Bible Dictionary K, L.

Kite,

ayyah. There are several species of the kite which feed upon small birds, mice, reptiles, and fish. It was forbidden to the Israelites for food. Lev. 11:14; Deut. 14:13. The same Hebrew word is translated 'vulture' in Job 28:7, 'falcon' in the R.V. It is only distinguished in scripture for its keenness of vision, but this characteristic would apply to many different birds. The common kite is the Milvus regalis.

Kithlish. [Kith'lish]

City in the lowlands of Judah. Joshua 15:40. Not identified.

Kitron. [Kit'ron]

City in Zebulun, the inhabitants of which were not driven out. Judges 1:30. Identified with Seffurieh, 32 45' N, 35 16' E.

Kittim. [Kit'tim]

Son of Javan, a son of Japheth. Gen. 10:4; 1 Chr. 1:7. He is supposed to have settled on the island of Cyprus, which was hence called CHITTIM, q.v.

Knops.

Ornaments adopted in the construction of the golden candlestick and in Solomon's temple.

1.  kaphtor, 'a crown or circlet.' Ex. 25:31-36; Ex. 37:17-22.

2.  peqaim, ' wild cucumbers,' egg shaped. 1 Kings 6:18; 1 Kings 7:24. The definite form of these ornaments is not known, save as may be surmised from the relievo on the Arch of Titus at Rome.

Knowledge.

There are several Greek words translated 'to know,' the principal of which are

1.  οἶδα, signifying 'inward conscious knowledge' in the mind; and

2.  γινώσκω, signifying 'objective knowledge.' The latter passes into consciousness, but not vice versa. There are several passages in the N.T. in which both words occur, a study will show that the words are not used promiscuously, and need to be carefully considered .

Matt. 24:43.  Know [2] this, that if the goodman of the house had known [1] in what watch the thief would come, etc. The same distinction occurs in Luke 12:39.

Mark 4:13.  Know [1] ye not this parable? and how then will ye know [2] all parables?

John 7:27.  We know [1] this man whence he is; but when Christ cometh, no man knoweth [2]  whence he is.

John 8:55.  Ye have not known [2] him; but I know [1] him; and if I should say, I know [1] him not, I shall be a liar like unto you: but I know [1] him, and keep his saying.

John 13:7.  What I do thou knowest [1] not now; but thou shalt know [2] hereafter.

John 21:17.  Lord, thou knowest [1] all things; thou knowest [2] that I love thee.

Rom. 7:7. I had not known [2] sin, but by the law: for I had not known [1] lust, except the law had said, Thou shalt not covet.

1 Cor. 8:1, 2.  We know [1] that we all have knowledge [2].  Knowledge [2] puffeth up, but charity edifieth. And if any man think that he knoweth [1]  (Editors alter this into [2] ) anything, he knoweth [2] nothing yet as he ought to know. [2]

2 Cor. 5:16.  Henceforth know [1] we no man after the flesh: yea, though we have known [2] Christ after the flesh, yet now henceforth know [2] we him no more.

Heb. 8:11.  They shall not teach . . . . saying, Know [2] the Lord: for all shall know [1] me, from the least to the greatest.

1 John 2:29. If ye know [1] that he is righteous, ye know [2] that every one that doeth righteousness is born of him.

1 John 5:20. We know [1] that the Son of God is come, and hath given us an understanding, that we may know [2] him that is true.

Both these words are employed for the Lord's own knowledge. In Matt. 12:15, Jesus knew [2] (that they were plotting to destroy him) having heard it. And in Matt. 12:25 Jesus knew [1] their thoughts — had the conscious knowledge of it. Respecting our knowledge of the person of Christ, in Luke 10:22, no one knows [2] who the Son is except the Father; but in Matt. 11:27, which is a parallel passage, neither of the above words are used, but ἐπιγινώσκω, which implies a certain objective knowledge, not a mere acquaintance with a person.  The knowledge that is partial, and that shall vanish away, is the objective knowledge, 1 Cor. 13:8, 9; not the inward conscious knowledge. In 1 Cor. 13:12 it is real knowledge in the future, ἐπιγινώσκω. The words (both Nos. 1 and 2) often occur separately in John's gospel and epistles, and their use may be profitably studied in a Greek Testament or Concordance.

Koa. [Ko'a]

An unknown people or district classed with those whom Jerusalem had courted as lovers, but who would be its oppressors. Ezek. 23:23. The Vulgate does not treat it as a proper name, but translates it principes, 'noblemen.'

Kohath, [Ko'hath] Kohathites. [Ko'hathites]

Son of Levi, and his descendants. He was the grandfather of Moses and Aaron. Of Kohath little is revealed: he went into Egypt with the rest of his brethren and died at the age of 133 years. The Kohathites carried the 'most holy things' of the tabernacle — the ark, table of show bread, golden altar, etc., but were not permitted to touch or even look upon them. In the first census the male descendants of Kohath, between thirty and fifty years of age, were 2750. Their descendants embraced several important families, including that of the priesthood. See LEVITES. Ex. 6:16, 18; Num. 3:17-30; Num. 4:2-37; Num. 26:57, 58; Joshua 21:4-26; 1 Chr. 6:1-70, etc.
                                                  KOHATH
                                                          |
                 |¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯|¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯|¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯|
            Amram                   Izhar               Hebron.                Uzziel.
                 |                            |                        |                           |
     |¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯|           Korah            Hebronites            Uzzielites
Aaron.              Moses.          |
     |                        |          Korhites.
Priests.                  |
                  |¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯|
           Gershom             Eliezer

Kolaiah. [Kolai'ah]

1.  Son of Maaseiah, a Benjamite. Neh. 11:7.

2.  Father of Ahab the false prophet 'whom the king of Babylon roasted in the fire.'  Jer. 29:21, 22.

Korah.

1. Son of Izhar, a son of Kohath. He with Dathan and Abiram headed the rebellion against Moses and Aaron, saying that they took too much upon themselves, whereas all the people were holy. There were gathered to them two hundred and fifty princes of the congregation who were Levites. Dathan and Abiram were of the tribe of Reuben, Jacob's firstborn, and were perhaps jealous of the ascendancy of the sons of Levi. Their complaint against Moses is different from that of the Levites, and insinuated that Moses aimed at being a prince over them. They were swallowed up with their families by an opening of the earth; whereas Korah and his company were devoured by the fire of the Lord. With these it was an ecclesiastical rebellion: "they strove against Jehovah" in His appointed priesthood. The whole rebellion was a type of opposition against the royalty and priesthood of Christ. Ex. 6:21, 24; Num. 16:1-49; Num. 26:9-11; Num. 27:3; 1 Chr. 6:22, 37; 1 Chr. 9:19.

Num. 26:10 seems to say that Korah was swallowed up by the earth; but Num. 16:32 speaks only of the "men that appertained unto Korah;" and in Deut. 11:6 and Ps. 106:17, 18 only Dathan and Abiram are named as being swallowed up. There was an exception in the case of Korah, in that his children were not included in the punishment. Num. 26:11.  In Jude 11 he is called CORE. To his sons or descendants, who took part in 'the service of song,' the following Psalms are inscribed: Ps. 42, Ps. 44 — Ps. 49, Ps. 84, Ps. 85, Ps. 87, Ps. 88.

2.  Son of Esau and Aholibamah. Gen. 36:5, 14, 18; 1 Chr. 1:35.

3. Son of Eliphaz, a son of Esau. Gen. 36:16.

4.  Son of Hebron. 1 Chr. 2:13.

Korahites, [Ko'rahites] Korathites, [Ko'rathites] Korhites. [Kor'hites]

Descendants of Korah, the grandson of Kohath. The two principal offices assigned to them were the service of song, and keeping the doors of the sanctuary. Ex. 6:24; Num. 26:58; 1 Chr. 9:19, 31; 1 Chr. 12:6; 1 Chr. 26:1; 2 Chr. 20:19.

Kore. [Ko're]

1.  Son of Ebiasaph, a son of Korah (No. 1). 1 Chr. 9:19; 1 Chr. 26:1.

2.  'The sons of Kore,' better translated the sons of 'the Korahites.' 1 Chr. 26:19.

3.  Son of Imnah, a Levite: set over the freewill offerings in Hezekiah's reign. 2 Chr. 31:14,

Korhites. [Kor'hites]

See KORAHITES.

Koz.

1. Priest whose descendants were unable to prove their genealogy. Ezra 2:61; Neh. 7:63.

2.  Ancestor of some who repaired the wall of Jerusalem. Neh. 3:4, 21. See HAKKOZ.

Kushaiah, [Kushai'ah]

See KISHI.

Laadah. [La'adah]

Son of Shelah and grandson of Judah. 1 Chr. 4:21.

Laadan. [La'adan]

1.  Son of Tahan, an Ephraimite, 1 Chr. 7:26.

2.  Descendant of Gershon the son of Levi. 1 Chr. 23:7-9; 1 Chr. 26:21.

Laban. [La'ban]

1.  Son of Bethuel, brother of Rebekah, and father of Leah and Rachel. His prompt hospitality towards Abraham's servant shows a heart disposed by the Lord in answer to prayer; but why he took the lead instead of Bethuel, his father, is not revealed. In his dealings with Jacob, Laban was scheming and unscrupulous. This was met by craft on Jacob's part, and would doubtless have led to a serious conflict, had not God warned Laban not to speak to Jacob either good or bad. After Jacob had rehearsed all the wrongs and hardships he had endured during the twenty years he had served Laban, they made a covenant together and separated amicably. Laban is called a Syrian, and he dwelt at Haran. Gen. 24:29, 50; Gen. 25:20; Gen. 27:43; Gen. 28:2, 5; Gen. 29:5-29; Gen. 30:25-42; Gen. 31:1-55.

2.  One of the stations of the Israelites. Deut. 1:1.

Lachish. [La'chish]

An Amorite city in the lowlands of Judah. Its king was one of the four called upon by the king of Jerusalem to join him in attacking Gibeon because it had made peace with the Israelites. But the Amorites were smitten, and Lachish was taken by Joshua after a siege of two days. It was a fortified city in the route running from north to south. On the division of the kingdom it was garrisoned by Rehoboam. It was taken by Sennacherib, and among the slabs discovered at Nineveh is one representing the king sitting on his throne, with captives from Lachish kneeling before him, while his troops, passing in review, show the spoils they have taken. The inscription reads, "Sennacherib, king of multitudes, king of Assyria, sitteth upon a lofty throne, and the spoil of the city of Lachish passeth before him." This slab is now in the British Museum. Joshua 10:3-35; Joshua 12:11; Joshua 15:39; 2 Kings 14:19; 2 Kings 18:14, 17; 2 Kings 19:8; 2 Chr. 11:9; 2 Chr. 25:27; 2 Chr. 32:9; Neh. 11:30; Isa. 36:2; Isa. 37:8; Jer. 34:7; Micah 1:13. Identified by some with Tell el Hesy, 31 33' N, 34 44' E.

At this mound 60 feet have been dug through and explored. The ruins of as many as eight cities have been discovered, which are judged by the marks on the pottery, etc., to extend back to about 1500 B.C. Nearer the surface have been found scarabs (beetles) and an inscription which makes it evident that at one time it was subject to Egypt. This is proved also by records on the Tell Amarna Tablets, alluded to under 'Egypt'.

