flesh under law, must be cast out, that Isaac the son of promise may inherit all: cf. Gal. 4:22-31. But the son of promise must be offered up, and be received back as from the dead, then the covenant was established figuratively in resurrection. Isaac must not go to Mesopotamia, the country from whence the heirs of promise had been called out, therefore Abraham sent his steward to obtain a wife for his son — as the Holy Spirit is here now, gathering a bride for Christ. From Isaac spring Jacob and Esau: Jacob obtains his two wives Rachel and Leah, and with them and their maids he begets the heads of the twelve tribes, who are to possess the land as promised to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. After exercises with God, Jacob is called Israel.

In Joseph a new branch of the history commences: he is hated by his brethren and is sold to the Gentiles, but becomes their saviour — an evident type of Christ in His sufferings and His glory. Joseph takes a Gentile wife in his rejection, as Christ takes a bride outside of Israel. Jacob blesses his twelve sons, dies, and is buried in Canaan; and Joseph, before he died, being sure that God would visit them and bring them out of the land, bade them carry up his bones from Egypt.  See ABRAHAM, ISAAC, JACOB, JOSEPH.

Gennesaret, [Gennes'aret] Lake of.

See GALILEE, SEA OF.

Gennesaret, [Gennes'aret] Land of.

This is a plain bordering the lake of the same name on the N.W. It is about a mile and a quarter wide and three miles long, reaching nearly to Tell Hum. It has some springs, besides three streams that cross it, and being thus well watered, is a place of great fertility. Josephus gives a glowing description of it. Wars 3:10, 8. Being close to Capernaum it was doubtless often traversed by the Lord, and was where many of His miracles were wrought. Matt. 14:34; Mark 6:53. The district is now called el Ghuweir.

Gentiles.

A name commonly used in scripture to denote any and every nation except Israel. At times, when Israel as a people is referred to, the same words are used for them. Thus

1.  goi, γοι, ἔθνος, is translated 'nation,' and refers to the Jewish nation. Deut. 26:5; Luke 7:5; John 11:48. In the plural the same words refer to the nations generally in distinction from Israel, and are translated 'nations,'  'Gentiles,' and 'heathen.' Deut. 18:9; Deut. 32:43; Isa. 60:3; Isa. 62:2; Joel 2:19; Acts 11:1, 18; Acts:13:19; Acts 28:28; etc.

2. Ἕλλην (in plural) is translated 'Gentiles' in John 7:35; Rom. 2:9, 10; Rom. 3:9; 1 Cor. 10:32; 1 Cor. 12:13, in contrast to the Jews; but would be better translated 'Greeks,' as it is in most places.

God had raised a wall between the Jews and the Gentiles, which in Christ's death was broken down for believers, "to make in himself of twain one new man." Eph. 2:14. "There is neither Jew nor Greek . . . . for ye are all one in Christ Jesus." Gal. 3:28. This does not touch unbelieving Jews and Gentiles, who are kept separate in God's present and future dealings.

Gentiles, Times of the.

God had taken up the Jews and made a nation of them. He declared, "Abraham shall surely become a great and mighty nation." Gen. 18:18. "You only have I known of all the families of the earth." They were to be a witness for God on the earth, and it is added, "therefore I will punish you for all your iniquities." Amos 3:2. After long patience of God with Israel the house of David was set aside and carried into captivity, the power of government for God was transferred to the Gentile, and the times of the Gentiles commenced in the person of Nebuchadnezzar. To him it was said, "Thou, O king, art a king of kings: for the God of heaven hath given thee a kingdom, power, and strength, and glory." The beasts of the field and the fowls of heaven were also given into his hand. Dan. 2:37, 38. God held him responsible; and because he dishonoured God, and took the glory of the kingdom to himself, he was punished. Three other empires succeeded that of Babylon, and the times of the Gentiles still continue, under various phases of government. They will run on until God in His own time restores supremacy in the earth to His ancient people. "Jerusalem shall be trodden down of the Gentiles until the times of the Gentiles be fulfilled." Luke 21:24.

Gentiles, The Fulness of the.

This is spoken of in connection with the olive-tree as God's tree of promise and privilege on the earth. Israel was that tree, Jer. 11:16; but because of unbelief some (perhaps the most) of the branches were broken off, and some Gentiles were, contrary to nature, grafted into the good olive-tree. But if these Gentiles do not continue in the goodness of God, they also will be broken off, the fulness of the Gentiles will have come in, and Israel will be reinstated. Rom. 11:15-25. It therefore follows that as the admission of the Gentiles to privilege is linked with the failure of Israel, so the taking up of the Jews again for blessing is linked with the apostasy of the Gentiles. A solemn fact for Christendom!

Genubath. [Genu'bath]

Son of Hadad an Edomite by an Egyptian princess, sister of Tahpenes the queen. 1 Kings 11:19, 20.

Gera. [Ge'ra]

A descendant of Benjamin. Gen. 46:21; Judges 3:15; 2 Sam. 16:5; 2 Sam. 19:16, 18; 1 Kings 2:8; 1 Chr. 8:3, 5, 7. It is not clear whether all the passages refer to the same person.

Gerah.

See WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.

Gerar. [Ge'rar]

Ancient city on the south of Gaza in the possession of the Philistines. It was visited by both Abraham and Isaac. Gen. 10:19; Gen. 20:1, 2; Gen. 26:1-26; 2 Chr. 14:13, 14. Identified with ruins at Umm Jerrar, 31 25' N, 34 26' E.

Gerasenes, [Ger'asenes] Gergesenes. [Ger'gesenes]

See GADARENES.

Gerizim, [Geriz'im] Mount.

