Queen of Egypt and sister of the wife of Hadad. 1 Kings 11:19, 20.
Son of Micah, a descendant of Jonathan. 1 Chr. 9:41. Called TAREA in 1 Chr. 8:35.
Place visited by Joab during his taking the census of Israel, apparently in the north-east of Palestine. 2 Sam. 24:6. Not identified.
Number. Ex. 5:8, 18; 1 Sam. 18:27; 1 Chr. 9:28.
See WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.
Words in the Aramaic language, signifying 'Damsel, arise.' Mark 5:41. In the Syriac version the interpretation is omitted: the words themselves would be understood.
1. One of the Anakim of Kirjath-arba, slain by Caleb's men. Num. 13:22; Joshua 15:14; Judges 1:10.
2. Son of Ammihud and king of Geshur, and father of Maacah, David's wife. 2 Sam. 3:3; 2 Sam. 13:37; 1 Chr. 3:2.
Ancestor of a Levitical family of doorkeepers who returned from exile. 1 Chr. 9:17; Ezra 2:42; Neh. 7:45; Neh. 11:19; Neh. 12:25.
1. Wife of Er and Onan, and by Judah, mother of Pharez and Zarah. Gen. 38:6-30; Ruth 4:12; 1 Chr. 2:4. Called THAMAR in Matt. 1:3.
2. Daughter of David and Maachah, violated by Amnon, and avenged by Absalom in the death of Amnon. 2 Sam. 13:1-32; 1 Chr. 3:9.
3. Daughter of Absalom. 2 Sam. 14:27.
4. City on the south-east of Judah. Ezek. 47:19; Ezek. 48:28. Not identified. See TADMOR.
A Phoenician idol, supposed by some to be the same as the Greek Adonis, as in the Vulgate. The prophet saw women weeping for 'the Tammuz,' who according to tradition had been slain. Ezek. 8:14.
Father of Seraiah. Jer. 40:8. Called 'the Netophathite,' in 2 Kings 25:23.
The word is marbaddim, translated 'coverings of tapestry,' but may simply signify 'coverlets.' Prov. 7:16; Prov. 31:22. The Hebrew word occurs nowhere else in scripture.
Daughter of Solomon, and wife of the son of Abinadab, one of Solomon's commissariat officers. 1 Kings 4:11.
1. City in the lowlands of Judah. Joshua 15:34. Not identified.
2. City on the boundary of Ephraim. Joshua 16:8; Joshua 17:8. Probably connected with ENTAPPUAH in Joshua 17:7.
3. City whose king was killed under Joshua, but whether the same as either of the above is unknown. Joshua 12:17.
4. Son of Hebron of the tribe of Judah. 1 Chr. 2:43.
Tappuah, [Tappu'ah] Land of
District apparently in the locality of TAPPUAH, No. 2. Joshua 17:8.
One of the halting places of the Israelites. Num. 33:27, 28.
City of Benjamin. Joshua 18:27. Not identified.
ζιζάνια. A noxious weed, known as darnel. It closely resembles wheat until it is in ear. At the approach of the harvest it can be distinguished, and women and children have been seen in Palestine picking out the tall stalks of ziwân, as it is called by the Arabs. It is the Lolium temulentum. In the parable of the Wheat and Tares the Lord compares to tares those introduced into the kingdom by Satan, who will be consumed in judgement. Matt. 13:25-40. See PARABLES.
A shield. 1 Kings 10:16; 2 Chr. 9:15; 2 Chr. 14:8. In 1 Sam. 17:6 a small spear is probably intended: the R.V. has 'javelin.' See ARMOUR.
The name given to the Chaldee version or paraphrase of the O.T. It was made professedly because the Jews who returned from exile knew that language well. Explanations were added, which crept into the text. There are ten Targums of parts of the O.T. The principal ones are the Pentateuch by Onkelos, and the books of Joshua, Judges, Samuel, Kings, and the Prophets (except Daniel), by Jonathan Ben Uzziel.
The language agrees with the Chaldaic or Aramaic parts of Daniel and Ezra. It is easy to understand that pious Jews who did not return under Ezra and Nehemiah, and were gradually losing the use of the Hebrew tongue (as well as their descendants born in captivity) would value such a translation; and it has been stated that for centuries the Targums were publicly read on the Sabbaths, festivals, etc., their language being the only one understood by the greater part of the Jews even in Palestine.
As an illustration Genesis 22:10-13 is quoted from the Pentateuch of Onkelos, and from the one known as the Pseudo-Jonathan. This latter is of much later date, as far as dates are known, and has words of other languages here and there.
And Abraham stretched forth his hand, and took the knife to immolate his son. And the angel of the Lord called him from the heavens and said, Abraham, Abraham. And he said, Here am I. And he said, Stretch not forth thy hand to the youth, nor do aught to him, for now I know that thou fearest God, and hast not spared thine only son for my sake. And Abraham lifted up his eyes after these [words] and looked, and behold a ram caught in a tree by his horns. And Abraham went and brought the ram, and offered him for a burnt offering instead of his son.