Lael. [La'el]

Father of Eliasaph, a Gershonite. Num. 3:24.

Lahad. [La'had]

Son of Jahath, of the family of the Zorathites. 1 Chr. 4:2.

Lahairoi.  [Laha'i-roi]

See BEER LAHAI-ROI.

Lahmam. [Lah'mam]

City in the lowlands of Judah. Joshua 15:40. Identified with ruins at el Lahm, 31 34' N, 34 54' E.

Lahmi. [Lah'mi]

Brother of Goliath, killed by Elhanan. 1 Chr. 20:5.

Laish. [La'ish]

1.  City in the far north of Palestine, conquered by the tribe of Dan. Judges 18:7, 14, 27; Isa. 10:30. Called LESHEM in Joshua 19:47.  Its name was afterwards altered to DAN, q.v.

2. Father of Phalti, or Phaltiel. 1 Sam. 25:44; 2 Sam. 3:15.

Lake of Fire.

See HELL.

Lakes.

There were three lakes in Palestine, all connected with the Jordan.

1.  Huleh in the north, four square miles in extent, and seven feet above the Mediterranean. This lake was drained in 1957. See MEROM.

2.  Lake of Gennesaret, 682 feet below the sea. See GALILEE, SEA OF.

3.  The Dead Sea, 1292 feet below the sea. See SALT SEA.

Lakum. [La'kum]

Border city of Naphtali. Joshua 19:33. Not identified.

Lamb.

The lamb is symbolical of meek submissiveness, and when selected for the sacrifices, must be without blemish and without spot: a very apt type of the Lord Jesus, the Lamb of God. He, the submissive and spotless One, was "like a lamb dumb before his shearer," and was proclaimed by John as "the Lamb of God which taketh away the sin of the world;" and again as 'the Lamb of God' as an object for the soul's contemplation. John 1:29, 36. In John's vision of heaven the Lord Jesus is seen as a Lamb 'which had been slain,' to whom universal adoration is given.

The special character attached to the title of 'Lamb' in the book of Revelation is that of suffering, the earth-rejected One, but seen in the midst of the throne in heaven. He who suffered is vindicated there, and finally possesses His bride, the new Jerusalem, in which the throne of God and of the Lamb is established. He will always bear the character of the chosen One of God "that taketh away the sin of the world" on the ground of the sacrifice of Himself. Rev. 5:6-13; Rev. 6:1, 16; Rev. 7:9-17; Rev. 12:11; Rev. 14:1-10; Rev. 15:3; Rev. 17:14; Rev. 19:7, 9; Rev. 21:9-27; Rev. 22:1, 3.  In all these passages in the Revelation the word is ἀρνίον, the diminutive of ἀρνός, 'a lamb,' signifying a 'young lamb,' or 'lambkin.' The same word was used by the Lord to Peter in John 21:15; "Feed my lambs," applying it to the Lord's young disciples.

Lamech. [La'mech]

1.  Descendant of Cain. He was the first to take two wives (sign of corruption); his sons were noted for making musical instruments, and working in brass and iron. Gen. 4:18-24. Lamech acknowledged his vengeance (sign of violence), for some injury he had received, but intimated his belief that God would watch over him as He had over the life of Cain. His address to his wives is poetical. See POETRY.

2.  Son of Methuselah and father of Noah. Gen. 5:25-31; 1 Chr. 1:3; Luke 3:36.

Lamentations of Jeremiah.

This book shows the compassion and interest God has in the afflictions of His people, and that these are not lessened even when the afflictions have been brought about by Himself because of their sins. It is declared of the Lord that "in all their affliction he was afflicted," Isa. 63:9; and this was seen when the Lord was on earth in His weeping over Jerusalem. Jeremiah had a like spirit and lamented over the calamities that had fallen upon his beloved people and their city Jerusalem. He appealed to the passers by: could they see such sorrow, caused by an affliction sent by Jehovah in His fierce wrath, and be unmoved by it? Lam. 1:12. Then he adds that Jehovah in these dealings was righteous, for they had rebelled against His commandments.

Lam. 3.  The prophet details his personal sufferings: they were like the sympathetic sufferings of Christ spoken of elsewhere; but in Lam. 3:22 the prophet remembers the mercies of Jehovah, and expresses his hope in Him. Because of His compassions they were not consumed; and it was good to wait and hope. Jehovah will not cast off for ever, and He does not afflict willingly. The prophet then calls for repentance and a turning to Jehovah. He has confidence that God hears, and he asks for the destruction of their enemies.

Lam. 4.  Jeremiah as in the presence of Jehovah spreads out all the humiliating reverses that had fallen upon them, mentioning separately the Nazarites, the prophets, the priests, and the people; and then he foretells that God's wrath should pass also unto Edom, who had doubtless rejoiced at the calamities of Jerusalem. He could add that the punishment of the daughter of Zion was accomplished, she should no more be carried away.

Lam. 5.  An affecting appeal is made to God. All had been confessed, and hope in God had been expressed; yet the afflictions pressed heavily upon the prophet. His last words are: "Turn thou us unto thee, O Lord, and we shall be turned; renew our days as of old. But thou hast utterly rejected us: thou art very wroth against us."

The composition of the Lamentations is uncommon. The first four chapters are arranged in alphabetical order and the chapters contain 22 verses each, the number of letters in the Hebrew alphabet, except that Lam. 3 has 22 stanzas of three verses, making in all 66. In Lam. 1, Lam. 2, and Lam. 4, verse 1 begins with A; verse 2 with B, and so on, as in some of the Psalms. In Lam. 3 each verse in a stanza begins with the same letter, thus verses 1, 2, 3 begin with A; verses 4, 5, 6 with B, and so on to the end. The prayer in Lam. 5: is not alphabetical. In the Hebrew Bible the 'Lamentations' form a part of the Hagiographa (Holy Writings), and is placed between Ruth and Ecclesiastes. In the Jewish Liturgy this book was appointed to be repeated on the Fast of the ninth of Ab (fifth month), to commemorate the destruction of the city and the temple by the Chaldeans and also by the Romans.

Lamp.

The lamp was commonly used to furnish artificial light, and numbers of them have been found in the ruins of Jerusalem and other cities, some being made of terra cotta and others of glass. In the 'golden candlestick' the light was obtained from lamps, and wherever the word 'candle' occurs a lamp is signified. The lamp is used symbolically for the light that is obtained from it; thus "Thy word is a lamp unto my feet." Ps. 119:105; Prov. 6:23. The ten virgins, when they went forth to meet the bridegroom, each took a lamp (more correctly a torch); but the issue made it manifest that the lamp without oil could give no light: a striking symbol of mere profession without the Holy Spirit. Matt. 25:1-8. Oil for the light is further exemplified in the candlestick in Zech. 4, where the seven lamps are furnished with oil by pipes from two olive trees: to these God's two witnesses in a future day are compared. Rev. 11:4. See LIGHT.

Lance,

kidon. A light spear that could be thrown at an enemy. Jer. 50:42.

Lancet,

romach. A spear used by warriors, with a metal point. 1 Kings 18:28. The word is often translated 'spear.' The priests of Baal, in their desperation, wounded themselves with this weapon.

Landmark.

Anything, as a stone or stake, that marked the boundary of a tribe, or of a man's possession. The moving of such was forbidden by the law. Deut. 19:14; Job 24:2; Prov. 22:28; Prov. 23:10.

Laodicea. [Laodice'a]

An important city in the district of Phrygia in Asia Minor. It forms a triangle with Hierapolis and Colosse. Its ancient name was Diospolis, but when Antiochus Theos rebuilt it he called it Laodicea, after the name of his wife. It became a wealthy city: on one occasion when it was destroyed by an earthquake the inhabitants were able to rebuild it without asking aid from the state: cf. Rev. 3:17. Its destruction has been complete: its ruins are called Eski-hissar.

There is no account of Paul having visited this city, but it is evident that the church there was on his heart and that he sought its welfare. All that is known of the state of the Laodicean church is gathered from the address sent to it through the apostle John (see REVELATION). Col. 2:1; Col. 4:13, 15, 16; Rev. 1:11; Rev. 3:11.

Laodiceans. [Laodice'ans]

Inhabitants of Laodicea. Col. 4:16; Rev. 3:14.

Lapidoth. [Lapi'doth]

Husband of Deborah the prophetess. Judges 4:4.

Lapwing,

dukiphath. This is generally supposed to refer to the Hoopoe, which rendering the R.V. has adopted. It is judged to be the Upupa epops. It feeds upon all sorts of insects, and its nest has a very unpleasant smell, either of which facts would be a sufficient reason for its being classed among the unclean birds. Lev. 11:19; Deut. 14:18. It has a conspicuous crest on its head, which it seems proud of displaying.

Lasea. [Lase'a]

City of Crete, near the port of the Fair Havens. Some ruins in the neighbourhood bear the ancient name. Acts 27:8.

Lasha. [La'sha]

Place which marked the limit of the country of the Canaanites. It was probably on the east of the Dead Sea. Gen. 10:19.

Lasharon. [Lasha'ron]

Canaanite city captured by Joshua. Joshua 12:18. Identified by some with Sarona, 32 43' N, 35 28' E.

Last Time or Days.

This was spoken of by the apostle John as then existing. There were many antichrists, whereby it was known that the last time (lit. hour) had commenced. 1 John 2:18. Apostasy from apostolic doctrine was a sign of the last time (it was not exactly the 'last days,' as in 2 Timothy). No further revelation had to be made, and if this doctrine was refused, nothing but judgement could be the result: cf. 2 Tim. 3:1; 2 Peter 3:3; Jude 18. The 'last days' of Heb. 1:2 and 'last times' of 1 Peter 1:20 are changed by Editors of the Greek Testament to the 'end of these days;' these passages refer to the end of the period of the law when the Messiah appeared.

Latchet.

The fastening, either by strap or ribbon, of the oriental shoe or sandal. Mentioned as a thing of the least value, and the unloosing of which was accounted a menial act. Gen. 14:23; Isa. 5:27; Mark 1:7; Luke 3:16; John 1:27.

Latin.

The language of the Romans. In scripture it is only mentioned as being one of the tongues in which Pilate wrote the inscription on the cross of the Lord Jesus. Luke 23:38; John 19:20. A number of words in the Greek of the New Testament are borrowed from the Latin. Such are σπεκουλάτωρ, 'an executioner,' Lat. speculator; σουδάριον, 'a napkin,' Lat. sudarium; etc.

Lattice.

The window of the East, formed of trellis work, which admitted air and light, yet screened from observation. Judges 5:28; 2 Kings 1:2; Cant. 2:9.

Laud.

To praise or celebrate. Rom. 15:11.

Laver.

This appertained to the tabernacle and the temple. It was placed between the tabernacle and the brazen altar, and the priests were required to wash their hands and their feet when they approached for any service. Ex. 30:18-21. The priests were at first thoroughly washed, but that was a distinct thing from the continual cleansing of their hands and feet. John 13:4-14 is somewhat analogous to this, where the apostles, though declared to be clean (except Judas), needed that their feet should be washed, because of the defilements of the way, in order to have part with Christ when He went to the Father. In the tabernacle it was hands as well as feet that were to be washed, because there it was service, as well as the sphere of their walk. Ex. 40:7, 11, 30.