The mountain in Samaria on which the blessings on Israel were pronounced, in contrast to the curses given on mount Ebal. Deut. 11:29; Deut. 27:12; Joshua 8:33; Judges 9:7. History records that after the rebuilding of the temple in the time of Ezra a Samaritan temple was built on this mountain, where they had priests and sacrifices, which was the cause of great animosity between the Jews and the Samaritans. Though this temple was destroyed by Hyrcanus, the Samaritans clung to the mountain as the right place of worship, as the woman of Samaria said to the Lord. John 4:20. The Samaritans still eat the Passover lamb on the mountain. A church was also built there; but now there are only ruins. The mount is called Jebel et Tor, 32 12' N, 35 16' E.  Its highest point is 2,849 feet above the sea.

Gershom. [Ger'shom]

1.  Eldest son of Moses and Zipporah, born in Midian. Ex. 2:22; Ex. 18:3; Judges 18:30 (see MANASSEH); 1 Chr. 23:15, 16; 1 Chr. 26:24.

2.  Eldest son of Levi, 1 Chr. 6:16-71; 1 Chr. 15:7; but elsewhere named GERSHON.

3.  A descendant of Phinehas who returned from exile. Ezra 8:2.

Gershon, [Ger'shon] Gershonites. [Ger'shonites]

Eldest son of Levi, born before the children of Israel entered Egypt, and his descendants. Gen. 46:11; 1 Chr. 6:1; 1 Chr. 23:6. At the numbering of the Israelites in the wilderness there were 7,500 Gershonites as a branch of the Levites. Their charge was the frame-work of the tabernacle and the tent, with the hangings and curtains. For the transport of these they had two wagons and four oxen. Num. 3:17-25; Num. 4:22-38; Num. 7:7. They had thirteen of the Levitical cities. Joshua 21:6, 27-33. In the kingdom, under Asaph and his sons, they "prophesied according to the order of the king." Others had charge of the "treasures of the house of God, and were over the treasures of the holy things," and of the precious stones. 1 Chr. 23:6, 7; 1 Chr. 25:2; 1 Chr. 26:20-22; 1 Chr. 29:8.  See GERSHOM, No. 2.

Gesham. [Ge'sham]

Son of Jahdai, of the family of Caleb. 1 Chr. 2:47.

Geshem. [Ge'shem]

An Arabian, who with Sanballat and Tobiah sought to hinder the rebuilding of Jerusalem. Neh. 2:19; Neh. 6:1, 2. Called also GASHMU in Neh. 6:6.

Geshur. [Geshu'r]

A principality on the north-east of Bashan. 2 Sam. 3:3; 2 Sam. 13:37, 38; 2 Sam. 14:23; 2 Sam. 15:8; 1 Chr. 2:23; 1 Chr. 3:2. David married the daughter of the king of Geshur, and she was the mother of Absalom.

Geshuri, [Geshu'ri] Geshurites. [Geshu'rites]

1.  Inhabitants of Geshur. Deut. 3:14; Joshua 12:5; Joshua 13:11, 13.

2.  A tribe in the southern desert. Joshua 13:2; 1 Sam. 27:8.

Gether. [Ge'ther]

Son of Aram the son of Shem. Gen. 10:23; 1 Chr. 1:17.

Gethsemane. [Gethsem'ane]

Name of the garden on some part of mount Olivet to which the Lord often resorted with His disciples. It was here He spent a part of the night after the last Passover, and where He was in intense agony in prospect of drinking the cup of wrath due to sin. How significant is the name, which signifies 'wine-press'!  Angels came and ministered to Him. Here also He was betrayed by Judas with a kiss, and arrested. Matt. 26:36; Mark 14:32; Luke 22:39; John 18:1, 2. A spot, now walled round and preserved as a European flower garden, on the N.W. of the slope of Olivet, is the traditional site of Gethsemane. It is nearly opposite the St. Stephen's gate. There are in it some venerable olive trees; but as Titus, at the destruction of Jerusalem, cut down all the trees near the city, these must be of more recent growth, and there is no certainty as to the site. A more retired spot would seem more fitting.

Geuel. [Geu'el]

Son of Machi: he was one who searched the land. Num. 13:15.

Gezer, [Ge'zer] Gezrites. [Gez'rites]

Ancient Canaanite city and its inhabitants. It was taken by Joshua, and allotted to Ephraim, and afterwards to the Kohathites, 1 Chr. 6:67; 1 Chr. 7:28; but the ancient inhabitants held possession. It was taken and burnt by Pharaoh as a Canaanitish city, and the site given to his daughter whom Solomon had married. Solomon rebuilt the city. Joshua 10:33; Joshua 12:12; Joshua 16:3, 10; Joshua 21:21; Judges 1:29; 1 Sam. 27:8; 1 Kings 9:15-17. It is called GAZER in 2 Sam. 5:25; 1 Chr. 14:16. Compare 1 Chr. 20:4 with 2 Sam. 21:18, 19, GEZER in the former passage refers to GOB in the latter. Gezer is identified with ruins at Tell Jezar, 31 52' N, 34 55' E.

Ghost.

1.  nephesh, 'animal life, soul.' Job 11:20; Jer. 15:9.

2.  πνεῦμα, 'spirit'  Matt. 27:50; John 19:30. The word 'ghost' is used in the A.V. only in reference to the Holy Spirit (see HOLY GHOST), and to death, by the 'ghost' being given up, or the spirit or life being breathed out.

3.  gava, 'to expire, die.' Gen. 25:8, 17; Gen. 35:29; Gen. 49:33; Job 3:11; Job 10:18; Job 13:19; Job 14:10; Lam. 1:19.