And Abraham stretched out his hand and took the knife to slay his son. And Isaac answered and said to his father, Bind me properly, lest I should tremble through the affliction of my soul, and be cast into the pit of destruction, for profaneness shall be found in thy offering. The eyes of Abraham were intent upon the eyes of Isaac; and the eyes of Isaac were intent upon the angels on high. Isaac beheld them, but Abraham saw them not. The angels on high answered, Come, behold how these are alone in the world; the one slays the other; he who slays delays not; he that is slain reaches forth his neck. And the angel of the Lord called him from the heavens, and said to him, Abraham, Abraham. And he said, Here am I. Then he said, Stretch not out thy hand to the young man, nor do him any harm, for now it is manifest before me that thou fearest the Lord, and hast not withheld thy son, thy only-begotten from me. Then Abraham lifted up his eyes and looked, and behold a ram, which had been created between the evenings of the foundation of the world, was caught in the entanglement of a tree by his horns. So Abraham went and took him, and offered him for a burnt offering instead of his son.
It will be seen that while the one is a comparatively correct translation of the Hebrew, the other has useless and undignified additions. A third translation, known as the Jerusalem Targum, has also some of the same additions.
Colonists placed in Samaria from some unknown district. Ezra 4:9.
1. Son of Javan, a descendant of Japheth, Gen. 10:4; 1 Chr. 1:7.
2. A prince of Persia who saw the kings face. Esther 1:14.
Place to which ships were sent from Palestine. It is supposed by some to refer to a Spanish city named Tartessus. This would appear a suitable place from whence to obtain silver, iron, tin, and lead. Jonah taking a ship at Joppa to sail to Tarshish may also indicate a place to the west of Palestine. But other passages refer to apes and peacocks, also being brought by ships of Tarshish, and these are associated with Ezion-geber, on the Gulf of Akaba, a branch of the Red Sea. It is therefore probable that the ships from this port would sail southward to some other place, which has not been identified. 1 Kings 10:22; 1 Kings 22:48; 2 Chr. 9:21; 2 Chr. 20:36, 37; Ps. 48:7; Ps. 72:10; Isa. 2:16; Isa. 23:1-14; Isa. 60:9; Isa. 66:19; Jer. 10:9; Ezek. 27:12, 25; Ezek. 38:13; Jonah 1:3; Jonah 4:2.
The capital of Cilicia, in Asia Minor. It ranked as a city of importance, called by Paul 'no mean city.' It was a seat of learning under the early Roman emperors and was ranked by Strabo as even above Athens and Alexandria: it was Paul's native place, and he visited it after his conversion. Acts 9:11, 30; Acts 11:25; Acts 21:39; Acts 22:3. It is now called Tersûs, a small town, with scarcely any trace of its former greatness. The river Cydnus, which in the days of Cyrus and Alexander flowed through the city, now runs about half a mile east of it. The houses are mostly but one storey in height, built with stones apparently taken from larger buildings.
A god of the Avite colonists in Samaria. 2 Kings 17:31. The word is supposed to signify 'darkness,' or the under-world.
The title of an Assyrian officer sent to Hezekiah. 2 Kings 18:17. The same or another was sent to Ashdod. Isa. 20:1. The name is supposed to signify 'commander in chief.'
The king of Persia's satrap in Palestine, who sought to stop the Jews from rebuilding the temple. Ezra 5:3, 6; Ezra 6:6, 13.
Taverns, The Three.
Tres Tabernal (three shops) a station on the Appian road, along which Paul travelled from Puteoli to Rome, and where brethren from Rome met him. It was near the modern Cisterna, about thirty-three miles from Rome. Acts 28:15.
Taxes, Taxation, Taxing.
Jehoiakim taxed the land in order to be able to pay the demands of Pharaoh, king of Egypt. 2 Kings 23:35. Seleueus IV. Philopator became "a raiser of taxes," about B.C. 181, to pay the demands of the Romans. Dan. 11:20; see ANTIOCHUS, SELEUCUS IV. In Luke 2:1-5 the 'taxing' mentioned is believed to have been, not for the assessment of property, but for the registration of persons. See CYRENIUS. Though ordered by the Roman emperor, it appears that the Jews were allowed to carry out the census as to city and lineage in their own way. In Acts 5:37 the same term is employed, but the enrolment in this case may have included the taking an account of their property (as stated by Josephus) which led to Judas heading a revolt. See PUBLICANS.
The 'teacher' is one of the gifts set in the church, 1 Cor. 12:28; Eph. 4:11; and the teacher is exhorted to be occupied with teaching. Rom. 12:7. 'Teaching' is the intelligent setting forth of the truth by the Holy Spirit, and this does not leave room for the mind and opinion of man. Paul left Timothy at Ephesus to charge some not to teach other doctrine than what the apostles taught; and those that did teach otherwise are said to be "puffed up, knowing nothing," etc. 1 Tim. 1:3; 1 Tim. 6:3, 4. This makes evident that no other teaching could be of God; hence the modern formula of 'agreeing to differ' on vital points of doctrine is not recognised. On the contrary, the apostle said, "I beseech you, brethren, by the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, that ye all speak the same thing, and that there be no divisions among you; but that ye be perfectly joined together in the same mind and in the same judgement." 1 Cor. 1:10.
A caution is given in James 3:1, "Be not many teachers," for it involved greater responsibility. The same word (διδάσκαλος) occurs in John 13:13, where the Lord owned Himself to be the Teacher, and He was many times addressed as 'Teacher'; though in nearly all cases the A.V. has 'Master.' He taught as one having authority, and not as the scribes.