The laver for the tabernacle was made of the brazen mirrors given by the women. Ex. 38:8; its shape and size are not specified. The laver for the temple was circular, being ten cubits in diameter, and (in round numbers) thirty in circumference, and five cubits in height. 1 Kings 7:26 states that it "contained 2000 baths," which probably refers to the quantity of water that was usually put into it; for 2 Chr. 4:5 says "it received and held 3000 baths," which may signify its full capacity. The above dimensions do not seem to agree with this capacity; but the definite shape of the laver is not given, it may have bulged out considerably in the middle.

The laver for the temple is called 'a molten sea,' and 'a brazen sea,' and was supported on twelve oxen. It was used for the same purpose as the laver of the tabernacle; but in the temple there were also ten smaller lavers at which the sacrifices were washed. 1 Kings 7:23-43; 2 Kings 16:17; 2 Chr. 4:6, 14.

Law.

The subject of 'law' is not restricted in scripture to the law given by Moses. God gave a commandment (or law) to Adam, which made Adam's subsequent sin to be transgression. Where there is no law there is no transgression (Rom. 4:15), though there may be sin, as there was from Adam to Moses: "until the law sin was in the world, but sin is not imputed [or put to account] when there is no law." Rom. 5:13. This doubtless signifies that specific acts were not put to account as a question of God's governmental dealings, when there was no law forbidding them. Men sinned, and death reigned, though they "had not sinned after the similitude of Adam's transgression" (Rom. 5:14), for no definite law had been given to them. The nations that had not the law were however a law unto themselves, having some sense of good and evil, and their conscience bore witness accordingly. It is not a true definition of sin, to say that it is "the transgression of the law," as in the A.V. of 1 John 3:4. The passage should read "Sin is lawlessness:" that is, man doing his own will, defiant of restraint, and regardless of his Creator and of his neighbour.

'Law' may be considered as a principle in contrast to 'grace,' in which sense it occurs in the N.T., the word 'law' being often without the article (though the law of Moses may at times be alluded to in the same way). In this sense it raises the question of what man is for God, and hence involves works. "The doers of [the] law shall be justified," Rom. 2:13; but if, on the other hand, salvation be "by grace, then is it no more of works: otherwise grace is no more grace." Rom. 11:6. The conclusion is that "by the deeds of [the] law there shall no flesh be justified in his sight." None can be saved on that principle. In opposition to it "the righteousness of God without [the] law is manifested." The believer is "justified freely by his grace through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus." Rom. 3:20-24. 'Law' a principle stands also in scripture in contrast to 'faith.'  "The just shall live by faith: and the law is not of faith; but the man that doeth them shall live in them." Gal. 3:11.

The word 'law' is also used for a fixed and unvarying principle such as 'a law of nature:' thus we read of the 'law of faith,'  'law of sin,'  'law of righteousness,'  'law of the Spirit of life,' etc.; cf. Rom. 7:21.

The term 'law' is occasionally used in the N.T. as a designation of other parts of the O.T. besides the Pentateuch. The Lord said, "Is it not written in your law, I said, Ye are gods ?" when the quotation was from the Psalms. John 10:34: similarly 1 Cor. 14:21.

The LAW OF LIBERTY, James 1:25; James 2:12, implies that, the nature being congruous, the things enjoined, instead of being a burden, are a pleasure. Doing the commandments of the Lord is the fruit of the divine nature: they are therefore both law and liberty.

Law of Moses.

The law was like a straight edge given by God to make manifest the crookedness of man. "[The] law entered that the offence might abound " (Rom. 5:20), that is, not to increase sin, but to show its offensiveness, and to bring it home to the soul. "By [the] law is the knowledge of sin." Rom. 3:20. The apostle said that he would not have known lust had not the law said, "Thou shalt not covet." Rom. 7:7. The object of the law therefore was to evince the heinousness of sin, while it was a test of the obedience of man to God. It was given to Israel only, the one nation which was under God's special dealings, and in which He was trying man in the flesh. The heading of the ten commandments is "I am the Lord thy God, which have brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage," and this could apply only to the Israelites. Again, God says, "You only have I known of all the families of the earth: therefore I will punish you for all your iniquities." Amos 3:2. The Gentiles are described as not having the law, Rom. 2:14, though they had the work of the law written in their hearts, and a conscience which bore witness when they did wrong. As the Gentiles became associated with Israel, and heard what God required morally of man, they doubtless became more or less responsible according to the light received. But greater light having come in, the Galatian Christians are sharply rebuked for putting themselves under law, where, as Gentiles, they never had been. Some things forbidden in the law were wrong intrinsically, such as theft, murder, etc.; but other things were wrong only because God had forbidden them, such as the command to abstain from eating certain creatures called 'unclean.'

The law in its enactment of sacrifices and feasts was essentially typical and foreshadowed what was to be fulfilled in Christ. In accordance with this, Paul, as a Jew, could say, "The law was our schoolmaster unto Christ;" and the Lord said, "Had ye believed Moses, ye would have believed me: for he wrote of me." John 5:46. This is an important point, for the passage that speaks of the law as the schoolmaster goes on to say that it was in order that they "might be justified by faith." After that faith was come believers were no longer under a schoolmaster. Gal. 3:25. A converted Jew was no longer under the law — how much less a Gentile believer whom God had never put under the law! See SCHOOLMASTER.

This is often construed to mean that while the Christian is not under the law for justification, he is under it for walk, as a rule of life. This theory is however opposed to scripture, which says, "sin shall not have dominion over you: for ye are not under the law, but under grace." Rom. 6:14. A Christian has died with Christ and lives unto God, beyond the jurisdiction of law, which applies to man in the flesh, man 'in Adam.' Christianity is not in its true power apart from death and resurrection. See also Gal. 5:18.

Many contend that the ceremonial law is abrogated, but that the moral law is binding upon all. This distinction between the ceremonial and the moral law can only be true in so far as the law is the embodiment of moral principles, which must ever be the rule of conduct for an intelligent being as such. So the righteous requirements of the law are fulfilled now in those who walk after the Spirit — while they are said to have become dead to the law by the body of Christ. Scripture speaks only of 'the law.' The law engraven on stones (the ten commandments) is called "the ministration of death," not the law of life to a Christian. 2 Cor. 3:7. Law gives no power over sin; indeed, no sooner does a law say that a particular thing must not be done, than a desire arises to do it. Scripture does not say a word about the Christian being ruled by law; but it says that grace teaches him how to walk (Titus 2:11, 12), and because he is under grace sin will not have dominion over him. The law depicted what a righteous man should be for the earth. It was perfect for the purpose for which it was given, but as seen in the question of divorce (Mark 10:4) it permitted what God had not intended for man at the beginning, and to this Christ bore witness. In Matt. 5:21-48 the Lord mentions five particulars, which they had heard in old time, in contrast to which He legislates in accordance with the new order of things that He was bringing in. The law did not come up to the responsibilities of Christianity. The Christian has a higher standard, even Christ Himself. He is to walk 'worthy of the Lord' unto all pleasing. Having received Christ Jesus the Lord, he is to walk in Him, Col. 1:10; Col. 2:6; and to walk also 'worthy of God,' 1 Thess. 2:12; indeed his aim should be to say, with Paul, "To me to live is Christ." Phil. 1:21.

Man naturally clings to law because it recognises him as alive in the flesh. And though the curse follows the not keeping it in all points, yet he is not willing to give up that ground. Christ glorified is the One whom God now recognises — He only suits God's glory. Hence every one that is not 'in Christ' is a sinner already condemned by the light that has come in.

Lawgiver.

This in the first place refers to God; but in human affairs He is pleased to delegate His authority to the rulers, and Judah is twice mentioned as God's lawgiver. Gen. 49:10; Num. 21:18; Deut. 33:21; Ps. 60:7; Ps. 108:8; Isa. 33:22; James 4:12.

Lawless.

The word is ἄνομος, and is translated 'without law' in 1 Cor. 9:21; it is applied to those who, regardless of all law, do their own will. Acts 2:23; 2 Thess. 2:8; 1 Tim. 1:9; 2 Peter 2:8. It is wrongly translated 'transgressor' in the A.V. of Mark 15:28 and Luke 22:37. A kindred word is translated 'transgression of the law' in 1 John 3:4, which as a definition of sin is a serious error: it should be 'sin is lawlessness,' and this term is equally applicable to those who never had the law.

Lawyer.

A teacher of the law, one who expounded the law. Nicodemus was probably one, for the Lord called him a 'teacher of Israel.' The Lord said of the lawyers that they put heavy burdens on others, but did not touch them themselves; and in their expositions they took away the key of knowledge. They did not enter in themselves, and hindered those who were entering — a solemn description that may, alas, apply to some in this day, such as are elsewhere described as 'blind leaders of the blind.' Matt. 22:35; Luke 7:30; Luke 10:25; Luke 11:45-52; Luke 14:3; Titus 3:13.

Laying on of Hands.

See HANDS.

Lazarus. [Laz'arus]

1.  Brother of Martha and Mary, and a resident at Bethany. Jesus loved them all, and He spoke of Lazarus as 'our friend.' Very little is recorded of him except the striking fact that he was raised from the dead by the Lord Jesus, which manifested the glory of God and glorified the Son of God. When his sisters made the Lord a supper at Bethany, Lazarus was one of those who sat with Him. He was a living witness of the power of the Son of God over death, and as such he was in danger of being killed by the Jews, on account of many believing on the Lord because of him. John 11:1-43; John 12:1-17.

2.  The poor man in the parable of Luke 16.  His circumstances are related — his poverty, his sores, and his desiring to be fed with the crumbs that fell from the rich man's table; but nothing is said as to his moral character. Neither is the rich man spoken of as a wicked man, though it is clear that he was living to himself and not to God; he was neither loving his neighbour as himself, nor was he sacrificing the present for the future. The teaching of the parable appears to be that worldly prosperity, which had been a token in O.T. times of God's blessing, was used to exclude the Blesser from the thoughts and life of the man rich in this world only. The poor man entered into Abraham's bosom, and the rich man into torments. Though a parable, it is a vivid picture of the reality of existence after death, and of the different conditions in that existence. Luke 16:19-31.

Lead,

ophereth. The well-known heavy metal. It is mentioned as early as Ex. 15:10, where its weight is alluded to. Job speaks of it, apparently, as being used for filling in the engravings on stones. It was no doubt also used for making solder. Num. 31:22; Job 19:24; Jer. 6:29; Ezek. 22:18, 20; Ezek. 27:12; Zech. 5:7, 8.

League.

See ALLIANCE.

Leah. [Le'ah]

The elder daughter of Laban, given to Jacob as wife through the artifice of her father. She was 'tender eyed,' and not as beautiful as Rachel; but she was blessed of God in bearing to Jacob six sons and one daughter, and was thus the mother of the heads of the important tribes of Reuben, Levi, and Judah, as well as of Simeon, Issachar, and Zebulun. Gen. 29:16-35; Gen. 30:9-21; Gen. 31:4, 14, 33; Gen. 33:1, 2, 7; Gen. 49:31.

Leannoth. [Lean'noth]

See MAHALATH

Leasing.

The Hebrew word is commonly translated 'lies.' Ps. 4:2; Ps. 5:6. The word 'leasing' is from the Anglo-Saxon leas, 'false.' Wiclif, in John 8:44, translated "Whanne he spekith lesynge."