4.  εκπνέω, 'to breathe out, expire.' Mark 15:37, 39; Luke 23:46.

5.  ἐκψύχω, 'to breathe out, expire.' Acts 5:5, 10; Acts 12:23.

Giah. [Gi'ah]

Place mentioned only in describing the position of the hill Ammah. 2 Sam. 2:24.

Giant.

1.gibbor, 'mighty, strong,' as the word is often elsewhere translated. Job 16:14.

2.  rapha, 'a fearful one.' In the plural and with the article it is treated as a proper name, the REPHAIM, or sons of Raphah, a race of giants who lived beyond the Jordan, from whom Og the giant king of Bashan descended. The sons of Raphah were afterwards found among the Philistines. At times the term Rephaim applies to any people in Canaan who were of great stature. Deut. 2:11, 20; Deut. 3:11, 13; Joshua 12:4; Joshua 13:12; Joshua 15:8; Joshua 17:15; Joshua 18:16; 1 Chr. 20:4, 6, 8. The word Rephaim is untranslated in Gen. 14:5; Gen. 15:20.

3.  raphah, same as rapha. 2 Sam. 21:16-22.

4.  nephilim. The signification of this word is uncertain: some trace it to a root 'to fall,' but then it is not clear whether it signifies 'fallen ones,' or 'those who fall upon.' They were men of great stature, which made the Israelites consider themselves as grasshoppers in comparison. They are not said (as has been supposed) to be the offspring of the sons of God and the daughters of men: those born of them are described as "mighty men (gibborim) which were of old, men of renown." The nephilim are merely said to be "in the earth in those days," and they were also seen by the spies about a thousand years afterwards: this is all that is revealed respecting them. The various ancient versions confirm the translation of 'giants.' Gen. 6:4; Num. 13:33.

Giants, Valley of.

See REPHAIM, VALLEY OF.

Gibbar. [Gib'bar]

Ancestor of some who returned from exile. Ezra 2:20.

Gibbethon. [Gib'bethon]

City of Dan, allotted to the Kohathites, but which was afterwards held by the Philistines. It was besieged by Nadab and by Omri, kings of Israel. Joshua 19:44; Joshua 21:23; 1 Kings 15:27; 1 Kings 16:15. Identified with Kibabih, 31 59' N, 35 E.

Gibea. [Gib'ea]

Son of (or, a town founded by) Sheva. 1 Chr. 2:49.

Gibeah. [Gib'eah]

1.  City in the highlands of Judah. Joshua 15:57. Identified with Jeba, 31 41' N, 35 4' E.

2.  Place where Abinadab dwelt, in whose house the ark of God remained until fetched by David. 2 Sam. 6:3, 4; the name is translated 'the hill' in 1 Sam. 7:1.

3.  City of Benjamin, the native place of Saul. Judges 19:12-16; Judges 20:4-43; 1 Sam. 10:26; 1 Sam. 14:2, 5; 1 Sam. 22:6; 1 Sam. 23:19; 1 Sam. 26:1; 2 Sam. 23:29; 1 Chr. 11:31; 2 Chr. 13:2; Hosea 5:8; Hosea 9:9; Hosea 10:9. The same city is called 'GIBEAH OF BENJAMIN,' 1 Sam. 13:2, 15, 16; 1 Sam. 14:16; and 'GIBEAH OF SAUL,' 1 Sam. 11:4; 1 Sam. 15:34; 2 Sam. 21:6; Isa. 10:29; though in some places the district around the city may be included. Not identified. [In 1 Sam. 13:16 and 1 Sam. 14:5 the Hebrew is GEBA, not GIBEAH: cf. 1 Sam. 13:3.]

4.  GIBEAH IN THE FIELD.  Some place to which a division of the highway from No. 3 led. Judges 20:31. Not identified.

5.  GIBEAH OF PHINEHAS, as Joshua 24:33 may be translated, 'a hill [that pertained to] Phinehas.' Identified by some with Awertah, 32 10' N, 35 17' E.

Gibeath. [Gib'eath]

Another form of GIBEAH. JOS. 18:28. Identified by some with Jebia, 31 51' N, 35 6' E. Others judge it to be the same as Gibeah No. 3.

Gibeathite. [Gib'eathite]

Designation of Shemaah. 1 Chr. 12:3.

Gibeon. [Gib'eon]

The leading city of the four which beguiled Joshua into making a league with them, on the plea of their being far distant. Joshua 9:3-17. When the Amorites attacked Gibeon, because they had made peace with Israel, Joshua hastened to their deliverance, and to lengthen the daylight he said, "Sun, stand thou still upon Gibeon." Joshua 10:1-41. The city was afterwards given to Benjamin and made a Levitical city. Joshua 18:25; Joshua 21:17. In the days of Solomon, before the temple was built, the tabernacle was pitched at Gibeon, and thither Solomon went and offered a thousand sacrifices, and there God appeared to him in a dream, and gave him the desire of his heart — wisdom and understanding. 1 Kings 3:4, 5; 1 Chr. 16:39; 1 Chr. 21:29; 2 Chr. 1:3, 13. It was near 'the great stone' in Gibeon that Joab treacherously slew Amasa; and in retribution it was to the same city he fled to lay hold on the horns of the altar for protection, but where he was put to death. 2 Sam. 20:8-10; 1 Kings 2:29-34. Identified with el Jib, 31 51' N, 35 11' E, a village of scattered houses on a hill. On one side of the hill is a copious spring, and lower down the remains of a large reservoir, which is thought to be the 'pool' of Gibeon and its 'great waters.' 2 Sam. 2:13; Jer. 41:12, 16.  In 1 Chr. 14:16 we read that David smote the Philistines 'from Gibeon even to Gazer;' but in the parallel passage in 2 Sam. 5:25 it says, David smote them 'from Geba' to Gazer. Keil and others think Gibeon is the place intended.