Son of Nahor, the brother of Abraham. Gen. 22:24.
Son of Hosah, a Merarite. 1 Chr. 26:11.
Son of Eshton, of the tribe of Judah. 1 Chr. 4:12.
The Hebrew word is elah, and is supposed to be the terebinth, though it is often translated 'oak.' In Isa. 6:13 'the oak' (allon) is mentioned as well as the elah, different trees are therefore doubtless indicated by the two Hebrew words. It is now generally supposed that allon refers to the oak, and elah to the terebinth, the Pistacia terebinthus.
Son of Ashur, or a city founded by Ashur, a descendant of Judah. 1 Chr. 2:24; 1 Chr. 4:5.
Tekoa, [Teko'a] Tekoah. [Teko'ah]
City of Judah, probably founded by the preceding. Rehoboam built or fortified it 'for defence.' 2 Chr. 11:6. The 'wise woman' Joab employed to speak to the king respecting the return of Absalom was from this city. 2 Sam. 14:2, 4, 9. Being built on a hill it was a suitable place for blowing the trumpet in time of danger, as in Jer. 6:1. The prophet Amos was among its herdsmen. Identified with ruins at Tekua, 31 38' N, 35 12' E. The WILDERNESS OF TEKOA was probably on its east. 2 Chr. 20:20.
Designation of Ikkesh, father of Ira, one of David's mighty men. 2 Sam. 23, 26; 1 Chr. 11:28; 1 Chr. 27:9. The Tekoites were inhabitants of Tekoa: they helped to rebuild the wall of Jerusalem, but "their nobles put not their necks to the work of their Lord." Neh. 3:5, 27.
City of Chaldea or Babylon, on the river Chebar. Ezekiel remained there 'astonished' seven days with those in captivity, and there the word came to him from Jehovah. Ezek. 3:15. Not identified.
Son of Resheph, an Ephraimite. 1 Chr. 7:25.
Place where Saul numbered his army. 1 Sam. 15:4. Not identified.
Telassar, [Telas'sar] Thelasar. [Thel'asar]
City wherein dwelt 'the children of Eden,' who had been conquered by the Assyrians. By the names mentioned with it, Thelasar was probably in Mesopotamia, but is not identified. 2 Kings 19:12; Isa. 37:12.
1. City in the extreme south of Judah. Joshua 15:24.
2. One who had married a strange wife. Ezra 10:24.
Telharsa, [Tel-har'sa] Telharesha. [Tel-har'esha]
Place from whence Jews returned from exile. Ezra 2:59; Neh. 7:61. Gesenius renders the name 'Hill of the Wood.' Not identified.
Place from whence Jews returned from exile. Ezra 2:59; Neh. 7:61. Supposed to be the Thelme of Ptolemy, a city of the low salt tract near the Persian Gulf. The name signifies "Hill of Salt."
Son of Ishmael, and father of a tribe of the same name; also the territory occupied by the tribe. Gen. 25:15; 1 Chr. 1:30; Job 6:19; Isa. 21:14; Jer. 25:23. Probably the same as Teima, 32 52' N, 36 46' E.
Teman, [Te'man] Temani, [Te'mani] Temanites. [Te'manites]
Son of Eliphaz, a son of Esau, and a duke of Edom; also his descendants and the district inhabited by them. It is four times connected with Edom, and twice with Dedan: this associates it with the south. Its wisdom is spoken of, and God's judgements are pronounced upon it. One of Job's friends was Eliphaz the Temanite. Gen. 36:11, 15, 34, 42; 1 Chr. 1:36, 45, 53; Job 2:11; Jer. 49:7, 20; Ezek. 25:13; Amos 1:12; Obadiah 9; Hab. 3:3, in the margin 'south.' Not identified.
Son of Ashur, a descendant of Judah. 1 Chr. 4:6.
To mix, compound. Ex. 29:2; Ex. 30:35; Ezek. 46:14; 1 Cor. 12:24.
One thing that materially distinguishes the temple from the tabernacle is that God said of it, "Mine eyes and mine heart shall be there perpetually:" it referred to the kingdom and a settled order of things; whereas the tabernacle was typical of God's ways, and gave the idea of movement. And though the actual building was destroyed and rebuilt, and is now swept away, and will again be rebuilt, yet it is treated always as one house. Haggai 2:9 may be translated, as in the LXX, etc., "The latter glory of this house shall be greater than the former, saith the Lord of hosts: and in this place will I give peace, saith the Lord of hosts." When the Lord was on earth, though rejected by the rulers of Israel, He called the temple 'My house,' and 'My Father's house;' but later on He said to the Jews 'your house.' The 'latter glory' refers to the future, when God will be owned by His ancient people, 'and His glory be displayed.
Another thing that distinguished the temple was its being surrounded with chambers, so that the priests that were serving God could dwell around Him. Christ refers possibly to this in saying "In my Father's house are many mansions." The tabernacle had no flooring, the priests trod the earth; but in the temple they were separated from the earth by a flooring.
