Bible Dictionary H 2, I.

Hosah. [Ho'sah]

1.  City in the tribe of Asher. Joshua 19:29. Identified with Ezziyat el Foka or et Tahta, 33 11' N, 35 14' E.

2.  A Levite and doorkeeper in the time of David. 1 Chr. 16:38; 1 Chr. 26:10, 11, 16.

Hosanna. [Hosan'na]

This word, which is the same in the Greek, is considered to be a compound of two Hebrew words, and signifies 'save now,' as in Ps. 118:25. In the N.T. the sense appears to be 'bestow blessing.'  "Bestow blessing on the Son of David: bestow blessing [O thou who art] in the highest." Matt. 21:9; Mark 11:9, 10; John 12:13.

Hosea. [Hose'a]

Nothing is related of the ancestors of the prophet Hosea. (whose name is identical with Hoshea) except that he was the son of Beeri. He prophesied in the reigns of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, kings of Judah, and of Jeroboam king of Israel. He is especially occupied with the moral condition of the people, principally of Israel, and the judgements that would follow. Israel is treated as in rebellion from the commencement. The prophecy divides itself thus: Hosea 1- Hosea 3 give God's purposes respecting Israel; and in Hosea 4 — Hosea 14 the people are addressed: there are minor sub-divisions.

Hosea was to act a parable, by taking a 'wife of whoredoms,' which may mean that the woman that he was to take would be unfaithful to him; but grace abounds over sin. Hosea's wife was symbolical of Israel who had been unfaithful to Jehovah. He took Gomer the daughter of Diblaim, who bore him a son, who, by the Lord's direction, was called Jezreel. (a place that had witnessed the judgements of God. 2 Kings 9:30-37). The prophet's wife then bare a daughter, and her name was called Lo-ruhamah, 'not having obtained mercy:' no more mercy was to be shown to Israel. Again Gomer bare a son, and called his name Lo-ammi, 'not my people:' God would not acknowledge them as His. But a future blessing is at once announced to them, and those who had no claim to be God's people should be called 'sons of the living God.' Paul applies this to the Gentiles in Rom. 9:26, as he does in Rom. 9:25 to the Jews (where Hosea, is called OSEE).

Hosea 2.  This introduces a remnant, the 'brethren' and 'sisters' of the prophet, those acted upon by the Spirit, to whom God's message was Ammi, 'my people;' and Ruhamah, 'received in mercy.' They will plead with their mother — Israel in the mass — and tell her that she was not the wife of Jehovah. She must be dealt with in judgement, but the valley of Achor (where God's anger was turned away, Joshua 7:26) should be a door of hope. She will be able to call Jehovah Ishi, 'husband,' and not Baali, 'master.' Those that had not obtained mercy will obtain mercy; and those that had been declared 'not God's people' would be able to say, 'Thou art my God.' Cf. 1 Peter 2:10.

Hosea 3.  This deals with the past, the present, and the future. Other details are given of their unfaithfulness and rejection. They should be many days without a king, or a sacrifice, or even an idol (as is the state of Israel in the present day); but they will afterwards return, and seek Jehovah and their king, that is Christ.

Hosea 4.  This commences the appeal to their consciences. The sins of the people are pointed out. Their prophets had failed, and the people were destroyed for lack of knowledge. The priests also had failed and it became 'like people, like priest.' In Hosea 4:15 Judah is warned not to follow the evil example of Israel. In Hosea 4:17, as elsewhere, Israel is called Ephraim, that being the chief of the ten tribes.

Hosea 5.  The priests, the people, and the king are addressed. They had all sinned, and had been rebuked, but had not returned to Jehovah. Ephraim, instead of turning to Jehovah in his sickness, had sought the Assyrian — a king who could not cure them.

Hosea 6, Hosea 7.  The prophet touchingly appeals to the people to return to Jehovah: it must be in reality, and not merely in outward forms. They had, like Adam (Hosea 6:7, instead of 'men'), transgressed the covenant: cf. Rom. 5:14. The people encouraged the king and princes in their wickedness: their weakness was manifest, for strangers had devoured them. They would not turn to the Most High.

Hosea 8.  They are still threatened for their impiety. Israel had 'made many altars to sin,' and had leaned upon Assyria, an arm of flesh. Judah had trusted to her fenced cities: judgement should fall upon both.

Hosea 9.  This reveals a touching mixture of the prophet's affection for the people, and the judgements he is compelled to utter against them. Various illustrations are used to enforce his words.

Hosea 10.  Israel was an empty vine. They are reproached for their altars and the golden calves: they had sinned from the days of Gibeah. Cf. Judges 19:15-25.

Hosea 11.  Israel had been called out of Egypt, but the fulfilment of this call was verified in the history of the Lord. Matt. 2:15. For their sin they should be as Admah and Zeboim: cf. Deut. 29:23. Assyria should be the place of their captivity. Jehovah yearned over them and would not destroy them, for He is God, not man.

Hosea 12.  The prophet enters into the detail of God's moral relationship with Israel, in order that the force of their being rejected by Him may convict them of their sin. They were to study how God had dealt with Jacob. The prophet in this chapter, as also in Hosea 10:9, refers to the beginning of evil in the history of the people. Jacob's character was reproduced in his descendants.

Hosea 13.  Here again is found the conflict between the prophet's affection for the people, and the punishment God was compelled to inflict. And here again, almost as soon as the punishment is pronounced, God's thoughts of grace are uttered.

Hosea 14.  This speaks of restoration. Iniquity is acknowledged and forgiveness asked. Assyria shall no more be appealed to, nor the work of their hands be called their God. Abundant blessing is then foretold. Ephraim will say, "What have I to do any more with idols?" God's answer, "I have heard him and observed him."  Again Ephraim says, "I am like a green fir tree;" and the answer is, "From me is thy fruit found." The prophecy ends with the declaration that the wise and the prudent will grasp the things revealed; "for the ways of the Lord are right, and the just shall walk in them; but the transgressors shall fall therein."

Thus the dealings of God with Israel and Judah are dealt with in Hosea more fully perhaps than in any other of the minor prophets. The learned look upon Hosea as the most difficult of the prophets to translate, its abrupt transitions being numerous and hard to understand, because of its dealing strictly with Jewish circumstances.

Hosen.

'Coverings for the legs, trousers' ('hosen' and 'coats' have been transposed in the A.V.). Dan. 3:21.

Hoshaiah. [Hosha'iah]

1.  Leader of the princes of Judah at the dedication of the wall of Jerusalem. Neh. 12:32.

2.  Father of Jezaniah, or Azariah. Jer. 42:1; Jer. 43:2.

Hoshama. [Hosha'ma]

Son or descendant of Jeconiah or Jehoiachin. 1 Chr. 3:18.

Hoshea. [Hoshe'a]

1.  The original name of JOSHUA the son of Nun. Deut. 32:44.

2.  Son of Azaziah and a chief of the tribe of Ephraim. 1 Chr. 27:20.

3.  Son of Elah and the last king of Israel. He conspired against Pekah and slew him, and reigned in his stead, 'in the twentieth year of Jotham.' (But Jotham reigned only 16 years, and the above probably means that Pekah was slain in the twentieth year after Jotham became king.) There was then anarchy for about 9 years, thought to be noticed in Hosea 10; and Hoshea began to reign B.C. 730, the twelfth year of Ahaz, which agrees with 2 Kings 17:1. He did evil in the sight of the Lord, but was not so bad as the kings that had preceded him. He sought an alliance with the king of Egypt against the king of Assyria, who imprisoned him in bonds. Three years later Samaria was attacked, and after three years it was taken, and the people carried away; but the fate of Hoshea is not revealed. 2 Kings 15:30; 2 Kings 17:1-6; 2 Kings 18:1, 9, 10.

4.  A chief of the people who sealed the covenant. Neh. 10:23.

Hospitality.

This was a striking feature of oriental life, as seen practised by Abraham in Gen. 18:2-8, and it continues in these days to a partial extent. It is enforced in the N.T. as a duty among Christians. Rom. 12:13; 1 Tim. 3:2; Titus 1:8; 1 Peter 4:9. The fact is mentioned that by exercising hospitality "some have entertained angels unawares." Heb. 13:2.

Hosts, Lord of.

We do not meet with this name until 1 Sam. 1:3. It came in with prophetic testimony, faith laying hold of Jehovah's glory when Israel had corrupted themselves, and were in a weak and low estate. Scripture reveals that there is a mighty heavenly host, and principalities and powers in the unseen world. God is the God of them all, as well as God of all the elements of nature, which have often been used by Him to punish His enemies. "The stars in their courses fought against Sisera." Judges 5:20. We read of 'the God of hosts' only a few times comparatively; it is mostly 'Jehovah of hosts,' and at times 'Jehovah God of hosts,' showing that it is in connection with Israel that God revealed Himself under this name. Jehovah of hosts dwelt between the cherubim. From the beginning of 1 Samuel these titles constantly occur to the end of the O.T.  In Ps. 24:10 the Lord Jesus is shown to be "Jehovah of hosts: he is the king of glory:" cf. Eph. 1:20, 21; Col. 1:16. The same title occurs in the N.T. as the LORD OF SABAOTH. Rom. 9:29 (in a quotation from Isa. 1:9), and James 5:4.

Hotham. [Ho'tham]

Son of Heber, of the tribe of Asher. 1 Chr. 7:32.

Hothan. [Ho'than]

The Aroerite, father of Shama and Jehiel, two of David's mighty men. 1 Chr. 11:44.

Hothir. [Ho'thir]

Son of Heman: appointed to the service of song. 1 Chr. 25:4, 28.

Hough, To.

To lame a horse and render it useless by cutting the sinews of the hind leg, called the hamstring. Joshua 11:6, 9; 2 Sam. 8:4; 1 Chr. 18:4.

Hour.

Used with various significations in scripture: as

1.   An indefinite period, when the word 'time' gives the sense: "the hour cometh when ye shall neither in this mountain, nor yet at Jerusalem, worship the Father." John 4:21.

2.   A definite point of time, when 'moment' or 'at once' would give the sense. "The woman was made whole from that hour." Matt. 9:22.

3.   The division of the day into twelve hours, generally considered to be from sunrise to sunset. This varied in Palestine, from ten of our hours in the winter to fourteen in the summer; so that the hours in summer would be nearly half as long again as in the winter. The hours of scripture are now usually reckoned from 6 o'clock A.M. to 6 o'clock P.M., which would make the third hour our 9 o'clock; the sixth hour our 12 o'clock; the ninth hour our 3 o'clock P.M., and so on.

This would be applicable to all the definite hours mentioned in the N.T. except in the Gospel by John. This evangelist followed the plan of reckoning from midnight to midnight. This explains the difficulty found in John 19:14, which represents the trial proceeding at the sixth hour, whereas Mark 15:25 says "It was the third hour and they crucified him." A comparison of all the passages shows that the trial commenced early, and our 6 o'clock suits very well; and the crucifixion at 9 o'clock, the third hour of the Jews, agrees with Mark. The other definite times mentioned in John are in John 1:39; John 4:6, 52, 53, and the now common method of reckoning the time will agree with all of them.

House.

There are but few things mentioned in scripture that throw light upon the construction of the houses in the East. Of modern eastern houses it may be said the backs of the houses are in the street. There is a door, with perhaps a lattice over it, and one or two lattices high up, with all the rest a blank wall. A house may be watched all day, and not a soul be seen, unless some one comes to the door, though all going on in the street may be seen from the lattices. The door opens into a porch or passage, which leads into an open court, but so arranged that no one can see into the court when the door is opened. The court is large, sometimes open to the sky, in which visitors are received and business transacted: some have two courts, or even three. Often there is a fountain and trees in the court. Around the court are entrances to more private rooms, where meals are served and to chambers where the inmates repose. The 'parlour' where Samuel entertained Saul would be one of such rooms.