Gibeonites. [Gib'eonites]

The people of Gibeon and perhaps of the three confederate cities — Chephirah, Beeroth, and Kirjath-jearim. Joshua 9:17. They were Hivites, and 'mighty' men. Having deceived Joshua into making a treaty with them, they were made hewers of wood and drawers of water for the house of God. Joshua 9:23. Saul, upon an occasion not recorded, had slain some of the Gibeonites, and it apparently had been passed over and forgotten; but God could not allow the oath of His people to be violated; He therefore brought a famine on the land. On David inquiring of the Lord, it was revealed that the famine was because of the slaying of the Gibeonites. They were appealed to, and reparation offered them. They claimed that as it was Saul who had sought to destroy them from remaining in any of the coasts of Israel, seven of his descendants should be given to them. These they hanged in the hill before the Lord, and God was entreated for the land. 2 Sam. 21:1-14. In this passage the Gibeonites are called 'Amorites,' a common designation of the Canaanites, which does not clash with their being called Hivites in Joshua 9:7.  Ismaiah, one of David's thirty mighty men, was a Gibeonite.1 Chr. 12:4. Some of them returned from exile and helped to build the wall of Jerusalem. Neh. 3:7; Neh. 7:25.

Giblites. [Gib'lites]

See GEBAL.

Giddalti. [Giddal'ti]

Son of Heman a Kohathite: appointed to the service of song. 1 Chr. 25:4, 29.

Giddel. [Gid'del]

1.  Ancestor of some Nethinim who returned from exile. Ezra 2:47; Neh. 7:49.

2.  One of Solomon's servants, whose descendants returned from exile. Ezra 2:56; Neh. 7:58.

Gideon.

Son of Joash, of the tribe of Manasseh, one of the judges of Israel. An angel of the Lord appeared to him while he was threshing wheat to hide it from the Midianites, and said, "The Lord is with thee, thou mighty man of valour." Thus addressed, the true though weak faith that was in Gideon was manifested, and he said to the Lord, "If the Lord be with us, why is all this befallen us? And where be all his miracles which our fathers told us of ?"  Jehovah added, "Go in this thy might, and thou shalt save Israel from the hand of the Midianites: have not I sent thee?" Gideon pleaded that his family was poor, and that he was the least in his father's house. He was further encouraged. The first thing he was bid to do was to throw down the altar of Baal, and erect an altar to Jehovah, and offer an offering thereon. Gideon obeyed, but he did it by night, for he feared to do it by day. The men of the city desired his death, but his father protected him, saying, Let Baal plead for himself, and symbolically named Gideon JERUBBAAL, 'Let Baal plead.' In 2 Sam. 11:21 it is JERUBBESHETH, 'Let the shameful thing plead,' meaning the same, without mentioning the name of Baal: cf. Jer. 11:13; Hosea 9:10.

Obedience led to strength: the Spirit of the Lord came upon him, and he blew a trumpet, and sent messengers to the tribes of Manasseh, Asher, Zebulun, and Naphtali. But his small though true faith wanted a sign from God that He would save Israel by him. God graciously responded by the moisture and then by the dryness of the fleece of wool. God declared that Gideon's followers were too many: they would take the glory to themselves, and say, "mine own hand hath saved me." So he bade all that were fearful and afraid to return, and more than two-thirds went back, leaving but 10,000: proving that the mass of the people were unfit to fight the battles of the Lord. Still the people were too many, and they are tested at the water: those that fell on their knees to drink were sent away, and only three hundred men remained, those who had lapped a little water from the hand, as satisfied with a hasty refreshment.

God then told Gideon to go down to the host, for He had delivered it into his hand; but if he was afraid, he could first go with his servant and hear what the enemy said. He was still faint-hearted and therefore went to listen, and there he heard himself compared to 'a cake of barley bread,' but that God would deliver Midian into his hand. Gideon at once arranged his men into three companies, each man having a trumpet, and a lamp inside a pitcher. When they reached the camp, the trumpets were blown, and the pitchers broken. The Midianites were dismayed and some of them in the confusion and terror killed one another, and the others fled, pursued by the tribes before named, and by Ephraim. Ephraim proudly found fault with Gideon for not calling them to the battle at first; but a modest answer appeased their wrath. The conquest was complete, and the men of Succoth and Penuel were punished for not aiding Gideon with bread when he was faint.

Israel desired Gideon to rule over them, but he refused, saying, "The Lord shall rule over you." He requested of the army the golden earrings taken from the enemy. With these he made an ephod, and placed it in his city, and all Israel went in idolatry after it, and it became a snare to Gideon and his house. Alas, the man of faith, who had thrown down the altar of Baal, was now led astray with a golden ephod! A memorial of God's intervention is not present faith in the God who has intervened. The time of victory is a time of peculiar danger, when many being off their guard have fallen. During the life-time of Gideon Israel dwelt in peace during forty years, but at his decease the people turned to idols and were ungrateful to the house of Gideon. Judges 6:11 —  Judges 8:35. He is called GEDEON in Heb. 11:32, where his faith is spoken of.

Gideoni. [Gideo'ni]

Father of Abidan, one of the chiefs of Benjamin. Num. 1:11; Num. 2:22; Num. 7:60, 65; Num. 10:24.

Gidom. [Gi'dom]

Place to which the Benjamites were pursued after the battle of Gibeah. Judges 20:45.