In the interior of the temple built by Solomon nothing but gold appeared: this is typical of divine righteousness, characterising the throne and presence of God, as will be manifested in the millennium. The ark was placed in the temple, and had found there its abiding resting place: it was the token of God's presence. The candlesticks, tables of showbread, golden altar, brazen altar, and laver (with ten smaller ones in addition, see LAVER), were similar to those in the tabernacle. God owned the house by filling it with His glory.
In the court of the temple were two pillars which received the names of JACHIN, "He will establish;" and BOAZ, "in him is strength," which perfectly agrees with the fact that it was God's house that was being built. 1 Kings 7:21; Rev. 3:12.
Another thing remarkable in the rearing of the temple was that it was built of stones made ready before being brought, so that there should be no noise of hammer, or axe, or iron tool, while it was in progress. 1 Kings 6:7. Thus the church is being formed of living stones who have come to the Living Stone (the chief corner stone, Christ Himself), and the whole building fitly framed together is growing into a holy temple in the Lord. Eph. 2:20-22; 1 Peter 2:5.
Of the actual erections there were
1. THE TEMPLE BY SOLOMON. It was formed after the pattern of the tabernacle, being a rectangle of sixty cubits by twenty, and its height thirty cubits: the holy of holies was a cube of twenty cubits; the holy (place) was forty cubits by twenty, with a porch in front of ten cubits by twenty. The chambers and upper chambers and pillars and porches were additional as described. 1 Kings 6.
2. THE TEMPLE BY ZERUBBABEL. Few particulars of this are given. Cyrus ordered the foundations to be strongly laid, and its height was to be sixty cubits, and its breadth sixty cubits. Ezra 6:3. Probably it was the same size as the temple by Solomon: the breadth here of sixty cubits being its 'length,' and its width not mentioned; or, if the sixty cubits be the width, it may have included the chambers. It is not probable that it was larger than the first temple. The aged men, who had seen the first house, wept when they saw the foundations of this house laid. This temple continued until the days of Herod.
3. THE TEMPLE BY HEROD. The Jews said it was forty-six years in building. John 2:20. Josephus gives almost the only account we have of it. It was apparently built over the old one, so as not to hinder the temple service: the priests themselves built the holy places. It was all on a magnificent scale. In the Gospels we read that the disciples exclaimed, "What stones! and what buildings!" and pointed out how it was "adorned with goodly stones and gifts." Herod was not God's man to build Him a house, nor were the leaders of the Jews fit men to carry on His worship. To the disciples the Lord declared that one stone should not be left upon another. Mark 13:1, 2; Luke 21:5, 6. Though Josephus gives many details as to this temple, they are not distinct enough to enable a plan to be made of it. In the N.T. the word ναός refers to the house itself, and ἱερόν to the buildings and courts in general. Apparently the Lord never entered the house itself. Doubtless this temple stood upon some part of mount Moriah, at the south-east corner of Jerusalem (q.v.), but on what part of the enclosure is not known.
4. A FUTURE TEMPLE. Scripture speaks in many places of the return of the Jews to their own land, but in unbelief as to the Lord Jesus being their Messiah. They will apparently build a temple, but this must not be confounded with the one described by Ezekiel, though the Jews may attempt to build it as there described. God cannot bless them until His anointed One is owned, and therefore this temple will be destroyed. Ps. 74; Isa. 66:1-6.
5. EZEKIEL'S TEMPLE. This is fully described in Ezek. 40 — Ezek. 44; it will be built when the land is once again divided amongst the twelve tribes, and all brought into blessing. In the centre of the land there will be a 'holy oblation' of 25,000 cubits square, which will contain both the city and the temple. That cubits and not reeds are intended, see Ezek. 45:2, 3. Other passages speak of the temple, Zion, and Jerusalem as associated together, as Ps. 68:29; Ps. 122; Isa. 2:2, 3; Micah 3:12 — Micah 4:2. All these, though not exactly on the same spot, will fall within the 'holy oblation,' though the part on which the city will stand is also called 'profane,' or 'common.' Probably the city will be built on its old site, and the temple may be somewhat farther north. Then the latter glory of God's house will exceed all that has yet been, for the Lord Jesus will be the glory of the house.
Christ refers to His body as a temple in John 2:19, and Christians are now God's temple, in which the Spirit of God dwells. The body of each Christian is also spoken of as a temple of the Holy Ghost. 1 Cor. 6:19.
In Rev. 11:19 the temple of God is opened in heaven, in connection with which are the judgements that come forth to smite the earth: Rev. 14:15, 17; Rev. 15:5-8; Rev. 16:1, 17.
Tempt, To; Temptation.
Three different characters of temptation are presented in the scriptures.
1. "God did tempt Abraham" when He bade him offer up Isaac. Gen. 22:1. God tried him, putting his faith to the test. Paul speaks of his thorn in the flesh as his 'temptation:' it was a trial or test. Gal. 4:14.
2. The Israelites tempted God. "They tempted God in their heart by asking meat for their lust." Ps. 78:18. They questioned whether God could furnish them a table in the wilderness. At other times they asked "Is the Lord among us or not?" but it is to be noticed that when Israel put God to the proof, they were really proved by Him. Compare Ps. 95:9 with Deut. 8:2 and Deut. 33:8 (where 'holy one' is Israel). The Lord refused to put God to the proof when tempted by Satan to cast Himself down that the angels might preserve Him. The sin of Ananias and Sapphira was tempting the Spirit of the Lord. Acts 5:9.