Stairs in the corner of the court lead to upper private rooms; and often there are stairs outside the house that lead to the roof. These enabled the sick man to be carried to the roof in Mark 2:4, when entrance could not be obtained by the door. The roof is often made of sticks, thorn bushes, mortar and earth; which often have to be rolled to consolidate the structure after rain. A hole could easily be broken through such a roof to let down the paralytic. Other roofs were more substantial, with a parapet round them for safety. On such roofs persons retired for private conversation and for prayer, 1 Sam. 9:25; Acts 10:9; and in the evening for coolness. 2 Sam. 11:2.

The Lord speaks of the disciples publishing on the housetop what He had told them privately. Matt. 10:27; Luke 12:3. This mode of proclamation may often be seen in the East when the public crier calls out from the housetop the information he has to make known.

Houses were mostly built of stone, that being plentiful and wood comparatively scarce. In Bashan there are still numbers of ancient houses, solidly built of stone, some with the ancient stone doors still on their hinges, or rather pivots, many of the houses having no inhabitant. Temporary houses and those for the poor were often built of mud, which could easily be dug through by a thief, and which left to themselves soon became a heap of rubbish. Job 4:19; Job 15:28; Job 24:16; Matt. 24:43. Cattle were often kept in some part of the house, as they are to this day, for safety. 1 Sam. 28:24.

House of God.

This is a name given to the Temple; and also to the Church. See TEMPLE and CHURCH.

Household.

Those who dwell in a house under one head, including the wife and children, and embracing servants who were usually slaves. Gen. 15:2, 3; Luke 12:42; Acts 10:7; Phil. 4:22. We read of the baptism of whole households. Acts 16:15; 1 Cor. 1:16. The Lord speaks of His disciples as His household, Matt. 10:25; and saints are called the 'household of faith,' and the 'household of God.' Gal. 6:10; Eph. 2:19.

Hukkok. [Huk'kok]

City in the boundary of Naphtali. Joshua 19:34. Identified with Yakuk, 32 53' N, 35 28' E.

Hukok. [Hu'kok]

See HELKATH.

Hul.

Son of Aram, and grandson of Shem. Gen. 10:23; 1 Chr. 1:17.

Huldah. [Hul'dah]

Wife of Shallum and a prophetess. King Josiah sent to her when a copy of the law had been found. Her message from the Lord was that God would surely bring the evils upon the people according to what the book said, because they had turned to idolatry; but Josiah having humbled himself, the Lord did not bring the evils in his day. 2 Kings 22:14; 2 Chr. 34:22.

Humtah. [Hum'tah]

City in the hill country of Judah, near to Hebron. Joshua 15:54. Not identified.

Hupham, [Hu'pham] Huphamites. [Hu'phamites]

Son of Benjamin, and his descendants. Num. 26:39: called HUPPIM in Gen. 46:21; 1 Chr. 7:12, 15.

Huppah. [Hup'pah]

Head of the thirteenth course in the service of priests. 1 Chr. 24:13.

Huppim. [Hup'pim]

See HUPHAM.

Hur.

1.  One who with Aaron supported the hands of Moses during the battle of Israel with Amalek. He was also left with Aaron in charge of the camp when Moses ascended mount Sinai. Ex. 17:10, 12; Ex. 24:14. Jewish tradition says that he was the husband of Miriam, and the same person as No. 2.

2.  Son of Caleb, the son of Hezron, and grandfather of Bezaleel. Ex. 31:2; Ex. 35:30; Ex. 38:22; 1 Chr. 2:19, 20; 1 Chr. 4:1; 2 Chr. 1:5.

3.  One of the kings or princes of Midian, slain with Balaam. Num. 31:8; Joshua 13:21.

4.  Ben-hur, or 'son of Hur,' commissariat officer of Solomon in mount Ephraim. 1 Kings 4:8.

5.  Son of Ephratah. 1 Chr. 2:50; 1 Chr. 4:4,

6.  Father of Rephaiah who returned from exile, Neh. 3:9.

Hurai. [Hu'rai]

See HIDDAI.

Huram. [Hu'ram]

1. Son of Bela, a son of Benjamin. 1 Chr. 8:5.

2, 3.  King of Tyre, and a workman of Tyre. See HIRAM.

Huri. [Hu'ri]

Son of Jaroah of the tribe of Gad. 1 Chr. 5:14.

Husband.

The words more commonly translated 'husband' are ish and ἀνήρ, both signifying 'man.' 'The man of a woman' signified her husband. Very little is said of the legal form of marriage, but the marriage tie has been held sacred from the beginning and by mankind everywhere. Eve gave the forbidden fruit to her husband. Gen. 3:6, 16. Mary had been espoused to Joseph, and he is called her husband. Matt. 1:19. The husband is the head of the wife, and as such stands in the place of responsibility and authority; he is exhorted to love his wife. It is involved in headship that he love her as his own body, and cherish her, as the Lord does the assembly. Eph. 5:23-29; Col. 3:18, 19.

Paul wrote to the Corinthians, "I have espoused you to one husband, that I may present you as a chaste virgin to Christ." 2 Cor. 11:2. In Rev. 21 the new Jerusalem is seen coming down from heaven, prepared as a bride adorned for her husband: that husband must be the Lord Jesus, for she is the bride, the Lamb's wife.

There will also be a union in a future day between Jehovah and Israel. There has been the putting away: Jehovah has said, "She is not my wife, neither am I her husband;" but there is a day coming when she will say, "I will go and return to my first husband."  Jehovah responds, "Thou shalt call me Ishi," that is 'husband;'  "and shalt call me no more Baali,"  'master.'  "I will betroth thee unto me for ever." Hosea 2:2-20. Happy unions when the Lord Jesus will be owned and loved by Israel, as their Messiah and King, and the Church be owned and manifested as the bride of Christ!

Husbandman.

A title given to Jehovah in His relationship with Israel. He had planted Israel as a vine on the earth, and He looked for fruit; but, alas, it produced only wild grapes. Isa. 5:1-7. He then planted the true Vine on the earth which in every way gave much fruit. John 15:1. In another metaphor, Jehovah let out a vineyard to Israel, and prepared it for fruit-bearing; but when He sent for the fruit, His servants were ill-treated and killed. Last of all He sent His Son, but Him they killed also. God has destroyed those husbandmen, and has let out His vineyard unto the Gentiles: Matt. 21:33-41: cf. Rom. 11:21.

Hushah. [Hu'shah]

Son of Ezer, of the tribe of Judah. 1 Chr. 4:4.

Hushai. [Hu'shai]

Friend and counsellor of David, who, by returning to Jerusalem at the revolt of Absalom, was able to frustrate the advice given by Ahithophel, and thus give David time to escape, and arrange his army for the war. He is called an Archite. 2 Sam. 15:32, 37; 2 Sam. 16:16-18; 2 Sam.17:5-15; 1 Kings 4:16; 1 Chr. 27:33.

Husham. [Hu'sham]

One 'of the land of the Temanites' who became king of Edom. Gen. 36:34, 35; 1 Chr. 1:45, 46.

Hushathite. [Hu'shathite]

Designation of Sibbechai and Mebunnai, two of David's mighty men, probably of the family of Hushah. 2 Sam. 21:18; 2 Sam. 23:27; 1 Chr. 11:29; 1 Chr. 20:4; 1 Chr. 27:11.

Hushim. [Hu'shim]

1.  Sons of Dan (as if a tribe was alluded to). Gen. 46:23. Perhaps the same as SHUHAM in Num. 26:42.

2.  Sons of Aher a Benjamite (as if a tribe was alluded to). 1 Chr. 7:12.

3.  One of the wives of Shaharaim, 1 Chr. 8:8, 11.

Husk.

In the O.T. it is the skin of grapes. Num. 6:4; see 2 Kings 4:42, margin. In the N.T. it is κεράτιον, which is the fruit, not the husk, of the carob tree. It is abundant in Syria, and the pods, containing a sweet pith-like substance, are food for cattle and pigs: it is occasionally eaten by the very poor. It is also termed 'St. John's Bread,' owing to the tradition that John the Baptist used its fruit in the desert. Quantities of the pods have been imported into England under the name of locust beans, and used as food for horses. Luke 15:16.

Huz.

Eldest son of Nahor and Milcah. Gen. 22:21. The name is really Uz, as it is given elsewhere.

Huzzab. [Huz'zab]

This seems to be a symbolical name for Nineveh. The word signifies 'established;' as in the margin. That which counts itself as established shall be carried away captive. Nahum 2:7.

Hymenaeus. [Hymenae'us]

One who had made shipwreck of faith. Paul, in his apostolic authority, had delivered him and Alexander unto Satan that they might learn not to blaspheme. He is also mentioned with Philetus, as having erred concerning the truth, saying that the resurrection had passed already (probably allegorising it), and had overthrown the faith of some. 1 Tim. 1:20; 2 Tim. 2:17.

Hymns.

These occur in this order: 'psalms, hymns, and spiritual songs.' Eph. 5:19; Col. 3:16. The word 'psalms' is the same as the Greek ψαλμοῖς; so the word 'hymns,' ὕμνοις; for 'spiritual songs' it is ᾳ.δαῖς πνευματικαῖς, spiritual odes or songs. There can be no doubt that the Psalms of David had been used by the devout of Israel as songs of praise, and some of these may have been used in the early church, such as Psalm 23, Psalm 103, etc., which in substance have found their way into nearly all modern hymnals.

But the new dispensation required new songs of praise, and some may have been written that retained the name of psalms; others were called hymns, which apply to those compositions which are addressed to the Father or the Son, or directly to God. The word used for 'songs' is employed in Rev. 5:9 for the song of the redeemed; and in Rev. 14:3 for the new song; and in Rev. 15:3 for the song of Moses, the sentiments of which are often repeated in the Psalms: cf. also Ex. 15:1-19; Deut. 32:1-44.

It will be noticed that the passages in Ephesians and Colossians do not refer to singing in the assembly, and the one in Colossians may be punctuated thus: "in all wisdom teaching and admonishing one another, in psalms and hymns, and spiritual songs, singing with grace in your hearts to the Lord." The Lord sang a hymn with His disciples at the last passover; and we may be sure that there was singing in the assemblies. The heathen Pliny bore testimony that the Christians sang 'odes to Christ as God.' Christ is twice represented as praising God, in the midst of His congregations, that is, in the assembly, and in the great congregation of Israel and those associated with them. Ps. 22:22, 25.  Among hymns generally it is easy to see that some are hymns of praise; others recount what God has done; others speak of what Christ has suffered; others refer to future blessing; and again others are really prayers.

Hyssop.

A plant used in the Jewish observances. It is often associated with cedar wood and scarlet, and was used in sprinkling the unclean. It is described as springing out of the wall showing its littleness, though some of its stems may have been long enough to be used as a reed on which the sponge was placed to give the Lord vinegar when on the cross. Others however suppose that the hyssop was added because of its aroma, and both the sponge and the hyssop were tied to a reed. The hyssop is in contrast to the stately cedar, and is symbolical of man's littleness. The words ezob and ὕσσωπος doubtless point to the well-known hyssop which is extensive in Palestine, though some suppose other aromatic plants are included, as the wild marjoram. Ex. 12:22; Lev. 14:4, 6, 51, 52; Num. 19:6, 18; 1 Kings 4:33; Ps. 51:7; John 19:29; Heb. 9:19.