Gier Eagle,

racham, rachamah. The name occurs only in the list of birds not to be eaten. Being classed with the swan and the pelican, it has been thought to be some water-fowl; but it is more generally considered to be the Egyptian Vulture. It visits Palestine only in the summer. It eats any carrion, and is highly respected in the East. Lev. 11:18; Deut. 14:17.

Gifts.

These have a large place in the O.T. history, and several different words are used which are often translated PRESENTS. There were

1.  Gifts from a superior to an inferior in good will and kindness and as rewards. Esther 2:18; Dan. 2:6, 48.

2.  From an inferior to a superior. 2 Chr. 9:24; 2 Chr. 17:5, 11. This also took the form of tribute, an acknowledgement of submission. 1 Sam. 10:27; 1 Kings 4:21. When Solomon reigned supreme, 'all the earth' sought to Solomon to hear his wisdom, and brought presents, as did the queen of Sheba. 1 Kings 10:2, 24, 25. This is a type of Christ's kingdom as established on earth, when presents, as willing tribute, will be sent from all nations to the Lord Jesus. Ps. 45:12; Ps. 72:10, 15; Isa. 60:9.

3.  Gifts to judges: these were very apt to become bribes, and were strictly prohibited. Ex. 23:8; Deut. 16:19; 2 Chr. 19:7. It was usual also to take presents to prophets, 1 Sam. 9:7; and as the prophets were sometimes judges, the gifts were liable to become bribes, as they did with the sons of Samuel, though Samuel himself could challenge the people, and they admitted the fact, that he had never taken a bribe to blind his eyes therewith. 1 Sam. 8:3; 1 Sam. 12:3.

Gifts in the Church.

The Lord Jesus, having led captivity captive, ascended up on high and thence gave gifts unto men. Ps. 68:18. These were apostles, prophets, evangelists, pastors, and teachers, for the perfecting of the saints, for the edifying of the body of Christ. Here persons are the gifts, δόμα. Eph. 4:8, 11, 12. (See under each of the names.) Another list is given in 1 Cor. 12, where the word is χάρισμα, 'grace, favour.' They are endowments of the one Spirit given to various persons, such as wisdom, knowledge, faith, healing, working of miracles, prophecy, discerning of spirits, kinds of tongues, interpreting of tongues: "all these worketh that one and the selfsame Spirit, dividing to every man severally as he will." Later in the same chapter these persons are seen to be members of Christ's body, and as such set in the church — apostles, prophets, teachers. Other gifts are added: miracles, gifts of healing, helps, governments, diversities of tongues.

Those mentioned in Eph. 4:11 (except apostles and prophets in the full sense) are gifts for the perfecting of the saints, for the work of the ministry, for edifying the body of Christ, "till we all come in the unity of the faith, and of the knowledge of the Son of God, unto a perfect man, unto the measure of the stature of the fulness of Christ." This perfecting of the saints and building up the body of Christ is being accomplished in the present time. The Spirit of God abides, acting in the various members of the body of Christ: hence gifts abide also, though some have necessarily ceased. The gifts are bestowed direct from the risen Lord, and are entirely independent of all choice or professed authority from man, and are for the help of the church universally.

Gihon. [Gi'hon]

1.  One of the rivers in the garden of Eden, now quite unknown. Gen. 2:13.

2.  Place near Jerusalem where Solomon was anointed and proclaimed king. Hezekiah stopped the upper water-courses of Gihon and brought the water down to the west side of the city of David. Manasseh also built a wall "on the west side of Gihon, in the valley even to the entering in at the fish-gate." 1 Kings 1:33, 38, 45; 2 Chr. 32:30; 2 Chr. 33:14. Some locate Gihon at the Pool of Siloam, others at the Fountain of the Virgin; and some associate the 'lower pool of Gihon' with the Birket es Sultan at the S.W. of the city.

Gilalai. [Gilalai']

Musician at the consecration of the wall of Jerusalem. Neh. 12:36.

Gilboa. [Gilbo'a]

Mountain range where Saul and Jonathan were slain. 1 Sam. 28:4; 1 Sam. 31:1, 8; 2 Sam. 1:6, 21; 2 Sam. 21:12; 1 Chr. 10:1, 8. When the tidings reached David he exclaimed, "Ye mountains of Gilboa, let there be no dew, neither let there be rain upon you, nor fields of offerings." It is judged to be on the S.W. of the valley of Jezreel.

Gilead. [Gil'ead]

The district on the east of the Jordan, extending from the river Yarmouk, a little south of the Sea of Galilee, to the north corner of the Dead Sea. It fell to the lot of Gad, except its northern part, which, where it joined Bashan, was possessed by Manasseh. It is a mountainous district, which accounts for some part of it being called 'the mount of Gilead' in Gen. 31:21-25. Some of the mountains are 2,000 to 3,500 feet high, but from the west they look much higher because of the depression of the Jordan valley. Pasturage abounds in Gilead, and accounts for Gad and the others choosing it for their cattle. The district is divided into north and south by the river Jabbok (Zerka). The northern part is cultivated and has numerous villages; but the southern is mostly held by nomadic tribes, with but little cultivation, and having but one inhabited town now, called es Salt, 32 2' N, 35 42' E.

In the days of Ahab Ramoth-gilead was in possession of the Syrians, which was followed by all Gilead and Moab falling into their hands. 1 Kings 22:3; 2 Kings 10:32, 33. This was followed by Tiglath-pileser conquering the region, and carrying the Israelites into captivity. 2 Kings 15:29; 1 Chr. 5:26. In the restoration of Israel their border eastward will extend to Damascus and Gilead. Ezek. 47:18. This ancient possession will thus be brought into blessing. The Ishmaelites who bought Joseph were travelling with balm and myrrh from Gilead. Gen. 37:25. The balm of Gilead was proverbial for its healing virtues. Jer. 8:22; Jer. 46:11.