3. Temptation to evil, either by Satan, or by our own lusts. 2 Cor. 11:3; James 1:13, 14.
Temptations, The Lord's.
Besides the general temptations alluded to in Heb. 4:15, there were three special and typical temptations to which the Lord was subjected. He met these temptations as a dependent man by the word of God, to which Satan has no reply. That the Lord met Satan in the relation in which, as man, He stood to Israel and man, is confirmed by the temptations being omitted from John's Gospel, in which the Lord is contemplated more as Son of God; for GOD cannot be tempted of evil. James 1:13.
The first temptation was to leave the path of dependence. To make stones into bread to satisfy His hunger would not have been waiting on God: man's true path is to live by every word of God, to be dependent upon Him in his circumstances. The first temptation is remarkable, as showing that Satan knew whom he was addressing, or he would not have suggested so striking a miracle as making stones into bread.
The second temptation was to prove God's faithfulness to His word by Christ casting Himself down from a height, because there was a promise that the angels would bear Him up. Satan quoted this scripture, but omitted the important part that the angels had charge over Him to keep Him in all His ways. Ps. 91:11, 12. The temptation was for Him to go out of His way, which would have been putting God to the test, or tempting Him
The third temptation was the offer to the Lord of all the glory of the world if He would do homage to Satan. In this he is discovered as Satan. Christ shows that God only is to be worshipped, and bids Satan to depart. All the kingdoms of the earth will be Christ's in God's own time, for which the Lord is waiting. With man, how many have, alas! paid homage to Satan in some way for scraps of worldly glory or earthly possessions!
It will be noticed that the Lord in answering Satan (in each case with 'It is written') quoted from the Book of Deuteronomy, a book in which Israel is contemplated as on the point of entering the land of promise. The same weapon is for the use of the Christian, and is called 'the sword of the Spirit:' it is also said, "Resist the devil, and he will flee from you." In Luke's Gospel the temptations are arranged in their moral order, the second temptation in Matthew being the last in Luke.
See NUMBERS AS SYMBOLS.
1. The word commonly translated 'tent' is ohel, but it is often translated in the A.V. 'tabernacle,' and is used also for 'dwelling' or 'habitation,' as in Job 8:22; Ps. 91:10; etc. This word also shows that the goats' hair curtains formed 'the tent' of the tabernacle. See TABERNACLE. It was also 'a tent' that Moses pitched outside the camp, in Ex. 33:7. See CAMP.
2. mishkan, rightly translated 'tabernacle' but is 'tent' in Cant. 1:8.
3. sukkah also translated 'tabernacle,' 'pavilion,' 'booth;' and only once 'tent.' 2 Sam. 11:11.
4. qubbah, occurring only in Num. 25:8. With the patriarchs their 'tent' was their dwelling place as far as they had any, easily moved from place to place as the cattle needed fresh pasture. On Israel entering the land the tents gave way to houses in the cities: as the Christian's 'tabernacle' will give place to the 'house' above. 2 Cor. 5:1.
As tents were made of skins, goats' hair, etc., and small ones of linen, their manufacture embraced a variety of labour, and the precise nature of Paul and Aquila's work as tentmakers cannot be ascertained. Acts 18:3. Tarsus, Paul's native city, was noted for the manufacture of tents. They were commonly made of cilicium, so named from Cilicia. It was a kind of strong cloth woven from the long hair of the goats of that province. All Jews learned a trade, to which they could turn if needful.
See WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.
Son of Nahor, and father of Abraham. Gen. 11:24-32; Joshua 24:2; 1 Chr. 1:26. Called THARA in Luke 3:34.
This is a Hebrew word in the plural. It refers to domestic idols, as for instance those Rachel stole from her father; there the word, as elsewhere, is translated 'images' with'teraphim' in the margin. Gen. 31:19, 34, 35. Michal the wife of David had one in her house, and laid it in the bed when David escaped. 1 Sam. 19:13, 16. Micah also had them in his house, and regarded them as 'gods.' Judges 17:5; Judges 18:14-20. They were used in some way for divination, and are included among the images and idols which Josiah cleared from the land. 2 Kings 23:24; Ezek. 21:21; Zech. 10:2. In Hosea 3:4 the Jews are described as having neither king, nor prince, nor sacrifice, nor image, nor ephod, nor teraphim — as they are at this day bereft of their sacrifices, and without even the divination and false gods they once had. But the prophecy speaks also of a coming day when they will seek Jehovah their God, and David their king, and enter into blessing.
One of the royal door-keepers who conspired against Ahasuerus: the plot was discovered by Mordecai. Esther 2:21; Esther 6:2.
The Christian who wrote the Epistle to the Romans at Paul's dictation, and who sent his own salutation to the saints. Rom. 16:22.
A professional orator or advocate, employed by the Jewish council, to argue the case against Paul before Felix. Acts 24:1, 2.
See COVENANT, THE NEW.
See BIBLE and NEW TESTAMENT.
One who makes a will or testament, introduced in Heb. 9:16, 17 in a parenthesis, showing that as a will is of force only after a man is dead, so Christ must have died for the blessings of the new covenant to be available.