I am that I am.

See GOD.

Ibhar. [Ib'har]

Son of David, born at Jerusalem. 2 Sam. 5:15:1 Chr. 3:6; 1 Chr. 14:5.

Ibleam. [Ib'leam]

City assigned to Manasseh, but situate in Issachar or Asher. Joshua 17:11; Judges 1:27; 2 Kings 9:27.  Identified by some with Yebla, in Issachar, 32 35' N, 35 28' E.  See BILEAM.

Ibneiah. [Ib'neiah]

Son of Jeroham, a Benjamite. 1 Chr. 9:8.

Ibnijah. [Ibni'jah]

Father of Reuel, a Benjamite. 1 Chr. 9:8.

Ibri. [Ib'ri]

Descendant of Merari. 1 Chr. 24:27.

Ibzan. [Ib'zan]

A man of Bethlehem, perhaps the city in Zebulon, and if so, he was judge of Israel in the N.E. of the land. He ruled seven years, and had thirty sons and thirty daughters. He was succeeded by Elon a Zebulonite. Judges 12:8, 10, 11.

Ice.

Frozen water or snow. God demanded of Job, "Out of whose womb came the ice? and the hoary frost of heaven, who hath gendered it?" It is answered in the Psalms: it is God who "casteth forth his ice like morsels: who can stand before his cold?" Job 6:16; Job 38:29; Ps. 147:17.

Ichabod.  [I-cha'bod]

The name which the wife of Phinehas gave to her son, because the ark of God had been taken by the Philistines, and her father-in-law and her husband were dead. After naming her child she died also: 'the glory had departed,' as the name signifies. 1 Sam. 4:21; 1 Sam. 14:3.

Iconium. [Ico'nium]

City in Lycaonia in the centre of Asia Minor, visited by Paul and Barnabas when they had been driven from Antioch of Pisidia. Multitudes of Jews and Greeks believed the word of God's grace, and the apostles wrought many signs and wonders there. They had to flee for their lives but returned again. Acts 13:51; Acts 14:1, 19, 21; Acts 16:2. In 2 Tim. 3:11 Paul speaks of the persecutions he had endured at this city. It is now called Konieh, a town of some extent, 37 53' N, 32 25' E.

Idalah. [Id'alah]

City of Zebulun. Joshua 19:15. Identified by some with el Huwarah, 32 44' N, 35 10' E.

Idbash. [Id'bash]

One 'of the father of Etam,' a descendant of Judah. 1 Chr. 4:3.

Iddo. [Id'do]

1.  Father of Ahinadab one of Solomon's commissariat officers. 1 Kings 4:14.

2.  Son of Joah, a descendant of Gershom. 1 Chr. 6:21.

3.  Son of Zechariah and a ruler of Manasseh in Gilead. 1 Chr. 27:21.

4.  A seer who had 'visions' against Jeroboam. He wrote of Rehoboam in a book 'concerning genealogies;' and also of Abijah in his 'story' or 'commentary.' 2 Chr. 9:29; 2 Chr. 12:15; 2 Chr. 13:22.

5.  Grandfather of Zechariah the prophet. Ezra 5:1; Ezra 6:14; Zech. 1:1, 7.

6.  Chief at Casiphia, to whom Ezra sent for Levites. Ezra 8:17.

7.  Priest who returned from exile. Neh. 12:4, 16.

Idolatry.

The worship of idols — a sin which is mentioned as committed after the flood. There seems to have been a universal giving up of the knowledge of the true God. Paul, speaking of men, says that when they knew God, they glorified Him not as God, they did not like to retain God in their knowledge, notwithstanding that what may be known of God in nature, His eternal power and Godhead, was manifested to them. They degraded the worship of the true God everywhere, and idolatry became universal. In this, man had no excuse. Images were made like corruptible man, and birds, and four-footed beasts, and creeping things. Rom. 1:20-23. From this state Abram was rescued by the God of glory appearing to him. Scripture shows the folly of a man cutting down a tree, and burning part of it to cook his food and to warm himself, and yet making a god of the rest, and worshipping it, Isa. 44:14-17; and yet Israel, to whom God had revealed Himself, not only as Creator but in redemption, adopted these wicked follies. There were also molten images and images of stone.

Imaginary creatures were regarded as gods, and these were feared and propitiated. Some believed in a fetish of good and a fetish of evil. Others had an elaborate system of mythology, as the Greeks, with husbands and wives and sons and daughters of the gods and goddesses. Man himself was exalted by some into a god, as with the Greeks and the Romans.

In Israel at first there might have been the thought that the idol was only a representative of God, just as the Egyptians professed to have representations of their unseen gods. When the golden calf was made Aaron built an altar before it, and said, "To-morrow is a feast to Jehovah;" but the people said, "These be thy gods, O Israel, which brought thee up out of the land of Egypt." Ex. 32:4, 5. Yet they had been commanded to make no graven image, because they saw no similitude when God spake to them at Horeb. This species of idolatry is seen further developed in the case of Micah, who had a house of gods. See MICAH.

The secret of all the abominations in idolatry is, that Satan is the grand mover of it. To Israel it was said that they were no more to offer sacrifices unto demons. Lev. 17:7. They "sacrificed their sons and their daughters unto demons." Ps. 106:37. They made their children pass through the fire to Molech, 2 Kings 23:10; Ezek. 23:37, 39; "slaying the children in the valleys under the clefts of the rocks." Isa. 57:5.

As to the sacrificing being to demons, the same thing is said of the idolatry at Corinth, with its Grecian mythology. 1 Cor. 10:20. Satan being the real promoter of it all, he knows how to lead a poor unintelligent heathen to be satisfied with an imaginary fetish; the Greeks and Romans to be pleased with their stately statues; and the Brahmins and Hindus to pride themselves in their superior and refined mysticism. Satan has also succeeded in introducing into the professing church the worship of the Virgin Mary and of the saints. To this must be added another species of idolatry to which Christians are sometimes enticed, namely, that of letting anything but Christ have the first place in the heart; for in Him God is revealed, He "is the image of the invisible God" — "He is the true God." "Little children, keep yourselves from idols." 1 John 5:21. The word εἴδωλον is from εἶδος, 'that which is seen,' and covetousness is specially characterised as idolatry. Col. 3:5.

Idumaea. [Idumae'a]

See EDOM.

Igal. [I'gal]

1.  Son of Joseph, of the tribe of Issachar. Num. 13:7.

2.  Son of Nathan of Zobah and one of David's mighty men. 2 Sam. 23:36.

Igdaliah. [Igdal'iah]

Father of Hanan, 'a man of God.' Jer. 35:4.

Igeal. [I'geal]

Son of Shemaiah, a descendant of David. 1 Chr. 3:22.

Iim. [I'im]

1. contraction of Ije-Abarim, q.v.

2.  City in the extreme south of Judah.  Joshua 15:29. Not identified.

Ijeabarim. [Ije-aba'rim]

One of the later halting places of the Israelites on the S.E. border of Moab, translated in the margin 'Heaps of Abarim.' Num. 21:11; Num. 33:44. Contracted into Iim in Num. 33:45. Not identified.

Ijon. [I'jon]

Town in Naphtali. 1 Kings 15:20; 2 Kings 15:29; 2 Chr. 16:4. Identified by some with el Khiam, 33 19' N, 35 36' E.

Ikkesh. [Ik'kesh]

The Tekoite, father of Ira. 2 Sam. 23:26; 1 Chr. 11:28; 1 Chr. 27:9.

Ilai. [I'lai]

The Ahohite, one of David's guard. 1 Chr. 11:29. Apparently the same as ZALMON in 2 Sam. 23:28.

Illuminated.

'Enlightened,' by receiving light from God. Heb. 10:32.

Illyricum. [Illyr'icum]

An extensive region on the east coast of the Adriatic, to which the preaching of Paul extended. Rom. 15:19. It is now nearly all embraced under the name of Dalmatia.

Image.

Besides the many references to graven and molten images connected with idolatry, which the law strictly forbade the Israelites to make, the word is used in several important connections: for instance, God said, "Let us make man in our image, after our likeness: and let them have dominion . . . . so God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him." Gen. 1:26, 27; Gen. 5:1; Gen. 9:6. The word translated 'image' is tselem, which is the same that is used for idolatrous images, and for the great image in Daniel 2.

It might naturally have been thought that man at his fall would have ceased to be in the image and likeness of God, but it is not so represented in scripture. On speaking of man as the head of the woman, it says he ought not to cover his head, forasmuch as "he is the image and glory of God." 1 Cor. 11:7. Again, in James 3:9, we find "made after the similitude (or likeness, ὁμοίωσις) of God." In what respects man is the image and likeness of God may not be fully grasped, but it is at least obvious that an image is a representation. The Lord when shown a penny asked 'whose image' is this? They said, Caesar's. It may not have been well executed, and so not have been a likeness. It may also have been very much battered, as money often is, yet that would not have interfered with its being the image of Caesar: it represented him, and no one else. So man as the head of created beings in connection with the earth represents God: to him was given dominion over every living thing that moveth upon the earth and in the sea and in the air. This was of course in subjection to God, and so man was in His image.

This is seen in perfection in the second Man, who has in resurrection superseded Adam, who was in this sense a figure or type of Christ. Rom. 5:14. Man may be a battered and soiled image of his Creator, but that does not touch the question of his having been made in the image of God.

Likeness goes further; but was there not in man a certain moral and mental likeness to God? He not only represents God on earth, but, as one has said, he thinks for others, refers to and delights in what God has wrought in creation, and in what is good, having his moral place among those who do. The likeness, alas, may be very much blurred; but the features are there: such as reflection, delight, love of goodness and beauty; none of which are found in a mere animal. With Christ all is of course perfect: as man He is "the image of God;" "the image of the invisible God." 2 Cor. 4:4; Col. 1:15.

Imla, [Im'la] Imlah. [Im'lah]

Father of Micaiah, the prophet. 1 Kings 22:8, 9; 2 Chr. 18:7, 8.

Immanuel, [Imman'uel] Emmanuel. [Emman'uel]

Names of the Messiah prophetically announced, meaning "God with us." The introduction of this name is remarkable. Ahaz king of Judah, being attacked by Rezin king of Syria, and Pekah king of Israel — and there being also a disposition to form a confederacy to set up the son of Tabeal, and so reject the son of David, which Ahaz was — Isaiah was sent to tell him to be quiet and fear not. Jehovah then told Ahaz to ask for a sign, either in the deep or in the height above; but Ahaz refused to ask; therefore the Lord gave him this sign, "Behold, the virgin shall conceive, and bear a son, and shall call his name Immanuel. Butter and honey shall he eat, that he may know to refuse the evil, and choose the good." Isa. 7:14, 15.

It has been asked, How could this be a sign to Ahaz, seeing that this event did not take place till centuries after? The prophetic announcement of the birth of such a child was the present evidence to faith that whatever combinations men might make, the remnant could count on God: see Isa. 8:9, 10, where they say, "God is with us." It should be noticed that there are two prophetic children: the one (Shear-jashub) figurative of the remnant, and Immanuel; so the prophecy continues, "For before the child shall know to refuse the evil, and choose the good, the land whose two kings thou fearest shall be forsaken" (as Isa. 7:16 should be translated). In Isa. 7:3 of this chapter Isaiah had been told, when he went to meet Ahaz, to take his symbolical child Shear-jashub ('the remnant shall return') with him. And doubtless Isa. 7:16 refers to Shearjashub; and before this child could have grown to maturity, Pekah had been killed by Hoshea, and Damascus had been taken and Rezin slain by the king of Assyria. 2 Kings 15:30; 2 Kings 16:9.