Gilead, Mount.

A mount occupied by Gideon before he attacked the Midianites and Amalekites. Judges 7:3. Some suppose that 'Gilboa' should be read, but there is no MSS authority for the change. It may be that the tribe of Manasseh on the west had named one of their mountains 'Gilead,' which is not mentioned elsewhere.

Gilead. [Gil'ead]

1.  Son of Machir and grandson of Manasseh. Num. 26:29, 30; Num. 27:1; Num. 36:1; Joshua 17:1, 3; 1 Chr. 2:21, 23; 1 Chr. 7:14, 17.

2.  Father of Jephthah. Judges 11:1, 2.

3.  Son of Michael of the family of Gad. 1 Chr. 5:14.

Gileadites [Gil'eadites]

Not used strictly for the descendants of one man. Num. 26:29 refers to the descendants of Manasseh (No. 1, above) and Judges 11:1, 40; Judges 12:7 to No. 2. We also read of Jair a Gileadite, Judges 10:3; and Barzillai, 2 Sam. 17:27; 2 Sam. 19:31; 1 Kings 2:7; Ezra 2:61; Neh. 7:63. The Ephraimites accused the Gileadites and Jephthah with being fugitives from them, but they were severely punished for their arrogance. Judges 12:4-6. Pekah when he revolted against Pekahiah slew fifty men of the Gileadites. 2 Kings 15:25.

Gilgal.

1.  Place west of the Jordan, 'in the east border of Jericho,' where the Israelites encamped after passing the river. Here the twelve memorial stones were placed that were taken out of Jordan. Here the Israelites were circumcised: type of the putting off the body of the flesh; that is, of separation from the system in which man in the flesh lives: cf. Col. 3:3-5.   Here the reproach of Egypt was 'rolled away' (from which the name of the place was called 'Gilgal'), and they had communion figuratively with the death of Christ in the Passover. On the next day they ate of the old corn of the promised land: type of Christ being the centre of heavenly things on which the Christian feeds. Joshua 4:19, 20; Joshua 5:2-11. Gilgal was not only the starting point in taking possession of the land, but the place to which Joshua returned again and again: it was the place of strength. Joshua 9:6; Joshua 10:6-15; Joshua 14:6. It was here that Saul was made king, 1 Sam. 11:14, 15; and here he offered sacrifices, and Samuel hewed Agag in pieces. 1 Sam. 13:4-15; 1 Sam. 15:12, 21, 33.

When David returned after the overthrow and death of Absalom, Judah gathered at Gilgal. to meet the king and conduct him over Jordan. 2 Sam. 19:15. In the days of Jeroboam Gilgal was defiled with idolatry. Hosea 4:15; Hosea 9:15; Amos 4:4. Gilgal which signifies 'rolled away' should be itself 'rolled away.' Amos 5:5. In Joshua 15:7 the border of Judah's portion 'looked toward' Gilgal, which well agrees with its being near Jericho. But in Joshua 18:17 the same place is called GELILOTH, which cannot be traced. Gilgal is identified with Jiljulieh, 31 51' N, 35 29' E. In Neh. 12:29 occurs 'the house of Gilgal,' or 'Beth-gilgal,' which may refer to the same place, or may be one of the villages built 'round about' Jerusalem.

2.  A place connected with the closing scene of Elijah's life and where Elisha wrought one of his miracles. 2 Kings 2:1; 2 Kings 4:38. The two prophets went 'down' from Gilgal to Bethel, whereas when No. 1 is referred to it is always 'going up' to the neighbourhood of Bethel, which seems to indicate that different places are alluded to. It has been identified with Jiljilia, 32 2' N, 35 13' E. (It should however be added that if the identification of Nos. 1 and 2, and that of Bethel is correct, No. 2 is not actually higher than Bethel, though being on a high hill it appears to be so, and a valley has to be crossed to reach it. The altitude of No. 2 is 2,441 feet, and that of Bethel 2,890 feet.  No. 1 is below the sea level, which makes the 'going up' from thence to Bethel very apparent.)

3.  A place whose king is called 'the king of the nations of Gilgal,' or, as in the R.V., 'the king of Goiim in Gilgal.' He was slain under Joshua. Being mentioned between Dor and Tirzah it is apparently a third Gilgal.  Joshua 12:23.  It has been identified with Jiljulieh, 32 10' N, 34 57' E.

4.  In Deut. 11:30 Moses, speaking of the mounts of Gerizim and Ebal, asks "Are they not . . . . in the land of the Canaanites, which dwell in the champaign over against Gilgal, beside the plains of Moreh?" This does not at all agree with any of the above, but has not been identified with any place in the neighbourhood of the two mountains.

Giloh. [Gi'loh]

Town in the highlands of Judah, the native place of Ahithophel. Joshua 15:51; 2 Sam. 15:12. Identified with ruins at Jala, 31 37' N, 35 4' E.

Gilonite. [Gi'lonite]

Designation of Ahithophel as a native of Giloh. 2 Sam. 15:12; 2 Sam. 23:34.

Gimzo. [Gim'zo]

City captured by the Philistines in the time of Ahaz. 2 Chr. 28:18. Identified with Jimzu, 31 56' N, 34 56' E.

Gin.

See SNARE.

Ginath. [Gi'nath]

Father of Tibni who disputed the throne of Israel with Omri. 1 Kings 16:21, 22.