Literally the governor over a fourth part of a province, but also applied to the governor of any small province. It is employed in the N.T. in reference to Herod Antipas, tetrarch of Galilee and Peraea; Philip, tetrarch of Ituraea and Trachonitis; and Lysanias, tetrarch of Abilene. Mal. 14:1; Luke 3:1, 19; Luke 9:7; Acts 13:1.
See JUDAS No 2.
Son of Nahor and Reumah. Gen. 22:24.
Thamah, [Tha'mah] Tamah. [Ta'mah]
Ancestor of some Nethinim who returned from exile. Ezra 2:53; Neh. 7:55.
This occurs in the A.V. only in the margin of Ezek. 43:27; Ezek. 45:15, 17; Amos 5:22. The word is shelem, constantly rendered 'peace offering,' as it is in the text of these passages.
Son of Bilhan, a descendant of Benjamin. 1 Chr. 7:10. See TARSHISH.
A place built for dramatic and other public entertainments, and for meetings of the people. At the uproar at Ephesus they rushed into the theatre. Acts 19:29, 31. The word is θέατρον, and is translated 'spectacle' in 1 Cor. 4:9; the apostles were gazed upon both by angels and by men.
City in Ephraim, It was taken by Abimelech except the tower, from which he was killed by a piece of a millstone. Thus the besieged and the besieger were all punished in their sin. Judges 9:50-54; 2 Sam. 11:21. Identified with Tubas, 32 19' N, 35 22' E.
One, doubtless a Christian, to whom Luke addressed his Gospel and the Acts of the Apostles. The word translated 'most excellent' is κράτιστος, the same that is applied to governors of provinces, as to Felix and Festus as 'most noble.' Nothing further is known of Theophilus. Luke 1:3; Acts 1:1; cf. Acts 23:26; Acts 24:3; Acts 26:25.
Thessalonians, [Thessalo'nians] Epistles to the.
Paul on his second missionary journey, accompanied by Silas, visited Thessalonica. The conversion of some Jews, of a great multitude of Greeks, and of many chief women led to an assembly being gathered there. Paul soon left them, hoping to revisit them within a short time, but Satan hindered him. Fearing as to their firmness under persecution, he sent Timothy to confirm and encourage them. He was cheered by the news which Timothy brought of their faith and love, and wrote the First Epistle from Corinth, about A.D. 52, and somewhere about a year after his visit to them. Acts 17:1-11. As to date it is the first of Paul's Epistles.
THE FIRST EPISTLE. This is mainly occupied with the development and direction of living affections in the newly converted saints to whom Paul wrote. The coming of the Lord has a place of much importance in it, being mentioned in every chapter. The address is to"the church of the Thessalonians which is in God the Father and in the Lord Jesus Christ." The apostle gives thanks in respect of their faith, love, and hope, which gave evidence of their election of God. Their faith God-ward had been noised abroad, indeed they were ensamples, or models, to all around. They had turned from idols to serve the living and true God; and they waited for His Son from heaven, even Jesus, their deliverer from coming wrath.
1 Thess. 2. The apostle reminds them that though persecuted at Philippi, he had nevertheless been bold to preach the gospel to them. He had been gentle with them as a nurse with her children, and willing to impart even his life also. He recalls how blamelessly he had walked before them, and that he had preached in such a way that they had received his testimony as the word of God, which wrought in them effectually so that they were in consequence persecuted by the heathen, as the saints in Judaea had been by the Jews, who had killed the Lord Jesus. Greatly desiring to see them, Paul could assure the Thessalonian saints that they would be his joy and crown of boasting before the Lord Jesus at His coming. This is the second allusion in the epistle to this event, and goes further than that in 1 Thess. 1:10. Here the blessedness of the saints being gathered together is referred to.
1 Thess. 3. Paul, in his anxiety for them, had sent Timothy to confirm and encourage them, and was greatly relieved by the news which Timothy brought of their faith and love, saying "now we live if ye stand firm in the Lord." He prays for them that their love might abound, and their hearts be kept unblamable in holiness before their God and Father at the coming of the Lord Jesus with all His saints. Here the 'appearing' of the Lord is spoken of, when it will be shown who are unblamable. The affections of the saints one to another, and the holiness inseparable therefrom, are connected with the third mention of the Lord's return, where it is noted that He comes with all His saints: cf. 1 Thess. 1:10; 1 Thess. 2:19, 20.
1 Thess. 4. Exhortations are given as to walk. Fornication (so common among the heathen) was especially to be guarded against. 1 Thess. 4:6 refers to the same subject as touching the wife of a brother. They were also to attend to their own business and to work, walking in good repute towards those without: a needed exhortation, as we see by 2 Thess. 3:11, 12.
In 1 Thess. 4. 13-18 a difficulty is solved, into which the Thessalonians had fallen in regard to those of their number who had fallen asleep. The Lord's return to reign was so truly part of their faith, that they thought that those who had died had lost the blessings of the kingdom, being ignorant of the details which are now given them by the word of the Lord. Here we learn that at the Lord's coming, with an assembling shout, the dead in Christ shall rise first, and then, in company with those saints who are alive, they will be caught away in the clouds to meet the Lord in the air, prior to coming with Him in glory. They were to encourage one another with those words.