Leather.

Elijah is described as a "hairy man, and girt with a girdle of leather." 2 Kings 1:8. The same Hebrew word is many times translated 'skin.' In the N.T. John the Baptist had about his loins a 'leathern girdle,' Matt. 3:4; or 'of a skin' as in Mark 1:6. We read of Simon a tanner in Acts 9:43; Acts 10:6, 32; and the monuments show that the art of tanning was practised in Egypt, so that without doubt it was also known to the Israelites.

Leaven.

This was early used in the fermentation of bread. As a symbol it is always used in scripture for the working of the human element, whether mind or flesh, in the things of God, and hence evil. It was strictly forbidden to be burnt in any offering made by fire (Lev. 2:11); but in the peace offering, besides the unleavened cakes and wafers, the offerer was to present leavened bread, which was to be eaten. Lev. 7:12, 13; Lev. 23:17, 18. Its presence here might seem to suggest an exception to the statement that leaven always signifies that form of evil; but it is not, for the peace offering typifies worship, and there, alas, the worshipper is not entirely free from indwelling sin. In the parable of 'the leaven hid in the meal,' it also represents the same evil, which in an insidious way permeates the mass with which it is mixed. The solemn words are added, "till the whole was leavened." Luke 13:20, 21. It is only a too true similitude of the kingdom of God, for everywhere evil is spreading therein. In Matt. 16:6-12 leaven is applied to the teaching of the Pharisees and Sadducees. In the church, leaven when discovered must be purged out, for "a little leaven leaveneth the whole lump," 1 Cor. 5:6-8 but in the kingdom it is represented as working until all is leavened. Matt. 13:33. It is then that the King will purge out from His kingdom all that offend and commit iniquity, and cast them into a furnace of fire.

Lebana, [Leba'na] Lebanah. [Leba'nah]

Ancestor of some Nethinim who returned from exile. Ezra 2:45; Neh. 7:48.

Lebanon. [Leb'anon]

The mountain range in the north of Palestine. Its name signifies 'white,' and may have arisen from some of its peaks being always covered with snow, or from the whiteness of its limestone cliffs. It is mentioned as the northern boundary of Palestine. Deut. 1:7; Deut. 11:24; Joshua 1:4. There are two ranges bearing this name, the southern terminus of both being about 33 23' N, 35 30' E. They run N.E. nearly parallel with the Mediterranean; a fertile valley, from five to eight miles wide, running between them. This is mentioned in Joshua 11:17. Its modern name is El Bukeiah. The valley may be considered as being prolonged southward in the Jordan valley.

The western range is the Lebanon generally referred to in scripture and the one from whence Solomon obtained cedar and fir trees for the temple. 1 Kings 5:8, 9; Ps. 29:5; Isa. 14:8. Of the cedars only a few remain. There are many villages situated on the small plains on the mountains, with patches of grain growing here and there; vines also are cultivated from which excellent wine is made. Hosea 14:7. Firs grow, clinging as it were to the bare rock, yet quite secure. Hosea 14:5. Olives, figs, and mulberries also abound, and a number of aromatic shrubs, which perfume the air, as alluded to in Cant. 4:11. Wild beasts still inhabit the glens and peaks as they did in O.T. times. 2 Kings 14:9; Cant. 4:8; Hab. 2:17. Its modern name is Jebel Libnan.

The eastern range is often called ANTI-LEBANON, but in scripture it is alluded to as 'Lebanon toward the sun-rising.' Joshua 13:5. Its modern name is Jebel esh Shurky. Mount Hermon is its southern point. The road from Beyrout [Beirut] to Damascus crosses both the mountains of Lebanon.

Lebanon, [Leb'anon] Tower of.

Only mentioned symbolically in Cant. 7:4: it is supposed to refer to mount Hermon.

Lebaoth. [Leba'oth]

Town in the south of Judah. Joshua 15:32. Not identified.

Lebbaeus. [Leb'baeus]

One of the twelve apostles, who was surnamed THADDAEUS, Matt. 10:3; apparently the apostle Jude. See JUDAS.

Lebonah. [Lebo'nah]

City near to Bethel and Shechem. Judges 21:19. Identified with el Lubban, 32 4' N, 35 14' E.

Lecah. [Le'cah]

Son of Er, a descendant of Judah. 1 Chr. 4:21.

Leeks,

chatsir. The Hebrew word seems to refer to what is 'green,' and is often translated 'grass;' twice it is rendered 'hay ' and once 'herb,' but the leek is very likely referred to in Num. 11:5. The Israelites longed for such as they had eaten in Egypt. The Allium porrum has long been a favourite in the East. Dr. Kitto preferred the Trigonella foerum graecum, a grass similar to clover.

Lees.

'Wines on the lees' are wines left undisturbed on their sediment to mature. Isa. 25:6. The expression 'settled on the lees' is used figuratively of Moab, which had not been disturbed as other nations. Jer. 48:11. Also for those who in Jerusalem remained indifferent and undisturbed amidst the evils upon which punishments were threatened. Zeph. 1:12. A very significant type of the poor apathetic world, and of the self-satisfied and unconcerned spirit of Christendom.

Legion.

In the Roman army a body of troops consisting of from three to five thousand; but the term is also used for an indefinite number. The Lord said that His Father on His request would send Him more than twelve legions of angels. Matt. 26:53. The demons who possessed the man among the Gadarenes said, "My name is Legion; for we are many." Mark 5:9, 15; Luke 8:30.

Lehabim. [Leha'bim]

Son of Mizraim. Gen. 10:13; 1 Chr. 1:11. Probably the founder of the Lubim. See LIBYA.

Lehi. [Le'hi]

Place in Judah, near to the land of the Philistines. It was where Samson slew a thousand men with the jaw-bone of an ass. Judges 15:9-17. Lehi signifies 'jaw-bone,' but whether the place had this name before the victory or after is not clear. Samson called the place RAMATHLEHI, 'hill of the jaw-bone.' Judges 15:19 is better translated, "God clave the hollow place that is in Lehi," that is, in the rock, not in the jaw-bone.

Lemuel. [Lemu'el]

The name of a king, to whom was given, by his mother, the instruction recorded in Prov. 31:1-9. The name does not occur elsewhere, and is supposed by some to be a symbolical one, signifying 'godward,' or '(created) by God,' Gesenius.

Lentils,

adashim. The small seeds of different kinds of vetch used for food. The Arabic name is Adas. When ground, the meal can be made into a palatable red pottage. Gen. 25:34; 2 Sam. 23:11. Lentils formed part of the provisions furnished to David and his followers on the revolt of Absalom. 2 Sam. 17:28. They were also used in a time of scarcity, and among the poor, as an ingredient of their bread. Ezek. 4:9. The Ervum lens is cultivated in Palestine.

Leopard.

The Hebrew word, namer, signifies a 'spotted' animal. This well-known wild animal is introduced by the prophet as an illustration: as the leopard cannot change its spots, no more can rebellious man change his nature. Jer. 13:23. The leopard is also represented as lying in wait and watching its prey, and acting with swiftness. Jer. 5:6; Hosea 13:7; Hab. 1:8. The Grecian kingdom was compared to a leopard with four wings, Dan. 7:6; and it answered to this in the rapidity of its conquests. The future Roman empire is symbolically likened to a leopard, but having the feet of a bear, and the mouth of a lion: that is, like no known beast, but symbolically uniting the characteristics of the three former powers. Rev. 13:2. In the millennium "the leopard shall lie down with the kid." Isa. 11:6. The common leopard is the Leopardus varius.

Leprosy.

This loathsome and, for millennia, incurable disease is often mentioned in scripture. Some persons were smitten with leprosy as a direct judgement from God, as were Miriam (though she in grace was subsequently cured), Gehazi, and Amaziah; in the case of Gehazi the disease was to descend also to his seed. God's power alone could cure the leper, as seen in the case of Naaman the Syrian, and in the many lepers that the Lord cured when on earth. Amaziah dwelt in a separate house, and the lepers were enjoined to proclaim their own condition by calling out, "Unclean, Unclean." Lev. 12:45.

Leprosy is a vivid type of sin, and its insidious working, producing an unclean condition. Lev. 13 and Lev.14 treat of the way it was to be discovered and dealt with by the priests as those having the mind of God. The instruction in Lev.13:12, 13, though seemingly paradoxical, is significant: when the leprosy covered all the skin, the priest was to pronounce the man clean: "it is all turned white: he is clean." That is, the leprosy, instead of striking inwards, had worked itself out, typical of a man truly confessing his sin; then the effect only of the defilement remains.

Besides leprosy in the person, laws were also given as to leprosy in a garment, answering to the sin that may be in a person's surroundings, which must be cleansed or destroyed. There is also leprosy in the house (when they were come into the land), answering to manifest sin in a christian assembly, which must be removed, or the assembly must be dissolved. Holiness becomes God's house.

Leshem. [Le'shem]

See LAISH.

Letter, The.

This expression occurs in Rom. 2:29; Rom. 7:6; 2 Cor. 3:6, where the apostle contrasts it with 'the spirit:'  "the letter killeth, but the spirit giveth life." Whether of the law or of the gospel, the mere intellectual reception of the words only leads to formality and death; it is only what is 'of the Spirit' that can result in life. The Lord is the spirit of all that is written in letters in scripture.

Letushim. [Letu'shim]

Son of Dedan, a son of Jokshan. Gen. 25:3.

Leummim. [Leum'mim]

Son of Dedan, a son of Jokshan. Gen. 25:3.

Levi. [Le'vi]

1.  The third son of Jacob and Leah. Gen. 29:34. Very little is recorded of Levi: he joined with Simeon in the treacherous and vindictive dealings with Shechem. Gen. 34:25-31. When Jacob blessed his sons, a curse was pronounced on their cruelty, and it is added "I will divide them in Jacob and scatter them in Israel." The above illustrates the righteous government of God, which is in no way set aside by the reward of after faithful conduct, which caused this tribe to be chosen for the Levitical service and the priesthood: cf. Mal. 2:4, 6. It was sovereign grace. For the blessings on Levi's descendants by Moses, see Deut. 33:8-11. His three sons, Gershon, Kohath, and Merari were heads of the three branches of the LEVITES, q.v.

2.  Another name of MATTHEW the apostle. Mark 2:14; Luke 5:27, 29.

3, 4. Son of Melchi, and son of Simeon, in the genealogy of the Lord Jesus. Luke 3:24, 29, 30.

Leviathan.

This is really a Hebrew word (livyathan), and is generally believed to refer to any great sea or land monster, it is now postulated that the description is likely to be of a dinosaur.

It is thus an apt symbol of the enemy of God's people. Ps. 74:14. In Isa. 27:1 it also typifies Satan: "leviathan the piercing serpent, even leviathan that crooked serpent," whom God will punish. In Ps. 104:26 the reference may be to any sea monster, for it is in connection with the 'great and wide sea,' that is, the Mediterranean. In Job 3:8 it should be translated 'leviathan,' instead of 'their mourning,' and this confirms the general meaning of some monster.