It may seem strange that there should be no break between Isa. 7:15 and Isa. 7:16, as the one verse refers to Immanuel, and the other to Shearjashub; but such abrupt transitions are not unusual in prophetic scriptures. When the Lord was in the temple, and speaking of His Father's house, He was asked for a sign, He said, "Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up," referring to His body. And in the prophecies the future is often closely associated with what related to passing events. In Isa. 8:8 it is foretold that the wing of the king of Assyria should fill the breadth of the land — the land of Immanuel — which took place soon after, yet this is a type of the Assyrian's attacks in the last days.

In the N.T. we get the fulfilment of the above prophecy: Mary the virgin conceived and brought forth her Son. His name was Jesus, and also Emmanuel, 'God with us,' showing that He was God, and became man. Matt. 1:23.

Immer. [Im'mer]

1.  A family of priests who bore this name. One had charge of the sixteenth course of priestly service, and some returned from exile, two of whom had married strange wives; but there is no genealogy of their descent from Aaron. 1 Chr. 9:12; 1 Chr. 24:14; Ezra 2:37; Ezra 10:20; Neh. 7:40; Neh. 11:13; Jer. 20:1.

2. Father of Zadok who repaired the wall of Jerusalem. Neh. 3:29.

3.  Place from which some returned from exile. Ezra, 2:59; Neh. 7:61.

Immortality,

ἀθανασία.  The deathless state which stands in contrast to the mortality of man, and which the 'mortal' will 'put on' when 'changed.' 1 Cor. 15:53, 54. God only has in Himself immortality, being the fountain and source of life for all things. 1 Tim. 6:16.In Rom. 2:7 and 2 Tim. 1:10 the word is ἀφθαρσία, not 'immortality,' but 'incorruption.'

The immortality of the soul is plainly revealed in scripture. God breathed into Adam's nostrils the breath of life, and he became a living soul (Gen. 2:7), which is quite different from anything said of a mere animal. The Lord, when showing the Sadducees that God is not the God of the dead, but of the living, added "for all live unto [or 'for'] him (Luke 20:38), though as to the body they may have died.

Immutability.

Three things are said to be unchangeable: God's counsel, His word, and His oath. Heb. 6:17, 18. To these certainty may be attached. In Mal. 3:6 we read, "I am Jehovah, I change not," and the Lord is "the same yesterday, and to-day, and for ever." Heb. 13:8.

Imna.  [Im'na]

Son of Helem, of the tribe of Asher. 1 Chr. 7:35.

Im'nah.

1.  The firstborn of Asher. 1 Chr. 7:30. Called in the A.V. JIMNAH in Gen. 46:17, and JIMNA in Num. 26:41, though the Hebrew is the same in the three passages.

2.  Levite, father of Kore. 2 Chr. 31:14.

Impute, To,

λογίζομαι. Imputation has an important place in God's plan of salvation. "Blessed is the man unto whom the Lord imputeth not iniquity." Ps. 32:2; Rom. 4:8. The sins of the man believing on Jesus are not imputed to him: Christ has atoned for them; the believer may come under discipline for them (cf. 1 Cor. 11:31, 32); Heb. 12:7, but there is no imputation. On the contrary, he enters into the blessedness of the man to whom God imputes, or reckons, righteousness without works. Abraham believed God and it was reckoned (same word) to him as righteousness; and this is true of believers generally. Rom. 4:3, 4. Therefore not only are the believer's sins not imputed to him; but he is accounted righteous.

In 2 Cor. 5:19 the aspect in which Christ came to earth was that of grace. God was in Christ reconciling the world to Himself, and not imputing to men their offences; but, alas, they refused the grace, and put Him to death. In Rom. 5:13 the word is ἐλλογέω, "sin is not put to account when there is no law." It is sin, and those that sin without law perish without law; but they are not at once called to account for it in God's government: cf. Acts 17:30.

Imrah. [Im'rah]

Son of Zophah, of the tribe of Asher. 1 Chr. 7:36.

Imri. [Im'ri]

1.  Son of Bani, of the tribe of Judah. 1 Chr. 9:4.

2.  Father of Zaccur who helped to build the wall of Jerusalem. Neh. 3:2.

Incense.

Precise instructions were given as to how the sweet incense was to be made that was burnt in the tabernacle. It was a compound of sweet spices: stacte, onycha, galbanum, and pure frankincense, an equal weight of each. It was to be compounded after the art of the apothecary, tempered together (or salted, marg.), pure, and holy. No one was to make any like it for their private use: anyone who did so was to be cut off from God's people. Ex. 30:34-38. This incense was to be burnt on the golden altar morning and evening: "a perpetual incense before the Lord." Ex. 30:7, 8. It expressed the fragrance of the perfections of Christ's person for God's delight. It also characterised the worship of the priestly company of those in the light, as Christians are.

The incense was also to be put on burning coals in a censer and carried by the high priest into the most holy place on the Day of Atonement, that the cloud of incense might cover the mercy seat that was upon the testimony, 'that he die not.' It typified the personal perfection of Him who carried in the blood of atonement. Lev. 16:12, 13. We find that while the high places remained, incense was burnt there as well as sacrifices offered. 1 Kings 22:43, etc. The burning of incense to Baal and other false gods is also often spoken of. Jer. 1:16; Jer. 7:9, etc. Satan has his incense and perfume, and makes it a delight to his willing devotees.

Incense, Altar of.

See ALTAR.

Incorruption,

ἀφθαρσία. The state which the bodies of the dead in Christ (now going to corruption in their graves) will have at the resurrection. When this takes place, and the mortal shall have put on immortality, death will be swallowed up in victory! 1 Cor. 15:42-54. In Rom. 2:7, and 2 Tim. 1:10 the word is the same as the above, and should be translated 'incorruption' instead of 'immortality.'

India. [In'dia]

This was the boundary of the Persian empire of Ahasuerus on the east, as Ethiopia was its boundary on the west. Esther 1:1; Esther 8:9. India is not mentioned elsewhere in scripture, but Solomon's ships may have visited it in their three-year voyages for sandal wood, apes, peacocks, etc. 1 Kings 10:22.

Infidel.

The Greek word is ἄπιστος, 'not believing,' and hence an 'unbeliever.' 2 Cor. 6:15; 1 Tim. 5:8. The word is translated 'unbeliever' in Luke 12:46; 1 Cor. 6:6; 1 Cor. 14:23; 2 Cor. 6:14; and 'unbelieving' in 1 Cor. 7:14, 15; Titus 1:15; Rev. 21:8. Thus the scriptural use of the term does not imply the denial of the truth of Christianity, as it is now commonly understood.

Infinite.

1.  en mispar, 'no number:' only applied to the understanding of the Lord. Ps. 147:5.

2.  en qets, 'no end.' Eliphaz, quite unintelligent as to Job's case, said there was 'no end' of his iniquities. Job 22:5. There was 'no end' to the strength of Ethiopia and Egypt in supporting the city No; yet it was carried away: so would God's judgements fall upon Nineveh. Nahum 3:8, 9.

Inhabiters of the earth.

A designation of those mentioned in the Revelation, who, notwithstanding the successive judgements that fall upon them, cling to the earth as settlers there, and against whom 'woe, woe, woe' is pronounced. Rev. 8:13; Rev. 17:2. During Christ's rejection from the earth God's call has been to heaven, hence to have the character of dwelling on earth is a denial of the heavenly calling. In Rev. 12:12 the Editors omit the words 'inhabiters of.'

Inheritance.

The land of promise is constantly spoken of as the inheritance of Israel: the land flowing with milk and honey was given to them by God. Deut. 4:21; Ps. 105:11, etc. So when Israel returns to take possession of the land in a future day, it is still called their inheritance. Ezek. 45:1, etc. This all shows that they were and will be an earthly people, but God blessed them on earth in relationship with Himself as Jehovah, and will again bless them on earth when they own the Lord Jesus as their Messiah. In connection with this God calls Israel His inheritance: He hath chosen them for His own inheritance. Ps. 33:12; Ps. 78:62, etc.

The Christian has no inheritance on earth; his inheritance is with the saints in light, Col. 1:12; an inheritance incorruptible, and undefiled, and that fadeth not away, reserved in heaven.

1 Peter 1:4. In the meanwhile the Holy Spirit is given as the earnest of the inheritance. Eph. 1:14. It is in Christ Himself the inheritance is obtained, for the Lord Jesus will possess all things in heaven and in earth. Eph. 1:18.

Ink, Inkhorn.

We know from the papyrus rolls discovered in Egypt that writing with pen, or reed, and ink was practised in early days. Jeremiah caused Baruch to write in a book with ink the denunciations against Israel and Judah. Jer. 36:18. The horn that contained the ink was carried in the girdle, as it is in some parts of the East to this day. Ezek. 9:2, 3, 11.

Inn.

We read of the inn as early as Gen. 42:27; Gen. 43:21, when Jacob sent to Egypt for corn. As the word malon signifies simply 'lodging place,' at first nothing more may be implied than a place near water, where travellers usually rested. It would soon have been found that persons travelling long distances needed protection and some better resting place at night, which led to such places being provided at certain stations. Those known in the East were merely enclosures walled round for security, with covered compartments attached to the walls, where travellers could recline, and place their goods. It was at an inn that Zipporah circumcised her son. Ex. 4:24.

In the N.T. when the Lord was born, the word for 'inn' is κατάλυμα, which is translated 'guest-chamber' in Mark 14:14; Luke 22:11; and may refer to a lodging house. Travellers have found such accommodation, and at times cattle occupied part of the house, which might account for a 'manger' being found there. In Luke 10:34 the word is πανδοχεῖον, 'a house for the reception of strangers,' a road-side inn. As there was a 'host' to whom the injured man was committed, it was doubtless a better place than a Khan.

Innocent.

A word often used in the O.T. in opposition to those manifesting wickedness. It occurs only twice in the N.T.: as uttered by Judas in reference to the Lord, to whom it could be truthfully applied as 'guiltless;' and by Pilate in reference to himself. Matt. 27:4, 24. It was the true state of Adam and Eve before they fell. See HOLINESS.

Inspiration.

Though this word occurs in the Bible but once in reference to the scriptures, yet the one statement in which it is found is important and full of deep meaning: "Every scripture is divinely inspired [literally, 'God-breathed'], and is profitable for teaching, for conviction, for correction, for instruction in righteousness; that the man of God may be complete, fully fitted to every good work." 2 Tim. 3:16, 17. This places all scripture on one basis as to inspiration, whether it be historical, doctrinal, or prophetic. We learn by this passage that not simply the persons who wrote were inspired, but the writings themselves are divinely inspired. Cf. 2 Peter 1:21.

All writings are composed of words, and if these writings are inspired, the words are inspired. This is what is commonly called 'verbal inspiration.' Other passages speak of the importance of 'words:' Peter said, "To whom shall we go? thou hast the words (ῥήματα) of eternal life," John 6:68: and we find those words in the Gospels. When it was a question of Gentiles being brought into blessing without being circumcised, James in his address appealed to the 'words' of the prophets. Acts 15:15. Paul in writing to the Corinthian saints said, "Which things also we speak, not in the 'words' (λόγοι) which man's wisdom teacheth, but which the Holy Ghost teacheth." 1 Cor. 2:13. The Holy Spirit taught Paul what words to use. The whole of scripture forms the word of God, and both in the O.T. and in the N.T. we read of  'the words of God.' 1 Chr. 25:5; Ezra 9:4; Ps. 107:11; John 3:34; John 8:47; Rev. 17:17.  Neither must His word be added to, or taken from. Deut. 4:2; Deut. 12:32; Rev. 22:18, 19.