It is this which is often called the Rapture, or catching away of the saints, and it is the proper hope of the church. Christ coming for His saints is distinct from His coming with His saints, as in 1 Thess. 3:13 and 1 Thess. 4:14. If 1 Thess. 4:15-18 be read as a parenthesis, verse 14, which speaks of God bringing with Jesus those who have slept through Him, is linked with chapter 5.
1 Thess. 5. The day of the Lord here spoken of, which is connected with judgement on man, is quite distinct from the Rapture. The language changes from 'we' to 'they' and 'them.' The day of the Lord will come upon the world as a thief in the night, whereas the saints are of the day and sons of light. They are exhorted therefore to watch and be sober, and to put on the breastplate of faith and love, and for a helmet the hope of salvation. They were not called to wrath (cf. 1 Thess. 1:10), but to obtain salvation whether alive or sleeping. Exhortations follow and greetings close the epistle.
THE SECOND EPISTLE. Silvanus, or Silas, being with Paul when this epistle was written, leads to the conclusion that it, as well as the First Epistle, was sent from Corinth during the eighteen months that Paul abode there, Acts 18:11; its date may be A.D. 52 or 53.
There is evidence in this epistle that the minds of the saints had been disturbed, apparently by a feigned letter or message from Paul, saying that the day of the Lord was present: this supposition may have been strengthened by the persecution they were passing through. Paul sets them right as to this. Christians often misinterpret this Second Epistle, and think that Paul was showing the Thessalonians that they were wrong in expecting the Lord. This mistake is made because the distinction is not seen between the Lord coming for His saints (which is the Christian's proper hope, and is intended to give them the character of a waiting people), and the day of the Lord which is connected with judgement: cf. Isa. 13:6-13; Joel 2; Amos 5:18-20. The Thessalonians were right in expecting the former, but were wrong in thinking that the day of the Lord was (not 'at hand,' but) 'present,' as 2 Thess. 2:2 should read, as may be seen by the translation of the same word (ἐνίστημι) in Rom. 8:38; 1 Cor. 3:22.
After the introduction the apostle thanks God for the growth of their faith and love, but he does not add hope here, as in the First Epistle, for their hope had received a check. Their patience and faith in tribulation were a token that they were counted worthy of the kingdom of God, for which they also suffered. God would punish those who troubled them. He will take vengeance on those who know not God, and on those who have not obeyed the gospel.
2 Thess. 2. The apostle proves that the day of Christ could not be present, because 1, the Lord had not come, and they had not been gathered to Him, as explained in the First Epistle; and 2, the Antichrist had not been revealed, the man of sin, the son of perdition: the one whom the Lord will, when He returns, consume "with the brightness of his coming."
Though the Antichrist will be only a man, he will exalt himself against all that is called God, and will sit down in the temple of God, showing himself that he is God: cf. Rev. 13:11-18, and Dan. 11:36, 37. The mystery of lawlessness was already at work, but its full development was hindered, doubtless by the existing order of government and the presence of the Holy Spirit as a divine Person on the earth. When He is gone and the church with Him, the lawless one will be fully revealed as after the working of Satan, with miracles and wonders and unrighteous deceit in them that perish, who would not receive the love of the truth that they might be saved. "God shall send them strong delusion, that they should believe a lie: that they all might be judged who believed not the truth, but had pleasure in unrighteousness." Paul gives thanks for the Thessalonians, for God had chosen them to salvation. He prays that their hearts might be encouraged.
2 Thess. 3. The apostle asks for their prayers. He had confidence that the Lord would establish and keep them. They were to withdraw from every brother who walked disorderly, and did not obey the apostolic injunctions. He commands the disorderly to work, so as to eat their own bread. The apostle commends them to the Lord of peace to give them peace always by all means, and that He might be with them. The benediction closes the epistle.
A large and populous city on the sea-coast of Macedonia. Cassander having enlarged it, named it after his wife Thessalonica, the sister of Alexander the Great. Under the Romans it was a city of note, and was eventually made a free city and became the capital of Macedonia. It lay on one of the routes from Rome to the East, and became a great commercial centre. This naturally attracted Jews to the place, and they had a synagogue. When Paul had preached there, some Jews and many Greeks believed. It was on Paul's second and third missionary journeys that he visited them. He wrote the two Epistles to the saints there during his stay at Corinth of a year and a half (Acts 18:11). It was for many years called Salonika, and was one of the most important cities in European Turkey. The city is now in Greece (Macedonia), the name has reverted to the ancient one in the form of Thessaloniki (alternatively Saloniki or Salonica). Many Jews still reside there . Acts 17:1, 11, 13; Acts 27:2; Phil. 4:16; 2 Tim. 4:10.
A Jewish impostor and insurgent who, with four hundred men, was destroyed. He was mentioned by Gamaliel before the Sanhedrim as an instance that what is not of God comes to nothing. Acts 5:36.
1. (ληστής) 'robber, bandit.' Used by the Lord in reference to those who bought and sold in the temple. Matt. 21:13; Mark 11:17; Luke 19:46. In the parable of the Good Samaritan the traveller fell among robbers. Luke 10:30, 36. When the Lord was arrested He asked if they had come out as against a robber. Matt. 26:55; Mark 14:48; Luke 22:52. The two malefactors crucified with the Lord were also men of this character. Matt. 27:38, 44; Mark 15:27. The same Greek word is translated 'robber' in the A.V. in John 10:1, 8; John 18:40; 2 Cor. 11:26.