Ginnetho, [Gin'netho] Ginnethon. [Gin'nethon]

Priest who sealed the covenant: he was ancestor of Meshullam. Neh. 10:6; Neh. 12:4, 16.

Girdle.

An article of dress always worn in the East, both by the rich and the poor, and needed there because of their flowing robes. For the poor they were of the plainest material, but for the rich they were more or less costly, and were highly ornamented. They were thus suitable articles for presents. 1 Sam. 18:4; 2 Sam. 18:11.  John the Baptist wore a leathern girdle, or one of skin. Matt. 3:4; Mark 1:6: cf. 2 Kings 1:8. In the Revelation the Lord has on a golden girdle, and the seven angels who come out of the temple have the same. Rev. 1:13; Rev. 15:6. The priests wore girdles, and one for Aaron was a 'linen' girdle, Lev. 16:4, and with the breastplate was the CURIOUS (i.e. embroidered) GIRDLE of the ephod, made of gold, blue, purple, scarlet, and fine-twined linen. Ex. 28:8.

The girdle is typical of strength, and 'girding up the loins' denotes active service. When the Gentiles are gathered by God to discipline Israel, the girdle of their loins shall not be loosed. Isa. 5:27. Of the Lord when He comes to reign it is said, "Righteousness shall be the girdle of his loins, and faithfulness the girdle of his reins." Isa. 11:5. In the present warfare the Christian is exhorted to have his loins 'girt about' with truth, Eph. 6:14 — the 'truth' being the very thing that Satan will most oppose, and about which the mass are liable to be indifferent.

Girdles were also used for purses, Matt. 10:9; Mark 6:8, where the word signifies a 'belt.'

Girgasites, [Gir'gasites] Girgashites.

A people established early in Canaan, the origin of whom is not known, except that they were descended from Canaan. Gen. 10:16; Gen. 15:21; Deut. 7:1; Joshua 3:10; Joshua 24:11; 1 Chr. 1:14; Neh. 9:8.

Gispa. [Gis'pa]

An overseer of the Nethinim in Ophel after the exile. Neh. 11:21.

Gittahhepher. [Git'tah-he'pher]

See GATH-HEPHER.

Gittaim. [Gitta'im]

Place to which the Beerothites fled on the death of Abner. It was inhabited on the return from exile. 2 Sam. 4:3; Neh. 11:33.

Gittites. [Git'tites]

Designation of the six hundred men as inhabitants of Gath, and of their leader Ittai, who followed David at Absalom's revolt. 2 Sam. 15:18-22; 2 Sam. 18:2. Goliath also was a Gittite. 2 Sam. 21:19; 1 Chr. 20:5.  Obed-edom, though a Levite, was also called a Gittite, probably because of residing at Gath or Gath-rimmon. 2 Sam. 6:10, 11; 1 Chr. 13:13.

Gittith. [Git'tith]

Apparently a musical instrument, the nature of which is unknown. From its name it has been supposed to have formerly been used at Gath. Others connect it with Obed-edom the Gittite. It occurs only in the headings of Ps. 8; 81; and 84.

Gizonite.

Designation of Hashem, whose sons were among David's guard: the origin of the name is not known. 1 Chr. 11:34.

Glad Tidings.

See GOSPEL.

Glass, Looking Glass.

Though glass was known to the Egyptians (the monuments showing their mode of glass blowing), it does not appear to be mentioned in the O.T.  In Isa. 3:23 the word 'glasses' (gillayon) may signify small tablets of metal to serve as mirrors, such as the women used. The LXX translates it their 'transparent garments.' In Ex. 38:8 it distinctly says that the laver was made of brass out of the women's looking glasses, showing that brazen mirrors were then used. The root of the Hebrew word marah is raah, to see. In Job 37:18 it is from the same root, where the sky is compared to a molten mirror.

The MIRROR is referred to by the word ἔσοπτρον, translated 'glass,' James 1:23, but the same word is applied to 'glass' or a dim window through, δία, which we see obscurely, as a semi-transparent substance. 1 Cor. 13:12.  In the Revelation the word is ὕαλος, and is called 'clear,' 'transparent,' and 'like crystal,' which evidently refers to glass. Rev. 4:6; Rev. 15:2; Rev. 21:18, 21. The sea of glass signifies fixed purity. Many specimens of glass have been discovered in the explorations at Jerusalem.

Gleaning.

At the harvest and the vintage gleaning was strictly forbidden to be carried out by the owners: the residue must always he left for the poor. Lev. 19:9, 10; Lev. 23:22; Ruth 2:2-23, etc. Gideon appeased the wrath of Ephraim by saying "Is not the gleaning of the grapes of Ephraim better than the vintage of Abi-ezer?"  (Gideon's family name). Judges 8:2.

Glede,

raah. One of the unclean birds. Deut. 14:13. In the parallel passage in Lev. 11:14 the word is omitted, as it is by the LXX, the Samaritan, and four Hebrew MSS. What bird is referred to is unknown.

Glory.

There are eight different words in the Hebrew translated 'glory,' but some occur only once. The principal of them are

1.  hod, 'renown, glory,' anything for which a being is admired. It is applied to God, Ps. 148:13; and to the horse. Job 39:20.

2.  tipharah, tiphereth, 'splendour beauty, glory.' It is applied to God, Isa. 60:19; to Israel, Isa. 46:13; the crown that wisdom gives, Prov. 4:9; the hoary head, Prov. 16:31, etc.