The above passages should carry conviction to simple souls that every scripture is God-inspired. As nothing less than this is worthy of God, so nothing less than this would meet the need of man. Amid the many uncertain things around him he needs words upon which his faith can be based, and in the inspired scriptures he has them. The Lord Jesus said, "The words (ῥήματα) that I speak unto you, they are spirit and they are life." John 6:63. He had the words of eternal life; and, through the grace of God, many a soul has found them to be such, and has no more doubt of the plenary inspiration of scripture than of the existence of God Himself.

It may be noted that scripture records the sayings of wicked men, and of Satan himself. It need scarcely be said that it is not the sayings but the records of them that are inspired. Paul also, when writing on the question of marriage, makes a distinction between what he wrote as his judgement, and what he wrote as commandments of the Lord. "I speak this by permission," he says; and again, "I give my judgement." 1 Cor. 7:6, 10, 12, 25. He was inspired to record his spiritual judgement and to point out that it was not a command.

Some have a difficulty as to what has been called the human element in inspiration. If the words of scripture are inspired, it has been asked, how is it that the style of the writer is so manifest? John's style, for instance, being clearly distinguishable from that of Paul. The simple answer is that it is as if one used, so to speak, different kinds of pens to write with. God made the mind of man as well as his body, and was surely able to use the mind of each of the writers He employed, and yet cause him to write exactly what He wished. God took possession of the mind of man to declare His own purposes with regard to man.

Further, it has been asserted that the doctrine of verbal inspiration is valueless, because of diversities in the Greek manuscripts, which in some places prevent any one from determining what are the words God caused to be written. But this does not in any way touch the question of inspiration, which is, that the words written were inspired by God. Whether we have a correct copy is quite another question. The variations in the Greek manuscripts do not affect any one of the fundamental doctrines of Christianity, and only in a few places are the words doubtful.

Another objection to the value of verbal inspiration is that most persons read scripture in a translation, the words of which cannot, it is alleged, be said to be inspired. But if the translation conveys exactly the same meaning as in the original, the words can be said to be inspired: for instance, the words 'God is love,' may surely be said to be the same as ὁ θεὸς ἀγάπη ἐστίν, or Deus caritas est, Dieu est amour, or Dio è carità, to those who can read them. It may be that the translations from which the above are taken cannot in all places be said to be the same as the Greek; but this only shows the great importance of each having a correct translation in his vernacular tongue. And it must not be forgotten that the Lord Himself and those who wrote the New Testament often quoted the Septuagint, which is a translation from the Hebrew; and they quoted it as scripture.

Nothing can exceed the importance of having true thoughts of the inspiration of scripture. As no human author would allow his amanuensis to write what he did not mean, so surely what is called the word of God is God's own production, though given through the instrumentality of man. Though there were many writers, separated by thousands of years, there is a divine unity in the whole, showing plainly that one and only one could have been its Author. That One can only have been the Almighty — Jehovah — now happily revealed to the Christian as his Father as well as his God.

Instant, Instantly.

'Urgent,' with importunity. Luke 7:4; Luke 23:23; Acts 26:7; Rom. 12:12; 2 Tim. 4:2.

Intercession.

The word is from ἐντυγχάνω, which signifies 'to meet with, to intercede.' It refers to the intercession of Christ for His saints, while in their present state, to bring them into conformity with the place justifying forgiveness has given them, also to raise them above their trials, and lead them on as priests into the blessed joys and occupations of the sanctuary. Rom. 8:34; Heb. 7:25. The Holy Spirit also, when they know not what to pray for as they ought, makes intercession for the saints with groanings which cannot be uttered. Rom. 8:26, 27. In 1 Tim. 2:1 we are instructed to make intercession for all men. It is remarkable that a substantive (ἔντευξις) formed from the above verb is used in 1 Tim. 4:5, where food is sanctified by the word of God and 'prayer,' or, as it there means, reverent intercourse with Him.

Inventions.

God made man upright; but they have sought out many inventions (Ecc. 7:29) or devices: the same word is translated 'engines' in 2 Chr. 26:15. Cain went out from the presence of God and built a city, and his descendants made harps and organs. Men made themselves as happy as they could without God, as in the days of Uzziah. Amos 6:5. In Ps. 99:8; Ps. 106:29, 39, the word signifies 'doings.'

In natural things inventions have much increased since early days. There is no harm in the things themselves; but if they foster the pride of man, and divert him from God, they become the instruments of Satan. Many things also are found in Christendom of which there is not the least mention in scripture. WITTY INVENTIONS in Prov. 8:12 is the same word as that translated 'discretion' in Prov. 1:4; Prov. 2:11, etc. Fürst gives for Prov. 8:12, 'knowledge of intelligent counsels.'

Iphedeiah. [Iphedei'ah]

Son of Shashak, a Benjamite. 1 Chr. 8:25.

Ir.

Apparently a son of Aher, a Benjamite. 1 Chr. 7:12.

Ira. [I'ra]

1.  A Jairite, one of David's chief officers. 2 Sam. 20:26.

2.  Son of Ikkesh a Tekoite, and one of David's mighty men. 2 Sam. 23:26; 1 Chr. 11:28; 1 Chr. 27:9.

3.  An Ithrite, one of David's mighty men. 2 Sam. 23:38. 1 Chr. 11:40.

Irad. [I'rad]

Son of Enoch and grandson of Cain. Gen. 4:18.

Iram. [I'ram]

Duke of Edom. Gen. 36:43; 1 Chr. 1:54.

Iri. [I'ri]

Son of Bela, a son of Benjamin. 1 Chr. 7:7.

Irijah. [Iri'jah]

'Captain of the ward' at Jerusalem who arrested Jeremiah. Jer. 37:13, 14.

Irnahash.  [Ir-na'hash]

Son of Tehinnah, 1 Chr. 4:12; or, as intimated in the margin, "Tehinnah, founder of the city of Nahash."

Iron. [I'ron]

City of Naphtali. Joshua 19:38. Identified with Yarun, 33 5' N, 35 25' E.

Iron.

This metal is mentioned as early as Gen. 4:22, when it was used by artificers; and Job speaks of it as dug out of the earth. Job 28:2. It was in use in Palestine before the Israelites entered, for they found that the Canaanites had chariots of iron. Joshua 17:16, 18. Og king of Bashan had a bedstead of iron, and iron was used for spear heads, threshing instruments, and other such purposes. Iron is used as a symbol of hardness. Israel is described as obstinate; their neck was like an iron sinew and their brow as brass. Isa. 48:4. The Lord Jesus will rule the nations with a rod of iron. Rev. 12:5; Rev. 19:15. Iron also characterised the kingdom of Rome. When represented as a beast, it had great iron teeth. Dan. 7:7, 19; and in the great image the character of the various kingdoms had depreciated from gold to silver, then to brass, thence to iron and clay, that would not unite, the traces of which are seen around us in the national governments of the present day. Dan. 2:33-45.

Irpeel. [Ir'peel]

City of Benjamin. Joshua 18:27. Identified with Ra-fat, 31 52' N, 35 11' E.

Irshemesh.  [Ir-she'mesh]

Border city of Dan. Joshua 19:41. Probably the same as BETH-SHEMESH, No. 1.

Iru. [I'ru]

Son of Caleb, the son of Jephunneh. 1 Chr. 4:15.

Isaac. [I'saac]

As Isaac was the patriarch that stood between Abraham and Jacob, it may seem remarkable that so little is recorded of him, especially as the promise given to Abraham, of all nations being blessed through his seed, was confirmed to Isaac. He was 'the son of promise,' born when Abraham was a hundred years old, and 'the son of the freewoman,' in contrast to 'the son of the bondwoman.' He became the heir, the son of the bondwoman being cast out. Gal. 4:22-30. Abraham's faith was tried when told to offer up this son of promise, called his 'only son,' as being a type of Christ. Abraham obeyed, and Isaac heard that beautiful utterance of faith, "My son, God will provide himself a lamb." He was raised as from the dead and restored to his father, and the covenant was confirmed as to the seed.

As Isaac thus became in principle a risen or heavenly man, he must not return for a wife to the country from whence he had been separated by death and resurrection, as also by the call of Abraham; a bride must be fetched for him from thence, and she must be one of the same 'kindred:' a remarkable type of the heavenly Christ, and of those given to Him of the Father: they are heavenly as He is heavenly. God in a remarkable way blessed the mission of the servant (type of the Holy Spirit gathering a bride for Christ), and Rebekah, Isaac's cousin, became his wife. He loved her and was comforted after his mother's death. Abraham had several sons; but he gave all that he had to Isaac, in which Isaac is again a type of Christ, who will possess all things.

Rebekah was barren, but on Isaac beseeching the Lord, she conceived, and was told that she should be the mother of two nations, and the twin brothers Esau and Jacob were born, Esau being the firstborn. A famine being in the land, Isaac removed to Gerar, and there faithlessly said that Rebekah was his sister, and was rebuked by the king of the Philistines. God confirmed the blessing promised to Abraham, both as to Isaac's seed possessing all those countries, and also as to all the nations of the earth being blessed in his seed.

After the Philistines had had much contention with Isaac respecting some wells of water which they claimed, they bade him depart from them, for he had become too great to dwell so near. He submitted and removed to Beer-sheba. He was thus again in the truth of his calling within the limits of the land of promise: there the Lord again appeared to him, and told him not to fear, He would bless him for his father Abraham's sake. Now the Philistines come to him, admitting that they saw that Jehovah was blessing him, and they desired a covenant with him that he would do them no hurt. Thus was he now in the true place of moral superiority, in the place of his calling, and as such having no disputes with the nations, but acknowledged as the blessed of the Lord — a word surely for world-borderers of to-day.

God does not hide the failings and weaknesses of His people, hence it is related how that Isaac loved Esau because he ate of his venison; and that when he was old he directed him to make savoury meat such as he loved, that he might eat and bless him, his eldest son, before he died. God had said that the elder should serve the younger, but Rebekah, instead of leaving the matter in God's hands, contrived by a deceitful stratagem to get the blessing for Jacob instead of Esau the firstborn. The deception was soon found out; but how was it that Isaac intended to bless the elder, thus disregarding the word of the Lord? It is to be feared that his love of the venison and savoury meat led him astray. Notwithstanding this failure we read in Heb. 11:20, "By faith Isaac blessed Jacob and Esau concerning things to come." This doubtless refers to Isaac's words when the deception was discovered. He said of Jacob "Yea, and he shall be blessed." Gen. 27:33.

The days of Isaac were 180 years: when he died his sons Esau and Jacob buried him. God is constantly referred to as the God of Abraham, of Isaac, and of Jacob: it was through them the blessings to Israel flowed, and through them came the Seed — Christ — in whom all nations of the earth are being blessed. Gen. 21 — Gen. 35.

Isaiah, Book of.

Nothing more is known of the ancestors of Isaiah than that he was the son of Amoz. He prophesied in the days of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, all kings of Judah. From the closing years of Uzziah to the death of Hezekiah would be from about B.C. 765 to 700, embracing a period of 65 years. The first verse says that the vision was concerning Judah and Jerusalem. Had due attention been paid to this, it would have prevented many things being ascribed in the headings of the chapters to the church, and the prophecy would have been the better understood. In few words the prophecy may be said to treat of the failures of the nation of Judah and the judgements upon it. Assyria is used as God's rod to punish them, and is then destroyed. Judgements are pronounced against the nations around the promised land that had been enemies to God's people. The Messiah is prophesied of and His rejection, and universal blessing is spoken of.