Levites. [Le'vites]

The tribe that descended from Levi, son of Jacob. When Moses came down from the mount and saw the golden calf which the people had made, he asked, "Who is on the Lord's side? let him come unto me. And all the sons of Levi gathered themselves together unto him." He bade them gird on their swords and slay every man his brother, his companion, and his neighbour. And there fell of the people that day about three thousand. Moses spoke of it as consecrating themselves to the Lord, every man upon his son, and upon his brother, that God might bestow a blessing upon them. Ex. 32:26-29.

The Levites were chosen by God as a redemption for all the firstborn of Israel, which God claimed for Himself. They thus became wholly His, and they were given to Aaron to minister in all that pertained to the service of the tabernacle, except the priesthood, which was restricted to Aaron and his descendants. Num. 3:5-51.

Of the Levites there were three main branches: the GERSHONITES, the KOHATHITES, and the MERARITES. Moses and Aaron were descendants of Kohath. When the camp of Israel rested, this tribe surrounded the tabernacle. When it moved they had to carry its various parts and the sacred things belonging thereto. According to Num. 4:3, etc., the Levites appear to have commenced their tabernacle service at the age of thirty; but in Num. 8:24-26 the age is given as twenty-five. It may be that they spent the first five years on probation, learning their duties. When Israel had settled in Canaan and the labour of carrying the tabernacle was over, they commenced their service at the age of twenty. They laboured till they were fifty years of age. 1 Chr. 23:24-27.

Before the Levites entered upon any service they were thoroughly cleansed and consecrated. The children of Israel put their hands upon them, and Aaron offered them "before the Lord for an offering of the children of Israel" that they might execute the service of the Lord. An atonement was made for them. Num. 8:5-26.

The Levites had no inheritance in the land, and in order that they might be free to serve the Lord, tithes were given them. Num. 18:1-32. Forty-eight cities were given to them as places to dwell in, and the suburbs thereof for their cattle. Six of these cities were to be CITIES OF REFUGE. Num. 35:1-8. The names of the cities are given in Joshua 20:7-9; Joshua 21:1-42.

In the time of David the Levites were set over 'the service of song;' others were door-keepers: some were singers and others played on various instruments. 1 Chr. 6:31; 1 Chr. 15:16, 26. In the days of Hezekiah after the temple had been cleansed, the Levites apparently helped to flay the sacrifices, being found "more upright in heart to sanctify themselves than the priests." 2 Chr. 29:34. At the Passover that followed, the Levites had the charge of killing the passover lambs for the people who were unclean. 2 Chr. 30:17. On the return from exile the Levites helped to explain the law to the people. Neh. 8:7, 8. In the N.T. the Levites are mentioned only in Luke 10:32; John 1:19; Acts 4:36.

The Levites are typical of Christians, who are redeemed, cleansed, and consecrated to the service of the Lord, and have no inheritance on earth.

Leviticus, [Levit'icus] Book of.

The title of this Book was copied from the Septuagint; but why it was so called is not known, the Levites are but seldom mentioned in it. The Hebrew has simply the first word of the book for its title. The book is occupied with the way of approach to God, who is looked upon as dwelling in the holy of holies. The people having been redeemed from Egypt, and having received God's covenant, and promised obedience thereto, are in relation with God, and come to Him as worshippers. They must approach in the way He directs and must be in a suited state to approach, which approach could only be accomplished through God's appointed priests. The Epistle to the Hebrews takes up many of the same subjects for the Christian, but there they often stand in contrast to what is found here. This is especially the case in the veil which here shut in the holy of holies, where the high priest could enter only once a year, and then with blood; whereas now the veil is rent, God has come out, with grace to all, and every Christian has access to the presence of God. In Leviticus there was a continued remembrance of sins; but by the one sacrifice of Christ He hath perfected for ever them that are sanctified.

The opening of the book shows that it is not merely an addition to the law given at Sinai: God spoke it to Moses "out of the tabernacle of the congregation," except the last three chapters. He as among the people, directs everything. Lev. 1 — Lev. 7 give the sacrifices, all of which are needed to embrace the varied aspects of the death of Christ. The four principal offerings are given in this order: the burnt offering, the meat offering, the peace offering, and the sin offering: it begins with God's side first, what Christ is to God; but in the consecrating of Aaron, the sin offering came first, Lev. 8; and must be so when man's need is in view. For the teaching of the sacrifices see OFFERINGS.

Lev. 8 — Lev. 10  give the sanctification of Aaron and his sons (see AARON); and the failure of Nadab and Abihu.

Lev. 11  distinguishes the clean and the unclean animals for food.

Lev. 12 — Lev. 15  give laws respecting purification of women; leprosy, q.v.; and the uncleanness of men.

Lev. 16.  See ATONEMENT, DAY OF.

Lev. 17 - 22  give many instructions bearing upon holiness, and the avoidance of all uncleanness.

Lev. 23  The feasts of Jehovah. See FEASTS.

Lev. 24  gives divers laws: Israel's position internally before God, and externally in the world.

Lev. 25  The Sabbatical years and the year of Jubilee. See JUBILEE.

Lev. 26  Threats and promises realised in the nation's after history.

Lev. 27  Concerning vows, etc.

The book ends with "These are the commandments which the Lord commanded Moses for the children of Israel in mount Sinai." This apparently embraces the last three chapters, for Lev. 25 commences with "And the Lord spake unto Moses in mount Sinai," in contrast to Lev. 1 which was spoken to him out of the tabernacle. These three chapters refer more to what God is in government, than to what He is as the One to be worshipped, with which the previous part of the book is occupied, giving directions as to how alone He could be approached, together with injunctions as to many things that would be inconsistent in the worshippers of Jehovah.

Libertines.

These are supposed to have been Jews who after having been captured by the Romans had been set at liberty: hence their name. It is well known that there were such. They formed a party at Jerusalem, and were among those who persecuted Stephen. Acts 6:9.

Liberty.

Besides the common application of this term, it is used in scripture symbolically, as

1.  The liberty obtained by Christ for those that were captives of Satan. Isa. 61:1; Luke 4:18; John 8:36.

2.  The conscience set free from guilt, as when the Lord said to several, "Thy sins be forgiven thee: go in peace."

3.  Freedom from the law, etc. "Stand fast therefore in the liberty wherewith Christ hath made us free." Rom. 7:24, 25; Gal. 5:1. Jesus said, "I am the door: by me if any man enter in he shall be saved, and shall go in and out, and find pasture." John 10:9.

4.  The Christian's deliverance from the power of sin by having died with Christ, as in Rom. 6:8-22; and, having reckoned himself dead to sin, experimentally enjoying liberty, as in Rom. 8:2-4, after experiencing that the flesh is too strong for him The deliverance is realised by the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus, and the love of God is known and enjoyed. Christ is then the object before the soul, and not self.

Libnah. [Lib'nah]

1.  One of the stations at which the Israelites encamped. Num. 33:20, 21.

2.  City in the south-west taken by Joshua and its inhabitants totally destroyed. It was allotted to Judah and was afterwards given to the priests. It revolted from Jehoram. Afterwards it was besieged by Sennacherib, but apparently was not taken. Joshua 10:29-39; Joshua 21:13; 1 Chr. 6:57; 2 Chr. 21:10; Isa. 37:8; Jer. 52:1. Not identified.

Libni. [Lib'ni]

1.  Son of Gershon, the son of Levi. Ex. 6:17; Num. 3:18; 1 Chr. 6:17, 20.

2.  Son of Mahli, and grandson of Merari. 1 Chr. 6:29.

Libnites. [Lib'nites]

Descendants of Libni, the son of Gershon. Num. 3:21; Num. 26:58.

Libya, [Lib'ya] Libyans. [Lib'yans]

The part of Africa west of Egypt, and the inhabitants of the same. Jer. 46:9; Ezek. 38:5; Dan. 11:43; Acts 2:10. The Hebrew is Phut. The same district is called LUBIM in Nahum 3:9, and its inhabitants LUBIMS in 2 Chr. 12:3; 2 Chr.16:8. They are supposed to be descendants of Phut, the son of Ham. They are classed with the Ethiopians, and were allies of Egypt.

Lice.

See PLAGUES OF EGYPT.

Lieutenants,

achashdarpenim. Governors of districts in the Persian kingdom, otherwise known as satraps or viceroys. Ezra 8:36; Esther 3:12; Esther 8:9; Esther 9:3.

Life.

Life is that by which a created being enjoys the place in which the Creator has set it. God breathed into man's nostrils 'the breath of life; and man became a living soul.' Gen. 2:7. Sin having come in, this life is forfeited and God claims it, saying, "surely your blood of your lives will I require; at the hand of every beast will I require it, and at the hand of man; at the hand of every man's brother will I require the life of man." Gen. 9:5. This instituted capital punishment for murder, which law has never been rescinded or altered.

Scripture recognises a difference between 'life' in a moral sense and 'existence,' as seen in the passage, "What man is he that desireth life, and loveth many days, that he may see good?" Ps. 34:12. Here is a man desiring life, desiring to enjoy life. This answers the objection of those who, wishing to deny eternal punishment, say that 'living for ever' is only spoken of the Christian, as in John 6:51, 58. True, but many other scriptures prove that the wicked will have an eternal existence.

Man, in his natural state, is regarded as morally dead in sins, and as needing to be quickened by the power of God; or as living in sins and needing to accept death in order to live in Christ, as in the Epistle to the Romans.

Life, Eternal.

This stands commonly in scripture in contrast to death. It is revealed in the Lord Jesus. "He is the true God, and eternal life."  "This is the record, that God hath given to us eternal life, and this life is in his Son. He that hath the Son hath life; and he that hath not the Son of God hath not life." 1 John 5:11, 12, 20. He that has the Son of God therefore has life now, and knows it by the Holy Spirit, the Spirit of life. The apostle John speaks of life as a subjective state in believers, though inseparable from the knowledge of God fully revealed as the Father in the Son, and indeed characterised by this. The Lord said to His Father, "This is life eternal, that they might know thee the only true God, and Jesus Christ, whom thou hast sent." John 17:3. The apostle Paul presents eternal life more as a hope before the Christian, which however has a present moral effect. Titus 1:2; Titus 3:7. From which we gather that eternal life for the Christian refers in its fulness to the glory of God, when the present body as a part of the old creation will be changed, and there will be complete conformity to Christ, according to the purpose of God. In the meantime the mind of God is that the Christian, indwelt by the Holy Spirit, should know (have the conscious knowledge) that he has eternal life. 1 John 5:13. For Christians it is evident that eternal life is morally distinct from life after the flesh.

Light.

Besides the references to physical light as existing distinct from the sun, and then emanating from the sun as the great light-bearer, the term is mainly used in scripture in a moral sense. Light from God is His word revealing Himself, and not only making manifest the dangers here, but acting as a lamp in showing the true path. Ps. 119:105. The Psalmist asked Jehovah to lift upon him the light of His countenance ( Ps. 4:6 ), and declared that Jehovah Himself was his light, Ps. 27:1. As natural light brings vigour and health to the body, so the light of God gives cheerfulness and strength to the soul.

"God is light," and the Lord Jesus came to the earth as the true light which lighteth every man. He not only exposed all the evil in the world and all the false pretensions of the leaders of Israel; but "the life was the light of men." John 1:4; John 8:12. Christians are "light in the Lord," and are exhorted to walk as "children of light." Eph. 5:8; 1 Thess. 5:5. In the midst of darkness they are set to shine as lights in the world. Phil. 2:15. A grave responsibility rests upon them lest they should not have the heavenly lustre that would characterise them as having in their hearts the light of the glory of the Lord. If the light in the Christian become darkness by his not walking in the reality of it, how great is that darkness! Matt. 6:23.