3. kabod, 'weight, honour, glory' (the word commonly used). It is frequently applied to God, as in 'the God of glory,' Ps. 29:3; to Jehovah as 'the King of glory,' Ps. 24:7-9; 'the glory of Jehovah' that appeared on Mount Sinai, and that filled the tabernacle, Ex. 24:16, 17; Ex. 40:34, 35, and will fill the future temple, Ezek. 43:2-5; also the glory pertaining to Israel, and to the Gentiles in the past and the future. 1 Sam. 4:21, 22; Isa. 66:12.

In the N.T. the word is δόξα, 'esteem, honour, excellency of mind, body,' etc. It is applied to created things, as the sun, moon, and stars, 1 Cor. 15:41; also to man as the 'glory of God.' 1 Cor. 11:7. The moral glory of the Lord Jesus Christ shone out in all His pathway on earth. John 1:14; John 11:40. He speaks of the glory He had from eternity with the Father, and His acquired glory which He will graciously share with His joint heirs. John 17:5, 22, 24. Every tongue shall confess His lordship to the glory of God the Father. Phil. 2:11. His glory will be revealed on earth, and He will be hailed 'King of kings and Lord of lords.' Matt. 25:31; 1 Peter 4:13; Rev. 17:14; Rev. 19:16. He is 'the Lord of glory.' 1 Cor. 2:8.

Glory belongs to God: He is the God of glory. Acts 7:2; 2 Cor 4:6, 15. In Him all the divine attributes shine in infinite perfection. Christians in acknowledging this, and owning that from Him come all their blessings, joyfully ascribe unto Him "Praise and honour, glory and power, for ever and ever." Rom. 11:36; Gal. 1:5; 1 Tim. 1:17; 2 Tim. 4:18, etc. The same is ascribed to the Lord Jesus by the saints, and will be by every creature. Rev. 5.

Glory is often used as expressive of the proper distinction of a person, or of a company: as the glory of the Father, Rom. 6:4; of the Word, John 1:14; of the children of God, Rom. 8:21; and even of inanimate bodies heavenly and earthly, 1 Cor. 15:40, 41. Each has its own glory, and such glory is evidently not transferable; for if it could be transferred or communicated, it would lose its specially distinctive force. But glory may be in the nature of distinction conferred, as upon a creature by a superior, and even upon the Lord Himself, viewed as in the place of Man; as on the mount of transfiguration, and at the right hand of God. 2 Peter 1:17; 1 Peter 1:21. And this is distinction in which others may in measure be permitted to share. John 17:22.

Glory may properly attach to a person even under an exterior by which it is not expressed. This was evidently the case with Christ when on earth: the flesh which He assumed in becoming Man served to veil His glory. In the same way the glory of the children of God is not yet manifest, and until it is manifest the glory is the exultation of the heart. This idea is not infrequently found in the Psalms.

And further, this thought of glory hidden brings us to the glory of God, which, in its full expression, is the effulgence or display of Himself in the accomplishment of His counsels, in hope of which Christians rejoice. These counsels hid in God constitute, as one may say, His glory; and in their result they fully display His wisdom, love, and power. Meanwhile they have come to light through Christ being at the right hand of God, and the Holy Ghost given. We have now the light of the knowledge of the glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ.

The visible manifestation of glory seems connected with light: it was so on the mount of transfiguration. Matt. 17:2. God dwells in "light which no man can approach unto." 1 Tim. 6:16. In the new Jerusalem the glory of God lightens it, "and the Lamb is the light thereof." Rev. 21:23. When the Lord Jesus was revealed to Saul at his conversion, he was blinded by 'the glory of that light,' Acts 22:11, but only that divine light might shine into his soul.

Gnat.

The word κώνωψ is supposed to refer to any species of gnat or mosquito. Matt. 23:24 should read 'strain out' in contrast to 'swallowing.'

Gnosticism.

An early system of philosophy professedly Christian. One of their theories was that the Lord was an ├ćon and not really a man. Apparently to refute this the apostle insists on Christ having come 'in flesh.' 1 John 4:2, 3;  2 John 7. The same may be alluded to in Col. 2:9, "in him dwelleth all the fulness of the Godhead bodily," in opposition to their mysticism. See GENEALOGIES.

Goad.

A long slender pole with a sharp point at one end, used for guiding and urging the oxen in ploughing. It can also be used as a formidable weapon. Shamgar slew six hundred men with an ox goad. Judges 3:31; 1 Sam. 13:21. It is applied metaphorically to the energy imparted by the words of the wise. Ecc. 12:11. The goad is alluded to in Acts 9:5; Acts 26:14, translated 'pricks:' if the ox kicked against the goad, he only hurt himself the more: as do all those who oppose God.

Goat.

The well-known animal, regarded as clean under the Levitical economy, and having a large place in the sacrifices. Goats formed an important item in the property of the patriarchs. In Daniel's prophecy of the kingdoms, that of Greece was compared to a 'rough he goat,' but with a notable horn between his eyes. Dan. 8:5, 8, 21. The goats, in the sessional judgement of the living nations, represent the lost, in contrast to the saved, who are compared to sheep. Matt. 25:32, 33. THE WILD GOATS were larger animals and lived on the mountains. 1 Sam. 24:2; Job 39:1; Ps. 104:18.

Goat, Scape.

See ATONEMENT and ATONEMENT, DAY OF.

Goath. [Go'ath]

Place mentioned as one of the boundaries to which the city of Jerusalem will extend when it is rebuilt 'to the Lord.' Jer. 31:39.  Not identified.

Gob.

Place where David had two encounters with the Philistines. 2 Sam. 21:18, 19. By comparing this passage with 1 Chr. 20:4 it appears that the same place is there called GEZER, q.v.

Goblet.

Basin, bowl: used metaphorically in Cant. 7:2.