The following seven divisions are distinctly marked:

Isa. 1 — Isa. 12:  The sinful condition of the people as still in possession of the land; various pleadings and chastisements culminating in the Assyrian; the introduction of Immanuel; ends with a song.
Isa. 13 — Isa. 27:  Judgements on Babylon and the nations where Israel was captive and outcast; ends in deliverance from their outcast condition and worship at Jerusalem.
Isa. 28 — Isa. 35:  Five woes on unfaithful Israel; ends with deliverance from the Assyrian and the confederacy of nations, and the joy of the kingdom.
Isa. 36 — Isa. 39:  Historical, but typical; the way of blessing for Jerusalem and the house of David.
Isa. 40 — Isa. 48:  Controversy of God with Israel on account of idolatry. Cyrus (type of Christ) the deliverer.
Isa. 49 — Isa. 57:  Controversy of God with Israel on account of the rejected suffering Messiah.
Isa. 58 — Isa. 66:  Final results; the remnant delivered and blessed.

Isa. 1 — Isa. 4.  are introductory. The 'sinful nation' was completely corrupt, and had been sorely chastised; there was no soundness from head to foot; though chastened, there was no contrition, and God's judgements must still follow. There is also grace in store for the latter days: Zion will be a centre of blessing, and a remnant will be saved.
Isa. 5.  Israel was God's vineyard and the men of Judah His pleasant plant: the people were judged in view of the care God had bestowed on them, no remnant is mentioned: cf. Matt. 21:33-41.
Isa. 6.  The people were unfit for their Messiah, but will be judged in view of His coming glory: a remnant is acknowledged.
Isa. 7.  Immanuel, Son of David, is introduced as a sign for faith, when unbelief was seeking a confederacy. The house of David after the flesh is judged: still there is hope. See IMMANUEL.
Isa. 8 — Isa. 9:7.  The Assyrians overrun the land, and the confederacy of nations is to be brought to nought. A remnant, 'my brethren,' is attached to Immanuel, who is a stone of stumbling to the unbelieving nation, but a light amid the darkness until He is received in power and glory.
Isa. 9:8 — Isa 10.  The national history is resumed from the end of Isa. 5.  Various judgements from the Lord are detailed until the last judgement by means of the Assyrian, who is used as a rod by God, and then is punished for his pride in the last days.
Isa. 11.  Messiah, the 'Branch,' and His reign the source of millennial blessing.
Isa. 12.  Israel's song of triumph in that day: compare with Ex. 15.
Isa. 13 — Isa. 24.  'Burdens' are pronounced. They are judgements on Babylon and the nations, especially on those who were in relationship with Israel. Moab, Damascus, "the land shadowing with wings which is beyond the rivers of Ethiopia," Egypt, "the desert of the sea," Dumah, Arabia, "the valley of vision" (Jerusalem), Tyre, "the earth [or land] made empty and waste, and turned upside down;" and finally the hosts on high and kings on the earth punished.
Isa. 25, Isa. 26.  A song in which God's intervention is celebrated, even to the swallowing up of death in victory.
Isa. 27.  The power of Satan, "leviathan, the piercing serpent, even leviathan that crooked serpent" is destroyed, and worship established in Jerusalem.
Isa. 28 — Isa. 35.  give details of all that will happen to the Jews in the last days. They make a covenant with death and with hell, but their covenant will be disannulled. Security is in the Stone laid in Zion, all else will perish.
Isa. 29.  Judgements are pronounced against Jerusalem under the name of Ariel, 'lion of God'; deliverance comes when at the last extremity, but a far worse judgement, a spirit of blindness, rests on the people. In the day of deliverance the remnant will come to understanding, the scorner being consumed.
Isa. 30, Isa. 31.  They seek counsel of and trust in Egypt instead of in God.
Isa. 32.  Christ will reign in righteousness: desolation is followed by restoration.
Isa. 33.  The attack of a spoiler in the character of Gog (Ezek. 38), but the Lord, having filled Zion with judgement and righteousness, arises and the enemy is destroyed, and Zion is in peace.
Isa. 34, Isa. 35.  Final judgement pronounced upon Idumaea and other nations (cf. Ps. 83); and the blessings that will succeed the judgement.
Isa. 36 — Isa. 39.  treat of Hezekiah and Sennacherib. Waiting upon the Lord is enforced. The deliverance wrought is figurative of the outward deliverance there will be from the Assyrian for Jerusalem and the house of David in the last days. Hezekiah's personal history is appended to this, as figurative of the nation's sense of the judgement of God upon them, leading to repentance and recovery, and inward or moral deliverance.
Isa. 40 - 43.  begin another part of the book. The Messiah is but little introduced: it is rather a question of God and idols. There is comfort for those who have an opened ear. The Lord Jesus, Jehovah's servant and His elect, shall bring forth judgement to the Gentiles.
Isa. 44.  Jehovah reasons with Jacob and Jesurun: cf. Deut. 32:15; Deut. 33:26, 27; Israel, embracing the twelve tribes.
Isa. 45 - 47.  Cyrus is God's servant, and He would subdue nations before him. God would keep open the two-leaved gates (of Babylon, which were left open in their festivity). The idols of Babylon could not save her: she should be brought to shame for her pride.
Isa. 48.  God pleads with Israel.
Isa. 49 — Isa. 57.  introduce Christ, and show the people's guilt in respect to Him.
Isa. 50:1-9.  Israel had been as divorced, but Messiah had come to them suitably, to instruct them and take up their cause. Who would contend with Him?
Isa. 50:10 — Isa. 51.  The character of the remnant: they are owned as 'my people' by the Lord God, and He will comfort and redeem them.
Isa. 52:1-12.  Zion is called to awake and put on her strength, the feet of messengers with glad tidings were beautiful.
Isa. 52:13 — Isa. 53.  These refer to the work of Christ in a five-fold way, including the atonement.
Isa. 54, Isa. 55.  Jerusalem is called upon to sing: through the sure mercies of David there are blessings in store for her, and full free grace to every one that thirsts.
Isa. 56, Isa. 57.  Exhortations follow in view of the restoration of Israel; and those, even of Israel, are denounced that walk contrary to God's will.
Isa. 58, Isa. 59.  Indignation of the Spirit at the condition of Israel at the time the prophecy was uttered, but goes on to the end, when the Redeemer shall come to Zion.
Isa. 60.  The glory of Jerusalem in the times of blessing.
Isa. 61, Isa. 62.  Christ, in the full grace of His person, is concerned in the blessing of Israel.
Isa. 63, Isa. 64.  Christ returns from the judgements of Isa. 34 with garments stained with the slaughter of His enemies; followed by the intercessions of the Spirit of prophecy.
Isa. 65.  God's answer to those pleadings.
Isa. 66.  Judgements introducing the millennium, ending with these solemn words: "They shall go forth, and look upon the carcasses of the men that have transgressed against me: for their worm shall not die, neither shall their fire be quenched; and they shall be an abhorring unto all flesh."

This prophecy embraces a very large field. The condition of the people was sinful when the prophecy was written, and though God had long patience with it, yet the condition was such that judgement must be executed upon it unless there was true repentance. Judgement did follow, but the consummation of evil was not reached until their Messiah had come, and had been rejected; indeed Antichrist will yet be received. Judgement followed the rejection of their Messiah, but the great tribulation is yet to come.

Quotations from Isaiah in the N.T. (nearly forty in number) show that his words applied to the times that then were; such as the condition of the people; the unprofitableness of the rites and ceremonies; and that grace to the Gentiles had been foretold. The climax of Israel's sin, and of their judgement, and of God's blessing are still future. Christ coming in humiliation is revealed in the prophet as well as His glory; indeed, all the ways of God in dealing with His people Israel, on to the end — though some subjects are expanded elsewhere — are to be found in this comprehensive prophecy: clearly it could only have been written under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit.

Iscah. [Is'cah]

Daughter of Haran, the brother of Abraham. Gen. 11:29. According to Josephus the Jews believed she was Sarai, Abraham's wife.

Iscariot. [Is'cariot]

See JUDAS.

Ishbah. [Ish'bah]

Father of Eshtemoa, of the tribe of Judah. 1 Chr. 4:17.

Ishbak. [Ish'bak]

Son of Abraham and Keturah. Abraham gave him gifts, and sent him away from Isaac unto the east country. Gen. 25:2, 6; 1 Chr. 1:32. An Assyrian inscription mentions "Bur-anate of the land of Iasbuk " (IA-AS-BU-QA-AI) which is judged to refer to the above, situate on the west bank of the Euphrates.

Ishbibenob.  [Ishbi-benob']

Philistine giant who attacked David, but was killed by Abishai. 2 Sam. 21:16, 17.

Ishbosheth.  [Ish-bo'sheth]

Youngest of the four sons of Saul, and who claimed the throne on the death of his father and his elder brothers. Apparently he did not begin to reign till five years after, and then reigned two years, over all the tribes except Judah, Benjamin, and perhaps Simeon. He was supported by Abner the head of Saul's army; but made his head quarters at Mahanaim, east of the Jordan. There was long war between the two houses, but David waxed stronger and stronger, and Ish-bosheth became weaker and weaker. Abner's pride was deeply wounded by a remonstrance from Ish-bosheth, and he revolted to David, and then spoke to the elders of Israel in David's favour. After the treacherous murder of Abner by Joab, Baanah and Rechab, captains of bands, slew Ish-bosheth as he lay on his bed, and cutting off his head brought it to David, doubtless expecting a reward; they were however at once put to death, for David could not sanction such wickedness. David was then made king of all the tribes, being God's chosen and anointed one. 2 Sam. 2:8-17; 2 Sam. 3:6-16; 2 Sam. 4:5-12. Apparently Ish-bosheth is called ESH-BAAL in 1 Chr. 8:33; 1 Chr. 9:39.

Ishi. [Ish'i]

1.  Son of Appaim, a descendant of Judah. 1 Chr. 2:31

2.  Another descendant of Judah. 1 Chr. 4:20.

3.  Descendant of Simeon. 1 Chr. 4:42.

4.  One of the chiefs of Manasseh. 1 Chr. 5:24.

Ishi.

See HUSBAND.

Ishiah. [Ishi'ah]

Son of Izrahiah, of the tribe of Issachar. 1 Chr. 7:3. The name in the Hebrew is the same as ISHIJAH, ISSHIAH, and JESIAH.

Ishijah. [Ishi'jah]

Son of Harim: he had married a strange wife. Ezra 10:31.

Ishma. [Ish'ma]

One 'of the father of Etam,' a descendant of Judah. 1 Chr. 4:3.

Ishmael. [Ish'mael]

1. Son of Abraham and Hagar the bondmaid of Sarah. Before he was born, when Hagar ran away because of the severity of her mistress, the angel of the Lord appeared to her, and told her to return to her mistress: her seed should be numberless, and she was to call her son's name Ishmael, which signifies 'El shall hear.' He would be a wild man, his hand would be against every man, and every man's hand against him. Abraham prayed that Ishmael might live before God, but typically he represents the seed of Abraham according to the flesh, hence though God answered that He would bless Ishmael, and multiply him exceedingly, he should also beget twelve princes, and God would make him a great nation; yet the covenant should be established with Isaac. When Ishmael was thirteen years old Abraham circumcised him, and all the men of his house. In this act Abraham acknowledged in faith that the blessing asked for his natural seed could not be had through the strength of the flesh: all the mercies of God are secured in resurrection.