It has been very properly said that light is appropriately descriptive of God; for light, invisible in itself, manifests everything. Christians, as we have seen, are 'light in the Lord,' and thus convict the unfruitful works of darkness; but here we may notice that it is not said of them, as of God, that they are 'love,' for love is the sovereign spring of activity in God.

Lign Aloes.

See ALOES.

Ligure,

leshem. The first in the third row of gems in the breastplate. It is supposed by some to be the hyacinth, by others the lyncurium, and by others amber; but its identification is uncertain. Ex. 28:19; Ex. 39:12.

Likeness.

See IMAGE.

Likhi. [Lik'hi]

Son of Shemidah, of the tribe of Manasseh. 1 Chr. 7:19.

Lily,

shushan, κρίνον. The well-known flower of graceful form, of which there are several species that grow in the fields and valleys of Palestine. One of great beauty grows near the Merom waters, and is called the Huleh-lily. In the Canticles the bride calls herself 'a lily of the valley,' to which the Bridegroom responds, "as the lily among thorns, so is my love among the daughters." Cant. 2:1, 2. Israel is to grow up as a lily in a future day. Hosea 14:5. The pattern of the lily was among the ornamental work of the temple. The lily is extolled by the Lord as exceeding in beauty all the glory of Solomon. 1 Kings 7:19, 22, 26; Cant. 2:16; Cant. 4:5; Cant. 5:13; Cant. 6:2, 3; Cant. 7:2; Matt. 6:28; Luke 12:27. Some suppose the Lilium Chalcedonicum, the 'red Turk's-cap lily,' to have been the plant referred to by the Lord. Others think it was probably the Anemone coronaria, which they judge to have been included in the Greek κρινον. The term may be general, as the modern Arabic susan. LILY-WORK is ornamentation in resemblance to lilies. 1 Kings 7:19, 22. See SHOSHANNIM.

Lime.

The use of this material was evidently understood by the Israelites. Isa. 33:12 speaks of the 'burnings of lime;' and in Amos 2:1 judgement is pronounced upon Moab because of having "burned the bones of the king of Edom into lime."

Linen.

Various Hebrew and Greek words are translated 'linen,' and there can be no doubt that linen made of flax was known in ancient Egypt and to the Israelites; but cloths generally are called linen' whether made of cotton or flax, some being distinguished as 'fine linen,' such as was worn by the priests, kings, etc. The word shesh, often translated 'fine linen' and 'fine twined linen' (for the curtains of the tabernacle, etc.) signifies 'whiteness,' and is applicable to both fine linen and cotton. Ex. 26:1, 31. Joseph was arrayed in 'vestures of fine linen.' Gen. 41:42. The wrappings on the ancient Egyptian mummies were for a long time judged to be cotton, but by the use of the microscope they have been discovered to be linen.

Lintel.

In Ex. 12:22, 23 the 'lintel' is the beam that runs along the top of a door and joins the two side-posts. The word is mashqoph, and occurs only in the above passage and in Ex. 12:7, where it is translated 'upper door post,' but clearly means the lintel. In 1 Kings 6:31 the word is ayil, which is often translated 'posts.' In this passage its meaning is doubtful. In Amos 9:1; Zeph. 2:14 the word is kaphtor, which is elsewhere translated 'knop.' It may refer to some device placed over a door.

Linus. [Li'nus]

Christian at Rome whose greetings were sent to Timothy by Paul. 2 Tim. 4:21.

Lion.

There are several Hebrew words translated 'lion,' the principal of which is ari, from 'to tear.' The lion is declared to be the "strongest among beasts and turneth not away for any." Prov. 30:30. This shows that the lion may be taken as a symbol of 'strength,' and as such the Lord is called the lion of the tribe of Judah, to which is attached the symbol of royalty, for Judah held the sceptre. Gen. 49:9, 10; Rev. 5:5. Satan also has a kingdom and is called a strong one, Matt. 12:26; and he is the 'lion' seeking whom he may devour. He is compared to a 'roaring lion,' because he is like that animal, which roars when it is sure of its prey: cf. Amos 3:4. The Lord knows how to deliver His servants even out of the mouth of the lion.

Lion-like Men.

See ARIEL.

Litter.

Sedan or light coach, mentioned among the various means by which the Jews will be conveyed to the promised land. Isa. 66:20.

Liver.

The large and heavy gland that secretes the bile. In the sacrifices it is named only to point out the caul which is above it. Ex. 29:13, 22; Lev. 3:4, etc. To be wounded in the liver is fatal. Prov. 7:23. The liver being poured out is symbolical of deep anguish. Lam. 2:11: cf. Job 16:13. Among the heathen the liver was one of the parts of an animal that were examined in order to foretell events, as practised by the king of Babylon. Ezek. 21:21.

Living Creatures.

These in Ezekiel point symbolically to the attributes of God in connection with His throne, and His acting upon earth in His judicial government and providence. There were wheels on earth, and there was a wheel within a wheel. These wheels acted in concert with the living creatures; for the spirit of the living creatures was in the wheels. The faces of these living creatures correspond with the faces of the ' four beasts' (which should be translated 'living creatures,' the word being ζῶον, and not θηρίον, which occurs for the 'beasts' of Ezek. 13 etc.) in Rev. 4, etc. Each living creature had four faces: the first was the face of a man, which speaks of 'intelligence;' the second the face of a lion, which symbolises 'strength.' the third the face of an ox, representing 'patient endurance;' and the fourth the face of an eagle, which implies 'swiftness of execution.' All show perfect organisation for carrying out the government of God according to His righteous judgement. Ezek. 1:5-25; Ezek. 3:13; Ezek. 10:15-22. See CHERUBIM.

Lizard,

letaah. This occurs only in Lev. 11:30 among the creatures not to be eaten. Lizards of different species abound in Palestine. They feed upon insects and small reptiles.

Loammi. [Lo-ammi]

Symbolical name of a son of Hosea, signifying 'not my people.' Hosea 1:9. The same words occur in Hosea 1:10 and Hosea 2:23, but are there translated. Because of the sin of Israel they for a time are ostensibly not God's people. God has not changed His purpose concerning His ancient people, Rom. 11:29; He has only changed His manner toward them. Hosea 2:23 adds "I will say to them which were not my people, Thou art my people; and they shall say, Thou art my God." This will be when God's set time arrives for bringing them again into blessing. The wording of Hosea 1:10, quoted in Rom. 9:26, leaves room for the Gentiles as 'sons of the living God.'

Locks.

These in the East were anciently very rude contrivances. They were made of wood with long wooden bolts into which were driven a few pins which dropped into holes and held the bolt secure. The key, also of wood with corresponding pins, would raise the pins of the bolt, and allow it to be shot back. Judges 3:23, 24; Neh. 3:3-15; Cant. 5:5.

Locusts.

There are several species of locusts which visit Palestine; they are brought by the wind, and carried away by the same. Five Hebrew words are translated 'locusts,' but they cannot now be definitely distinguished. Some of the Hebrew words are also translated GRASSHOPPERS. They formed one of the plagues of Egypt. Ex. 10:4-19. They are remarkable for the immense numbers that suddenly swarm upon a district, and for the vast devastation they accomplish in vegetation in a little while, as the prophet says, before them the land may be as the garden of Eden, and behind them a desolate wilderness: nothing escapes them. Joel 2:3.

They were classed among the clean things that might be eaten by the Israelites. Lev. 11:22; they were the food of John the Baptist, Matt. 3:4; and are eaten at the present time. They are boiled, roasted, and fried, or salted, or pounded into cakes with salt. The OEdipoda migratoria is a species that commonly visits Palestine.

THE BALD LOCUSTS, salam. These are mentioned only in Lev. 11:22; as distinct from the common locusts (arbeh). The bald locust is supposed to be a species of Truxalis, which have smooth heads.

In Rev. 9:3, 7 the locust is symbolical of some destructive power that will issue from 'the smoke,' or influence, of the bottomless pit, to sting and torment the men that have not the seal of God in their foreheads. These locusts have stings like scorpions, are in shape or appearance like horses, with faces of men, and with crowns of gold on their heads, etc., implying imperial power, with pretended subjection to God; but withal cruel, pitiless, and false.

Lod.

Town in Benjamin. 1 Chr. 8:12; Ezra 2:33; Neh. 7:37; Neh. 11:35. In the N.T. it is called LYDDA, where AEneas the paralytic was healed by Peter. It is said to be nigh to Joppa. The distance is about ten miles if the identification be correct. Acts 9:32, 35, 38. Identified with Ludd, 31 57' N, 34 54' E, at which place there is now a station on the railway from Jaffa to Jerusalem.

Lodebar. [Lo'-debar]

Town on the east of Jordan, to which Mephibosheth retired after the death of his father. 2 Sam. 9:4, 5; 2 Sam. 17:27. Not identified.

Log.

See WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.

Loins.

The part of man that is used to prefigure the seat of strength. Descendants are represented as coming out of the loins of a man. Gen. 35:11; Heb. 7:10. The loins were girded up for action and activity. God said to Job, "Gird up now thy loins like a man." Job 38:3. In the Christian's conflict with wicked spirits in the heavenlies he is exhorted to have his loins girt about with truth. Eph. 6:14.

Lois. [Lo'is]

Grandmother of Timothy, whose unfeigned faith Paul calls to remembrance. 2 Tim. 1:5.

Looking Glass.

See GLASS.

Lord.

1.  adon, κύριος. These words are commonly translated 'lord.' They are used as a term of respect as between man and man, as seen in the children of Heth to Abraham. Gen. 23:6; between servants and masters, and once by a wife to her husband. Gen. 18:12; Luke 16:3, 5; 1 Peter 3:6. The title 'Lord' is applied to God ( Ps. 90:1, Adonai), and in the N.T. to the Lord Jesus, not only as a term of respect, but as owning His constituted lordship. Acts 2:36; Phil. 2:11 He is emphatically the Lord as eclipsing every other for the Christian, who delights to appropriate Him as 'My Lord.' Luke 1:43; John 20:13; Phil. 3:8. To believers collectively He is 'Our Lord Jesus Christ.'

There is also in this title the idea of administration which it is of great consequence to observe. As Man the Lord Jesus is mediator between God and men, and receives blessings for men which are administered through Him as Lord. "To us there is . . . . one Lord, Jesus Christ, through whom are all things, and we through him." 1 Cor. 8:6.  See Rom. 5:1, 2, 11, 17, 21 and other scriptures.

The same Greek word is often used in the LXX for the Hebrew name Jehovah, and is transferred to the N.T. without the article. It stands as a proper name in the sense of Jehovah, as in Matt. 1:20, 22, 24, etc., though the English requires it to be translated 'the Lord.' See GOD.

2. δεσπότης, signifying 'owner, master,' as a man who owns slaves. It is applied to God and to the Lord Jesus, Luke 2:29; Acts 4:24; 2 Peter 2:1; Jude 4; Rev. 6:10; and in 2 Tim. 2:21 is translated 'master.'