At the 'great feast' when Isaac, the child born after the Spirit, was weaned, Ishmael mocked, and Sarah besought Abraham to cast out both mother and son. This was grievous to Abraham, but God, having approved the suggestion, he rose early in the morning, and providing them with some bread and a bottle of water he sent them away. The water was soon consumed, and Hagar in despair placed Ishmael under a shrub, and departed so as not to see him die. The angel of God called to her, showed her a well, and the child was saved. God was with the lad, for he was the seed of Abraham; he dwelt in the wilderness and became an archer. At first he was located in the wilderness of Beer-sheba and afterwards at Paran, a region between Canaan and mount Sinai. His mother chose a woman of Egypt for his wife. His twelve sons are recorded, and their 'towns ' and 'castles,' or encampments, according to their nations, are spoken of. Ishmael was present at the burial of his father and lived 137 years. Gen. 16:11-16; Gen. 17:18-26; Gen. 25:9-17; Gen. 28:9; Gen. 36:3; 1 Chr. 1:28-31.

The Bedouin Arabs are doubtless the descendants of Ishmael. They are wild men in the sense of their love of freedom, dwelling in tents, and riding over the desert, spear in hand. They truly are 'against every man,' robbing every one when they can do so with safety to themselves. The Bedouins will not admit their descent from Ishmael; they refer his descendants to the Most (or mixed) Arabians, because Ishmael's mother was an Egyptian. The Bedouins claim to have descended from Joktan, son of Eber. Gen. 10:25.

2.  Son of Azel, a descendant of Saul. 1 Chr. 8:38; 1 Chr. 9:44.

3.  Father of Zebadiah a ruler under Jehoshaphat. 2 Chr. 19:11.

4.  Son of Jehohanan, and one of the 'captains of hundreds' who assisted in setting Joash on the throne. 2 Chr. 23:1.

5. Priest who had married a strange wife. Ezra 10:22.

6.  Son of Nethaniah, of the 'seed royal,' but of what family is not known. His craft and ferocity show that he was unworthy of a throne. He treacherously slew Gedaliah, whom the king of Babylon had made governor over the cities of Judah, and all the Jews that were with him in Mizpah. He followed up this crime by the cruel and treacherous murder of eighty men from Shechem, Shiloh, and Samaria, who were bringing gifts to the temple, only ten being spared. He then carried away captive all that were left in Mizpah, and departed to go over to the Ammonites; but Johanan the son of Kareah, and those with him, rescued the captives. Ishmael escaped and is heard of no more. 2 Kings 25:23-25; Jer. 40:8-16; Jer. 41:1-18.

Ishmaelites,  [Ish'maelites] Ishmeelites. [Ish'meelites]

Descendants of Ishmael the son of Abraham. Gen. 37:25-28; Gen. 39:1; Judges 8:24; 1 Chr. 2:17; 1 Chr. 27:80; Ps. 83:6.   See ISHMAEL.

Ishmaiah. [Ishma'iah]

Son of Obadiah, and a ruler of Zebulun. 1 Chr. 27:19.

Ishmerai. [Ish'merai]

Son of Elpaal, a descendant of Benjamin. 1 Chr. 8:18.

Ishod. [Is'hod]

Descendant of Manasseh. 1 Chr. 7:18.

Ishpan. [Ish'pan]

Son of Shashak, a descendant of Benjamin. 1 Chr. 8:22.

Ishtob. [Ish'tob]

A state which supplied 12,000 men to the children of Ammon to fight against David. 2 Sam. 10:6, 8. In the margin it reads 'men of TOB.' It was to 'the land of Tob' that Jephthah fled from his brethren. Judges 11:3, 5. It is supposed to be on the east of Jebel Hauran.

Ishuah, [Ish'uah] Isuah. [Is'uah]

Second son of Asher. Gen. 46:17; 1 Chr. 7:30.

Ishuai, [Ish'uai] Isui, [Is'ui] Jesui. [Jes'ui]

Third son of Asher, and founder of the JESUITES. Gen. 46:17; Num. 26:44; 1 Chr. 7:30.

Ishui. [Ish'ui]

Son of Saul and Ahinoam. 1 Sam. 14:49.

Islands, Isles.

There are no islands near to Palestine. Cyprus is the nearest, and that is about seventy miles from the nearest point of Syria, far north. So that the term 'the isles' may be used at times indefinitely for places or nations far off. We read of 'the isles which are beyond the sea,' 'the isles afar off,' and 'isles of the Gentiles.' Gen. 10:5, etc.; Jer. 25:22; Jer. 31:10, etc. It is thought that in some places in the prophets the sea-coasts or maritime countries are intended. Definite islands are also mentioned, especially in the N.T. when Paul began his missionary journeys.

Ismachiah. [Ismachi'ah]

A Levite, set over the offerings, tithes, and dedicated things in the time of king Hezekiah.

2 Chr. 31:13.

Ismaiah. [Ismai'ah]

A Gibeonite, the head of David's thirty valiant men: he joined David at Ziklag. 1 Chr. 12:4.

Ispah. [Is'pah]

Son of Beriah, a Benjamite. 1 Chr. 8:16.

Israel. [Is'rael]

Name given to Jacob after 'a man' had wrestled with him, to whom he clung when he was by him crippled. It signifies 'a prince of God:' and it was said, "as a prince hast thou power with God and with men, and hast prevailed." It thus indicated the way of blessing with regard to the nation in which God's government in the earth was to be established. The twelve sons of Jacob became the heads of the twelve tribes, and they and their descendants were called the children of Israel, or simply Israel. At the division of the kingdom, the ten tribes were called 'Israel,' and the two tribes 'Judah,' though this distinction is not at all times rigidly adhered to: thus the princes and kings of Judah are called princes of Israel, and kings of Israel. 2 Chr. 12:5, 6; 2 Chr. 21:2; 2 Chr. 28:19. So those who returned from exile, though they were in the main of the two tribes, are called people of Israel, or Israel. In the prophets also, though the ten tribes are not called Judah, the two tribes are at times called Israel. The ten tribes in the prophets are often spoken of as EPHRAIM, which was the chief of the ten. Though Israel was reckoned as ten tribes, it is most probable that the portion of Simeon, being situated on the extreme south, was united to Judah, as well as the territory of Dan in the S.W., though the people of Simeon may have scattered themselves among the other tribes, and those of Dan have gone north and joined their tribe there.

THE KINGDOM OF ISRAEL commenced when Jeroboam was made king, to whom it was promised that his house should be established if he followed the Lord. He, on the contrary, to prevent the people going to Jerusalem, immediately set up the golden calves at Dan and at Bethel. The kingdom was given up to idolatry, and a series of judgements followed. Baasha murdered Jeroboam's son and successor; and his own son and successor was slain by Zimri; Zimri was killed by Omri, and after a civil war of four years with Tibni, Omri became king and reigned with his successors forty-five years, ending with Jehoram the son of Ahab. He and the survivors of the house of Ahab were slain by Jehu directly or indirectly, and Jehu began the 5th dynasty, B.C. 884. He and his successors reigned, with varying judgements upon them, for a hundred and twelve years. Zachariah was the last, being the fourth successor of Jehu, as God had said, 2 Kings 15:12: he reigned only six months and was murdered by Shallum. During another fifty years the kingdom was spared: but there was no repentance. About B.C. 740 the two and a half tribes east of the Jordan were carried into captivity, and Israel became tributary to Assyria. Hoshea murdered Pekah, and after nine years of anarchy succeeded to the throne. He revolted against Assyria, trusting to Egypt; but Samaria was taken, and Israel carried into captivity. Thus ended the kingdom of Israel, B.C. 721. From about B.C. 784 to 725 Hosea was God's prophet in Israel. He solemnly pleaded with them, protesting against their evil ways, and was ever ready to help them to turn to God, though his efforts were, alas, in vain. 2 Kings 17:13-18; Hosea 13:16; Hosea 14:1-9.

Israel when carried away were placed in Halah and in Habor by the river of Gozan (in the neighbourhood of the river Khabour, an affluent of the river Euphrates), and in the cities of the Medes. As far as is known they never returned, though doubtless individuals found their way back in the days of Ezra and Nehemiah, and in the four hundred years that followed before the Lord appeared. Jews from those districts were present on the day of Pentecost; but as a body they are still commonly regarded as 'the Lost Tribes.' God knows where to find them when His set time of blessing arrives. The twelve tribes surely exist, and remnants of them will again come into the land. Ezek. 48:1-29; Matt. 19:28; Acts 26:7; James 1:1; Rev. 7:5-8.

The ten tribes will be dealt with differently from the two, who were in the land when the Lord was presented to them, and who rejected Him, and demanded His crucifixion. The ten tribes will, by a mighty hand and with fury poured out, be brought into the wilderness, and there God will plead with them, cause them to pass under the rod, and bring them into the bond of the covenant; but the rebels will be purged out. Ezek. 20:31-38. The question as to the wounds in the hands of the Lord, which He received in the house of His 'friends' is connected with Judah, who will be judged when in the land, and only one third of them after being refined, will be owned as God's people. Zech. 13:6-9. When God thus purges and restores a remnant of all the tribes, and brings them into full blessing in the land, the name of ISRAEL will embrace them all as it did at the first, and God will be their God for evermore. Ezek. 37:1-28.

Israel [Is'rael] in Egypt.

The details of the history of Israel in Egypt are few. When Joseph was in power, Jacob and his whole household settled in the land: there they multiplied and became a great nation. In time a king reigned who knew not Joseph, and the people were reduced to cruel bondage. Through God's intervention and after dire judgements upon the Egyptians, the Israelites were delivered. See EGYPT and JOSEPH

A question not easily answered is, How long were the Israelites in Egypt? In Gen. 15:13; Acts 7:6, the period seems to be stated as four hundred years. Ex. 12:40 says "the sojourning of the children of Israel, who dwelt in Egypt, was four hundred and thirty years;" and Gal. 3:17 declares that the law was given four hundred and thirty years after the promise to Abraham. The promise to Abraham was long before Israel went into Egypt, and the law was given after they came out; so that according to this passage their sojourning in Egypt must have been much less than four hundred years. A much shorter period is implied in Gen. 15:16, which says of Israel in Egypt that "in the fourth generation they shall come hither again;" and if we turn to Ex. 6:16-20 we find exactly four generations, thus:
Jacob's son Levi.
Levi's son Kohath.
Kohath's son Amram.
Amram's son Moses.

Or, if we start with Levi, who entered with Jacob, there was ample time for Moses to have had a son, as he was eighty years old at the Exodus. Now if we reckon that at that time a man had his first son when he was forty years of age, there would have been ten generations in four hundred years. Further, the mother of Moses (Jochebed) was Levi's daughter, (Num. 26:59), Amram having married his own aunt. Ex. 6:20. Levi lived only a hundred and thirty-seven years in all, and supposing (it can be approximately proved) that he lived in Egypt eighty-eight years, Jochebed was born during those years. If Moses was born when she was forty-seven years of age, and Moses was eighty years old at the Exodus, these sums (88 + 47 + 80 = 215 years) show that Israel may have been in Egypt about two hundred and fifteen years, and this is the period now generally supposed.

If we admit this to be the time of the occupation, we must endeavour to see how it agrees with the four hundred and thirty years of Gal. 3:17.