3.  ῥαββονί, a word similar to Rabbi, a term of respect among the Jews, signifying 'teacher.' It is applied to the Lord by the blind man in Mark 10:51; and by Mary in John 20:16, where it is untranslated.

Lord's Day, The.

This occurs only in Rev. 1:10; John was in [the] Spirit on the Lord's day. It was the day of the week on which the Lord arose — the resurrection day, and thus emphatically marks the sabbath for the Christian. It is the first day of the week, and is suggestive of the beginning of a new order of things, altogether distinct from that connected with the legal Sabbath. It was the day on which the disciples commonly came together for the express purpose of breaking bread, Acts 20:7; and though no legal enactment is given concerning it, it is a day specially regarded by Christians. It is literally 'the dominical-day,' κυριακός, a word that occurs only in reference to 'the Lord's supper' in 1 Cor. 11:20 and to 'the Lord's day:' the term is not to be confounded with 'the day of the Lord.'

Lord's Table, The; The Lord's Supper.

The first of these expressions is used in 1 Cor. 10:21, in contrast to the table of demons with which those were identified who partook of idolatrous feasts. In this passage the expression appears to be synonymous with the bread, the wine being spoken of as the cup of the Lord. The idea connected with the Lord's table is the identification of the saints as one body with the death of Christ. Hence "Ye cannot be partakers of the Lord's table and of the table of demons." The cup is the fellowship of the blood of Christ, the bread is the fellowship of the body of Christ, and to this fellowship every believer is bound to be faithful. It expresses the separation of the entire company from all to which He died — from sin and from the world, in connection with which the god of this world furnishes his table. The 'one loaf ' was expressive of the oneness of the company of believers at Corinth, as bound together in the fellowship of the death of Christ.

The expression 'the Lord's supper' is found in 1 Cor. 11:20, and is in connection with the remembrance of the Lord in the breaking of bread and drinking the cup by the saints as in assembly. This chapter gives the positive character of the ordinance, as 1 Cor. 10 is rather the separation consequent on it. It is the assembly come together and the affections of the saints stirred by the remembrance of the Lord's love in presence of the memorials of that which is the proof and expression of it, namely, His death. It is introductory to the assembly's proper privilege as brought, in company with the Lord Jesus Christ as the leader of its praises, to know and enjoy God revealed as Father, and to worship Him by the Spirit. In 1 Cor. 12 - 1 Cor. 14, which succeed, the organisation, the motive spring, and functions of the assembly are referred to.*

* The word 'broken' in 1 Cor. 11:24 is omitted from some Greek MSS, and by some editors. It was perhaps thought to clash with Ps. 34:20; John 19:36, "A bone of him shall not be broken;" but in Ps. 22:14, the Lord said, "All my bones are out of joint," which would correspond to a broken body.

Loruhamah.  [Lo-ruha'mah]

Symbolical name given to Hosea's daughter. The context shows its meaning to be 'not having obtained mercy,' as in the margin. It was given to emphasise the fact that God was going to punish the people of Israel, and take them from the land, though still having mercy for a time on Judah. Hosea 1:6, 8: cf. 1 Peter 2:10.

Lot.

Son of Haran the brother of Abraham. He seems to have accompanied Abraham. without having a like faith in Abraham's God. When their flocks and herds had so increased that they could no longer dwell together, Abraham bade his nephew choose whither he would turn. Lot looked on the well-watered plain of the Jordan, and went toward Sodom, notwithstanding that the men of that city were exceedingly wicked. The next record of Lot is that he dwelt in Sodom, and from thence was carried away by the four kings who made war against that city.

Though rescued by Abraham he did not profit by the discipline, but returned to dwell in the guilty city; whereas Abraham would not accept so much as a shoe latchet from its king. Lot is next seen sitting in the gate of Sodom, the place of power and judgement, when the two angels arrived to destroy the city. He acted hospitably towards them, but had to be rescued by them from the enmity of the inhabitants.

Lot and his family were loathe to leave the city, but the angels hastened them out, and bade them flee to the mountains. Lot begged to be allowed to go to Zoar, and was permitted; but, fearing to stay there, he left with his two daughters and abode in a cave, where, alas, he became the father of Moab and Ben-ammi, the ancestors of the Moabites and the Ammonites, who are afterwards alluded to as the children of Lot.

From his history in the O.T. it could not have been discovered that he was a righteous man; but this testimony is given of him in 2 Peter 2:7, 8, where he is called 'just Lot,' who, as a righteous man, was daily vexed in his soul by the unlawful deeds of those among whom he dwelt. Though God delivered him, he is a solemn instance of a righteous man dwelling needlessly amid gross wickedness; his course being the strongest contrast to that of Abraham. Gen. 11 — Gen. 14, Gen. 19; Ps. 83:8; Luke 17:28, 29.

LOT'S WIFE, on leaving Sodom, looked back and became a pillar of salt! and is held up as a warning not to linger but to flee from coming judgements. Luke 17:32.

Lots, Casting.

This mode of determining a matter was ordered of God to be practised over the two goats on the day of atonement. Lev. 16:8-10. God also commanded that the land should be divided by lot. Num. 26:55, 56. The people resorted to it for various purposes on the return from exile. Neh. 10:34; Neh. 11:1. God overruled among His people how the lot should fall, as stated in Prov. 16:33; "The lot is cast into the lap; but the whole disposing thereof is of the Lord." He also could direct it among the heathen to work out His own purposes, as He did in the case of Haman, which so deferred the period of the execution of his design that there was time for the action of Esther, and for new edicts to be sent all over the kingdom, that the Jews might be saved from destruction. Esther 3:7; Esther 9:24. The various names, dates, etc., for selection were marked on pieces of wood, potsherd, etc., and these 'lots' were then shaken together either in a vessel or the fold of a garment, till one came out.

The lot was also used by the Roman soldiers in parting the garments of the Lord. Ps. 22:18; Mark 15:24. In order to fill up the vacancy caused by the fall of Judas, the lot was resorted to; but was on that occasion accompanied by prayer that the Lord would show which of the two He had chosen. Acts 1:26. There is no instruction in the N.T. as to casting lots. It would have been quite out of place among the disciples while the Lord was with them, as also now that the Holy Spirit has been given to the Christian.

The land being 'divided by lot' in a future day means rather that the land will be 'allotted,' for God has Himself directed where each of the twelve tribes shall be situated. Ezek. 45:1; Ezek. 47:22; Ezek. 48:29.

Lotan. [Lo'tan]

Son of Seir, the Horite. Gen. 36:20, 22, 29; 1 Chr. 1:38, 39.

Love Feasts.

See FEASTS OF CHARITY.

Lubim. [Lu'bim]

See LIBYA.

Lucas. [Lu'cas]

See LUKE.

Lucifer. [Lu'cifer]

Name, signifying in Latin 'light-bringer,' being a translation of the Hebrew word, helel, associated with 'morning star,' given in irony to the king of Babylon, because in his pride he said he would exalt his throne above the stars of God. Isa. 14:12. He resembles the leader of this world in the last days. Rev. 13:1-10.

Lucius. [Lu'cius]

1.  Prophet or teacher of Cyrene, one of those at Antioch who, after prayer and fasting, laid their hands on Barnabas and Paul and sent them on the first missionary journey. Acts 13:1.

2.  Kinsman of Paul whose salutation was sent to Rome. Rom. 16:21.

Lucre.

'Gain,' such as a judge should not have wished for or accepted. 1 Sam. 8:3. In the N.T. it is called 'filthy' or 'base gain:' the desire for it rendered a man ineligible for the position of elder in the church, etc. 1 Tim. 3:3, 8; Titus 1:7, 11; 1 Peter 5:2.

Lud.

Son of Shem. Gen. 10:22; 1 Chr. 1:17. See SHEM.

Lud, Ludim. [Lu'dim]

Son of Mizraim. Gen. 10:13; 1 Chr. 1:11. His descendants are mentioned with Phut, and are held to have inhabited the north-west of Africa. Isa. 66:19; Ezek. 27:10. The same district is called LYDIA (though the Hebrew is simply Lud) and its inhabitants, LYDIANS, in Jer. 46:9; Ezek. 30:5.

Luhith, [Lu'hith] Ascent of.

Some place in Moab which would be ascended with weeping when God's judgements were poured out upon Moab. Isa. 15:5; Jer. 48:5. Talat el Heisah, 31 46' N, 35 43' E has been suggested as probably the place alluded to. It lies between Mount Pisgah and Mount Nebo.

Luke, Lucas.

Fellow labourer with Paul, and called 'the beloved physician.' He is only three times mentioned by name. Col. 4:14; 2 Tim. 4:11; Philemon 24. He was the writer of the Gospel bearing his name, and also of the Acts of the Apostles, the introduction to both being addressed to a certain Theophilus. It is supposed, from Col. 4:11, 14, that he was a Gentile, though these verses are no proof of it.

In Acts 16:10 Luke uses the word 'we,' showing that he was then with the apostle Paul at Troas, and accompanied him to Philippi, where apparently Luke remained. In Acts 20:5 he is again with Paul, and went with him to Jerusalem. Paul then became a prisoner for more than two years, and we lose sight of Luke; but as soon as Paul was about to be sent to Rome, Luke was with him again, Acts 27:1, and accompanied him to Rome, Acts 28:16, and was there with Paul when he wrote the Epistles to the Colossians and Philemon. He was also with Paul during his second imprisonment. Others had forsaken the aged apostle, Luke alone remained. He was Paul's beloved fellow-labourer, and in his own writings has skilfully hidden himself that the work of God by His servants Paul and others might, by the leading of the Holy Spirit, be faithfully recorded, and come into prominence.

Luke, Gospel of.

It has often been declared that this gospel was gathered by the writer from various sources, especially from the apostle Paul, because he was so much with that apostle. This was an early opinion. Irenaeus and Tertullian asserted that we have in Luke the gospel that Paul preached. Eusebius referred the words 'according to my gospel' ( 2 Tim. 2:8 ) to the gospel of Luke; and Jerome agreed with this. Many modern writers repeat the same. In this theory there are two grave errors. The one is endeavouring to account for the Gospel of Luke by mere human agency, instead of recognising that the writer was led and guided by the Holy Spirit. The other is ignoring the unique character of the gospel taught by Paul, which he declared he had received by the revelation of Jesus Christ, and which is called "the gospel of the glory of the Christ." It associated the believer with Christ in the glory. 2 Cor. 4:4.

On the other hand, it is evident that Luke's presentation of the service of Christ on earth is in correspondence with the service of 'the apostle of the Gentiles,' whose fellow-labourer and companion Luke was. Grace to man — 'to the Jew first, and also to the Greek,' as Paul expresses it — is the key-note of Luke's gospel.

The Gospel of Luke sets the Lord before us in the character of Son of man, revealing God in delivering grace among men. Hence the present operation of grace and its effect are more referred to, and even the present time prophetically, not the substitution of other dispensations, as in Matthew, but of saving, heavenly grace. At first no doubt (and just because He is to be revealed as Man, and in grace to men), He is presented (in a prefatory part in which there is the most exquisite picture of the godly remnant) to Israel, to whom He had been promised, and in relationship with whom He came into this world; but afterwards this gospel presents moral principles which apply to man generally whosoever he may be, whilst yet manifesting Christ, for the moment, in the midst of that people. This power of God in grace is displayed in various ways in its application to the wants of men.