YEARS.
100   Age of Abraham when Isaac was born
  75   Age of Abraham, when the promise was given
–      25
        60 Age of Israel when Jacob was born
      130 Age of Jacob when he stood before Pharaoh
      215   Sojourn of Israel in Egypt
      430

If then this be the correct period, how does it agree with Gen. 15:13 and Ex. 12:40?  In Gen. 15:13 and Acts 7:6, nothing is said about Egypt: "Thy seed shall be a stranger in a land that is not theirs." This was said to Abraham, and may include the whole period from the birth of Isaac to the Exodus, which according to the above was four hundred and five years — thus agreeing with the round number of four hundred years. Ex. 12:40 is worded differently: "The sojourning of the children of Israel, who dwelt in Egypt, was four hundred and thirty years." The Samaritan Pentateuch and the LXX add the words "and of their fathers in the land of Canaan;" but these words are not in the Arabic, Syriac, or Vulgate versions; and may therefore have been added to meet the apparent difficulty. It is better to take the four hundred and thirty years as including the sojourn of Abraham (after the promise), and of Isaac, and of Jacob, though strictly speaking Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob were not 'children of Israel.'

The conclusion that the sojourn in Egypt was really for two hundred and fifteen years creates another difficulty in some minds, namely, the great increase of the Israelites during that period. Ex. 12:37 speaks of there being 600,000 men, besides children, at the Exodus. Num. 1:46 gives the number more exactly as 603,550 from twenty years old and upwards that were able to go to war. This has been calculated to signify a total of about two million men, women, and children, without the descendants of Levi. Is this a greater number than could be the descendants of those who entered Egypt? This may be reckoned in two ways: if we deduct thirteen from the seventy (for the family of Levi and for those who could not be called heads of families at that time) Deut. 10:22, the result gives fifty-seven heads of families; and if each had 14 children,

In one generation there would be 798

In the second 11,172

In the third 156,408

In the fourth 2,189,712

To reckon fourteen children to each may seem a large number, but it must be remembered that there was the plurality of wives, and scripture speaks of their multiplying exceedingly.

Ex. 1:7, 12, 20.

The increase may be reckoned in another manner by the population. If the above fifty-seven are multiplied by 3.3 it gives as the population at the commencement (excluding Levi, and his descendants, etc., as above) 188 persons. Suppose the population doubled itself in fifteen years (as it has been known to do in some places), the number in two hundred and ten years would be over three millions. There is therefore no difficulty in the increase of the people.

Israel in Egypt is typical of mankind in the world, under the power of Satan, before being sheltered under the blood of Christ, and redeemed by the power of God.

Issachar. [Issa'char]

1.  The ninth son of Jacob, and the fifth of Leah. Of his personal history there is no record except that he had four sons, who became heads in the tribe. When Jacob blessed his sons he said, "Issachar is a strong ass, couching down between two burdens, and he . . . . bowed his shoulder to bear, and became a servant unto tribute." Gen. 49:14, 15. This seems to imply that this tribe, with Zebulun, would mix with the world and become slaves to it for profit. When Moses blessed the tribes, Issachar and Zebulun are also placed together. He said, "They shall call the people unto the mountain; there they shall offer sacrifices of righteousness: for they shall suck of the abundance of the seas, and of treasures hid in the sand." Deut. 33:19. This seems to point also to commercial enterprise. Some of Issachar resorted to David at Ziklag, of whom it is said they "had understanding of the times, to know what Israel ought to do." 1 Chr. 12:32. At the first numbering there were of Issachar 54,400 fit for war, and at the second 64,300. They are described as 'valiant men of might,' and they furnished 36,000 men of war. 1 Chr. 7:4, 5. The tribe possessed some of the most productive portions of the land, including the extensive plain of Jezreel, with the Jordan on its border for about 50 miles.

2.  Son of Obed-Edom, a Korhite Levite. 1 Chr. 26:5.

Isshiah. [Isshi'ah]

1.  Son of Rehabiah, a grandson of Moses. 1 Chr. 24:21.

2.  Levite of the house of Uzziel. 1 Chr. 24:25.

Isuah. [Is'uah]

See ISHUAH.

Isui. [Is'ui]

See ISHUAI

Italian Band.

An Italian cohort of which Cornelius was the centurion. It was doubtless so called because of the men being recruited in Italy. Acts 10:1.

Italy. [I'taly]

The well-known country, of which Rome was the capital. It is only incidentally mentioned in scripture. Acts 18:2; Acts 27:1, 6, Heb. 13:24.

Ithai. [Ith'ai]

See ITTAI.

Ithamar. [Ith'amar]

Youngest son of Aaron: he was anointed with Nadab, Abihu, and Eleazar to minister in the priest's office. Under the superintendence of Ithamar were placed the Gershonites and Merarites who carried portions of the tabernacle. The high-priesthood came into the family of Ithamar in the person of Eli, and it reverted to the descendants of Eleazar in Zadok on the deposition of Abiathar by Solomon. Ex. 6:23; Ex. 28:1; Ex. 38:21; Lev. 10:6, 12, 16; Num. 3:2-4; Num. 4:28, 33; Num. 7:8; Num. 26:60; 1 Chr. 6:3; 1 Chr. 24:1-6. Daniel, a descendant of Ithamar, returned from exile. Ezra 8:2.

Ithiel.  [Ithi'el]

1.  Son of Jesaiah, a Benjamite. Neh. 11:7.

2.  One to whom Agur addressed his prophecy. Prov. 30:1.

Ithmah. [Ith'mah]

A Mahavite, one of David's valiant men. 1 Chr. 11:46.

Ithnan. [Ith'nan]

City in the extreme south of Judah. Joshua 15:23. Not identified.

Ithra. [Ith'ra]

See JETHER.

Ithran. [Ith'ran]

1.  Son of Dishon, a descendant of Seir. Gen. 36:26; 1 Chr. 1:41.

2.  Son of Zophah, an Asherite. 1 Chr. 7:37.

Ithream. [Ith'ream]

Sixth son of David, by Eglah. 2 Sam. 3:5; 1 Chr. 3:3.

Ithrites. [Ith'rites]

Designation of Ira and Gareb, two of David's mighty men, described as among 'the families of Kirjath-jearim,' which links them with Judah. 2 Sam. 23:38. 1 Chr. 2:53; 1 Chr. 11:40.

Ittahkazin.  [It'tah-ka'zin]

Landmark of the boundary of Zebulun. Joshua 19:13. Not identified.

Ittai. [It'tai]

1.  A Philistine of Gath, head of a portion of David's guard. He was faithful to David at the revolt of Absalom, returned with the king, and had a command in his army. 2 Sam. 15:19-22; 2 Sam. 18:2, 5, 12. He illustrates how Gentiles will be associated with the remnant of Israel, both in the sufferings and reign of their Messiah, and serve Him in a future day.

2.  Son of Ribai a Benjamite, and one of David's mighty men. 2 Sam. 23:29. Called ITHAI in 1 Chr. 11:31.

Ituraea. [Iturae'a]

A province on the east of the upper Jordan of which Herod Philip was made tetrarch. Luke 3:1. Its boundaries cannot be well defined, but it reached toward Damascus and embraced the southern slopes of Anti-Lebanon. Its name is derived from JETUR, son of Ishmael. Gen. 25:15.

Ivah. [I'vah]

District or city that had been conquered by Assyria. 2 Kings 18:34; 2 Kings 19:13; Isa. 37:13. Supposed to be the same as AVA in 2 Kings 17:24 and AHAVA in Ezra 8:15, 21.

Ivory.

The well-known substance of which the tusks of the elephant consist. We read of beds of ivory, thrones of ivory, palaces of ivory, ivory houses, and all manner of vessels. The finest specimens were used for carving and the smaller were cut into veneers for covering surfaces.

1 Kings 10:18; 1 Kings 22:39; Ps. 45:8; Cant. 5:14; Cant. 7:4; Amos 3:15; Amos 6:4; Rev. 18:12. It was imported into Palestine by the Assyrians and was brought by the ships of Solomon. Ancient ivories of Egypt and Assyria have been found.

Izehar, [Iz'ehar] Izhar, [Iz'har] Izeharites, [Iz'eharites] Izharites. [Iz'harites]

Son of Kohath, and his descendants. Ex. 6:18, 21; Num. 3:19, 27; Num. 16:1; 1 Chr. 6:2, 18, 38; 1 Chr. 23:12, 18; 1 Chr. 24:22; 1 Chr. 26:23, 29. Apparently once called AMMINADAB. 1 Chr. 6:22.

Izrahiah. [Izrahi'ah]

Son of Uzzi of the tribe of Issachar. 1 Chr. 7:3.

Izrahite. [Iz'rahite]

Designation of Shamhuth, one of David's captains. 1 Chr. 27:8.

Izri. [Iz'ri]

Levite, chief of the fourth course in the service of song. 1 Chr. 25:11. Apparently called ZERI in 1 Chr. 25:3.

Jaakan, [Ja'akan] Jakan. [Ja'kan]

Son of Ezer, a son of Seir. Deut. 10:6; 1 Chr. 1:42  Same as AKAN in Gen. 36:27.

Jaakobah. [Jaako'bah]

Prince in the tribe of Simeon. 1 Chr. 4:36.

Jaala, [Ja'ala] Jaalah. [Ja'alah]

Ancestor of some who returned from exile. Ezra 2:56; Neh. 7:58.

Jaalam. [Ja'alam]

Son of Esau. Gen. 36:5, 14, 18; 1 Chr. 1:35.

Jaanai. [Ja'anai]

A chief man of the tribe of Gad. 1 Chr. 5:12.

Jaareoregim.  [Ja'are-o'regim]

Father of Elhanan who killed one of the giants. 2 Sam. 21:19. Called JAIR in 1 Chr. 20:5.

Jaasau. [Ja'asau]

One who had married a strange wife. Ezra 10:37.

Jaasiel. [Jaasi'el]

Son of Abner, a Benjamite. 1 Chr. 27:21.

Jaazaniah. [Jaazani'ah]

1.  Son of Hoshaiah, a Maachathite, and a captain among those left in the land by the king of Babylon. 2 Kings 25:23. Called JEZANIAH in Jer. 40:8; Jer. 42:1.

2.  A Rechabite, son of Jeremiah: he refused to drink wine, and was blessed for his obedience to his forefathers. Jer. 35:3.

3.  Son of Shaphan, and leader of the seventy elders who were seen in a vision by Ezekiel offering incense to idols. Ezek. 8:11.

4.  Son of Azur, and one of the princes who devised mischief and gave wicked counsel to the people. Ezek. 11:1.

Jaazer, [Ja'azer] Jazer. [Ja'zer]

City and district in Gilead: it was taken from the Amorites by Israel, allotted to Gad, and given to the Levites. Num. 21:32; Num. 32:1, 3, 35; Joshua 13:25; Joshua 21:39; 1 Chr. 6:81; Isa. 16:8, 9. In Jer. 48:32 the 'sea of Jazer' is supposed to refer to a lake in the neighbourhood. Identified by some with Beit Zerah, 31 50' N, 35 51' E.

Jaaziah. [Jaazi'ah]

Descendant of Merari. 1 Chr. 24:26, 27.

Jaaziel.  [Jaazi'el]

A Levite who assisted when David brought up the ark. 1 Chr. 15:18. Apparently the name is contracted into AZIEL in 1 Chr. 15:20.

Jabal. [Ja'bal]

Son of Lamech and Adah: he is described as 'the father of such as dwell in tents.' Gen. 4:20.

Jabbok. [Jab'bok]

Stream on the east of the Jordan, near to which the angel wrestled with Jacob. It was afterwards called 'the border of the children of Ammon.' Gen. 32:22; Num. 21:24; Deut. 2:37; Deut. 3:16; Joshua 12:2; Judges 11:13, 22. In some parts it runs in a deep ravine, and in winter is impassable in places. It enters the Jordan about 32 6' N, 35 32' E and is now called Wady Zerka.