After the transfiguration ( Luke 9), which is recounted earlier, as to the contents of the gospel, than by the other evangelists, we find the judgement of those who rejected the Lord, and the heavenly character of the grace which, because it is grace, addresses itself to the nations, to sinners, without any particular reference to the Jews, overturning the legal principles according to which the latter pretended to be, and as to their external standing were originally called at Sinai to be, in connection with God. Unconditional promises to Abraham, etc., and prophetic confirmation of them, are another thing. They will be accomplished in grace and were to be laid hold of by faith.

After this (Luke 19, Luke 20, Luke 21), details are given as to that which should happen to the Jew according to the righteous government of God; and, at the end, the account of the death and resurrection of the Lord, accomplishing the work of redemption.

Luke morally sets aside the Jewish system and introduces the Son of man as the Man before God, presenting Him as the One who is filled with all the fulness of God dwelling in Him bodily, as the Man before God, according to His own heart, and thus as Mediator between God and man, centre of a moral system much more vast than that of Messiah among the Jews. While occupied with these new relations (ancient in fact as to the counsels of God), Luke nevertheless gives the facts belonging to the Lord's connection with the Jews, owned in the pious remnant of that people, with much more development than the other evangelists, as well as the proofs of His mission to that people, in coming into the world — proofs which ought to have gained their attention, and fixed it upon the child who was born to them.

That which specially characterises the narrative, and gives peculiar interest to this gospel, is that it sets forth what Christ is Himself. It is not His official glory, a relative position that He assumed; neither is it the revelation of His divine nature in itself; nor His mission as the great Prophet. It is Himself, as He was, a man on the earth — the Person one would have met every day had one lived at that time in Judaea or in Galilee.

A remark may be added as to the style of Luke. He often brings a mass of facts into one short general statement, and then expatiates at length on some isolated fact, where moral principles and grace are displayed. [Adapted from the "Synopsis of the Books of the Bible."]

Lunatics.

These are clearly distinguished in Matt. 4:24 from those possessed by demons. The word is σεληνιαζόμενοι, which, like the word lunatic, is derived from 'the moon,' and is thought to embrace epileptics as well as those of unsound mind. The lad in Matt. 17:15 is called a lunatic, but he was also possessed by a demon: in Mark 9:25 it is called a 'dumb and deaf spirit.'

Lust, To.

The word ἐπιθυμέω signifies 'to desire earnestly,' and is often translated 'desire,' without the thought of the desire being an evil one, as in Matt. 13:17; 1 Tim. 3:1; 1 Peter 1:12, etc. The English word 'lust' was anciently not always used in a bad sense, as it now is: see Deut. 12:15; Gal. 5:17.

Luz.

1. City of the Canaanites, afterwards called BETHEL, q.v.

2.  City in the land of the Hittites, built by the man who had betrayed the city in Canaan, and who called it after the same name. Judges 1:26.  Identified by some with ruins at el Luweiziyeh, 33 16' N, 35 36' E.

Lycaonia. [Lycao'nia]

District nearly in the centre of Asia Minor, in which were Lystra, Derbe, and Iconium . Acts 14:6, 11.

Lycia. [Ly'cia]

District in the S.W. of Asia Minor. It was formerly a part of Pamphylia, but increased in importance and became a separate district, with Myra for its capital. Acts 27:5.

Lydda. [Lyd'da]

See LOD.

Lydia, [Lyd'ia] Lydians. [Lydi'ans]

See LUD, LUDIM.

Lydia. [Lyd'ia]

A disciple of Thyatira — a place noted for its dyes — a seller of purple, residing at Philippi, whose heart the Lord opened, and who became, as far as is known, the first convert in Europe. She received Paul, Silas, and Luke into her house. Acts 16:14, 40.

Lysanias. [Lysa'nias]

Tetrarch of Abilene, of whom nothing more is recorded. Luke 3:1. He is mentioned by Josephus: Ant. xv. 4, 1.

Lysias. [Lys'ias]

See CLAUDIUS.

Lystra. [Lys'tra]

City of Lycaonia, in Asia Minor. Paul and Barnabas fled thither from Iconium, and there cured a cripple, which caused the inhabitants to think they were gods, to whom they would have offered sacrifices had not the apostles restrained them. Soon afterwards however, being incited by the Jews, they stoned Paul and left him for dead. The labours of the apostles were not in vain, an assembly of saints was gathered there. It was again visited by Paul on his second missionary journey, when he met with Timothy, and attached him to his mission. Acts 14:6-21; Acts 16:1, 2; 2 Tim. 3:11.

Maacah, [Ma'acah] Maachah. [Ma'achah]

1.  Daughter of Nahor, Abraham's brother. Gen. 22:24.

2.  Daughter of Talmai king of Geshur, and one of David's wives, the mother of Absalom. 2 Sam. 3:3; 1 Chr. 3:2.

3.  Father of Achish king of Gath. 1 Kings 2:39.

4.  Daughter, or apparently granddaughter of Absalom (or Abishalom), wife of Rehoboam king of Judah, mother of Abijah (or Abijam), and apparently grandmother of Asa king of Judah. 1 Kings 15:2, 10, 13; 2 Chr. 11:20-22; 2 Chr. 15:16. See MICHAIAH.

5.  Concubine of Caleb the son of Hezron. 1 Chr. 2:48.

6.  Wife of Machir, son of Manasseh. 1 Chr. 7:15, 16.

7.  Wife of Jehiel, father, or founder, of Gibeon. 1 Chr. 8:29; 1 Chr. 9:35.

8.  Father of Hanan, one of David's mighty men. 1 Chr. 11:43.

9.  A Simeonite, father of Shephatiah. 1 Chr. 27:16.

10. Name of a king and of a district east of Argob and Bashan. 2 Sam. 10:6, 8; 1 Chr. 19:7. In 1 Chr. 19:6 the district is called SYRIA-MAACHAH.

Maachathi, [Maacha'thi] Maachathites. [Maacha'thites]

The inhabitants of Maacah, or Maachah. Deut. 3:14; Joshua 12:5; Joshua 13:11, 13; 2 Sam. 23:34; 2 Kings 25:23; 1 Chr. 4:19; Jer. 40:8.

Maadai. [Maada'i]

One who had married a strange wife. Ezra 10:34.

Maadiah. [Maad'iah]

Priest who returned from exile. Neh. 12:5. Probably the same as MOADIAH in Neh. 12:17.

Maai. [Ma'ai]

Musician at the dedication of the wall of Jerusalem. Neh. 12:36.

Maalehacrabbim.  [Ma'aleh-acrab'bim]

See AKRABBIM.

Maarath. [Ma'arath]

City in the hill country of Judah. Joshua 15:59. Identified with Beit Ummar, 31 37' N, 35 6' E.

Maaseiah. [Maasei'ah]

1.   Levite, musician and door-keeper in the time of David. 1 Chr. 15:18, 20.

2.   Son of Adaiah and a captain who assisted in placing Joash on the throne. 2 Chr. 23:1.

3.   Officer of king Uzziah. 2 Chr. 26:11.

4.   Son of Ahaz king of Judah. 2 Chr. 28:7.

5.   Governor of Jerusalem in Josiah's reign. 2 Chr. 34:8.

6-8. Three priests who had married strange wives. Ezra 10:18, 21, 22.

9.   One who had married a strange wife. Ezra 10:30.

10. Father of Azariah. Neh. 3:23.

11, 12. Two who assisted Ezra when the law was read. Neh. 8:4, 7.

13. One who sealed the covenant. Neh. 10:25.

14. Son of Baruch, a descendant of Judah. Neh. 11:5.

15.  Son of Ithiel, a descendant of Benjamin. Neh. 11:7.

16, 17. Two priests who assisted at the dedication of the wall of Jerusalem. Neh. 12:41, 42.

18.  Father of Zephaniah, a priest in the reign of Zedekiah. Jer. 21:1; Jer. 29:25; Jer. 37:3.

19.  Father of Zedekiah the false prophet. Jer. 29:21.

20.  Son of Shallum, and a door-keeper in the time of Jehoiakim. Jer. 35:4.

21.  Father of Neriah. Jer. 32:12; Jer. 51:59.

Maasiai. [Maasia'i]

Son of Adiel, a priest. 1 Chr. 9:12.

Maath. [Ma'ath]

Son of Mattathias in the genealogy of the Lord Jesus. Luke 3:26.

Maaz. [Ma'az]

Son of Ram, a son of Jerahmeel. 1 Chr. 2:27.

Maaziah. [Maazi'ah]

1.  Head of the twenty-fourth course of priests. 1 Chr. 24:18.

2.  Priest who sealed the covenant. Neh. 10:8.

Maccabees, [Mac'cabees] The.

Name of a noted Jewish family not mentioned in scripture. When Antiochus (Epiphanes) was expelled from Egypt by the Romans, he vented his anger on the Jews, and sought to abolish their worship at Jerusalem, putting multitudes to death (B.C. 168). Mattathias the Asmonean, an aged priest, rallied together the national party, and his son JUDAS, surnamed MACCABEUS, succeeded in defeating their enemies; and for a time a degree of national freedom was enjoyed. He was succeeded by his brother; but the country soon after became subject to Rome. Their history is given in Josephus and in the Apocryphal Books of the Maccabees. See ANTIOCHUS

Macedonia. [Macedo'nia]

The northern part of Greece as divided by the Romans. It contained the cities of Neapolis, Philippi, Amphipolis, Thessalonica, Apollonia, and Berea. Paul saw in a vision a man of Macedonia, who said, "Come over into Macedonia and help us." To this he at once responded, believing it was a call from the Lord, and thus the gospel extended to Europe. The churches of Macedonia were specially commended for their liberality. Acts 16:9-12; Acts 18:5; Acts 19:21, 22, 29; Acts 20:1, 3; Rom. 15:26; 1 Cor. 16:5; 2 Cor. 1:16; 2 Cor. 2:13; 2 Cor. 7:5; 2 Cor. 8:1; 2 Cor. 9:2, 4; 2 Cor. 11:9; Phil. 4:15; 1 Thess. 1:7, 8; 1 Thess. 4:10; 1 Tim. 1:3.

Macedonian. [Macedo'nian]

An inhabitant of Macedonia. Acts 27:2.

Machbanai. [Machbana'i]

A Gadite who joined David at Ziklag. 1 Chr. 12:13.

Machbenah. [Machbe'nah]

Son of (or town founded by) Sheva. 1 Chr. 2:49.

Machi. [Ma'chi]

A Gadite, father of Geuel. Num. 13:15.

Machir. [Mach'ir]

1.  Eldest son of Manasseh, and father of Gilead. His descendants were warlike and were the foremost in the tribe. Gen. 50:23; Num. 26:29; Num. 32:39, 40; Joshua 17:1, 3; Judges 5:14; 1 Chr. 2:21, 23; 1 Chr. 7:14-17.

2.  Son of Ammiel: he gave refuge to Mephibosheth and sent supplies to David when he fled from Absalom. 2 Sam. 9:4, 5; 2 Sam. 17:27.

Machirites. [Machir'ites]

Descendants of Machir father of Gilead. Num. 26:29.

Machnadebai. [Machnadeba'i]

One who had married a strange wife. Ezra 10:40.