2. κλέπτης, 'thief.' Those who break through and steal secretly. Mat 6:19, 20. This is the word employed in the expression "as a thief in the night," to which the unexpected coming of the Lord to the world is compared. 1 Thess. 5:2, 4; 2 Peter 3:10; Rev. 3:3; etc. It is applied to Judas. John 12:6. The word 'thief' in the A.V. is always this word except in the passages quoted under No. 1.
City in the tribe of Dan. Joshua 19:43. Identified by some with Tibneh, 32 1' N, 35 6'E.
One of the twelve apostles, called also DIDYMUS, a twin. He comes prominently before us on two significant occasions: once when he said to the Lord, "We know not whither thou goest, and how can we know the way?" The Lord replied, "I am the way, the truth, and the life." John 14:5, 6. Also when he said that he would not believe that the Lord had risen until he had ocular demonstration as to His wounds; but when he saw the Lord, he at once confessed Him as "My Lord and my God." John 20:19-29. He was not with the other disciples when the Lord breathed into them, and said, "Receive ye the Holy Ghost;" and thus he may be taken as a type of the future remnant of the Jews, who will not believe till they see their Messiah. In contrast to which the Lord added a beautiful sentence respecting those of the present time: "Blessed are they that have not seen, and yet have believed."
Thorn in the Flesh.
This was something that Satan was allowed to inflict on Paul, not because of any fault he had committed, but lest he should be puffed up on account of his having been caught up into the third heaven. 2 Cor. 12:7-10. Apparently it was something that made him contemptible in the eyes of his fleshly opponents. See 2 Cor. 10:10; 2 Cor. 11:30; Gal. 4:13, 14.
There are about a dozen different words translated 'thorns,' and 'thistles,' showing how plentiful these results of the curse are in this sin-stained world. The different species cannot be identified with most of the Hebrew words. The thistle is used to signify a worthless person in the parable of Jehoash, king of Israel. 2 Kings 14:9. Thorns are often mentioned as growing up in places given to desolation.
The Hebrew word atad, translated 'thorns' in Ps. 58:9, and 'bramble' in Judges 9:14, 15, has been identified with the Lycium Europaeum, this and the L. afrum are both found in Palestine. Its identification seems to be confirmed by the Arabs calling the plant atad, but it is also known by the name of ausej.
In the millennium, "instead of the thorn shall come up the myrtle tree." Gen. 3:18; Isa. 32:13; Isa. 55:13; etc. See CROWN OF THORNS.
See NUMBERS AS SYMBOLS.
This is accomplished in the East by the grain being trodden on by oxen, and that it was so threshed in ancient times is shown by the law that the ox should not be muzzled that trod out the corn. Deut. 25:4. There were also threshing 'instruments,' with which the grain was beaten out. Threshing was also accomplished by oxen drawing over the grain a sort of sledge without runners, by which the straw also was crushed. 2 Sam. 24:22; Isa. 41:15, etc.
Seat of honour for judges, priests, and especially for kings. The same word, kisse, is translated 'seat' in Judges 3:20; 1 Sam. 1:9; 1 Sam. 4:13, 18; Esther 3:1; etc. The throne for kings is at times distinguished by being called the 'royal throne,' and 'kingly throne,' 'throne of the king,' etc. The throne of David is often referred to in the sense of his reigning, and God promised that his throne should be established for ever, which will be fulfilled in Christ Himself. 2 Sam. 7:16; Acts 2:30.
God is often represented as sitting on His throne: "Jehovah hath prepared his throne in the heavens; and his kingdom ruleth over all." Ps. 103:19. The Lord Jesus is now sitting on His Father's throne, but He will have a throne of His own, and will be hailed as King of kings and Lord of lords. Heb. 1:8; Rev. 3:21; Rev. 17:14; Rev.19:16.
The same word in the N.T., θρόνος, is translated 'seat' in Luke 1:52; Rev. 2:13; Rev. 4:4; Rev. 11:16; Rev. 13:2; Rev. 16:10. The passages in Rev. 4:4; Rev. 11:16 represent the twenty-four elders in heaven — the redeemed — as sitting on thrones around the throne, in contrast to others who are before the throne. Satan also has his throne on earth, Rev. 2:13, and will have his agents in kingly power in a future day.
This is of rare occurrence in Palestine, and is regarded in scripture as being the voice of God in power, both in the O.T. of the past and in the Revelation of the future. Ps. 29; Ps. 77:18; Ps. 104:7; Rev. 4:5; Rev. 6:1; etc.: compare also John 12:29. In Ps. 78:48, in recounting the plagues of Egypt, the flocks are represented as being consumed by HOT THUNDERBOLTS. The word is resheph, and is also translated 'coals,' 'burning coals,' 'burning heat.' Doubtless lightning is referred to, as when the 'fire of God' fell from heaven and burnt up Job's sheep. Job 1:16.
City in the district of Lydia in Asia Minor. The disciple Lydia, of Philippi, was from this city, which was famed for its dyeing. It is not known how the church was formed there, but it was chosen as one of the seven representative churches to which the Revelation was sent, with the special message addressed to this church. Acts 16:14; Rev. 1:11; Rev. 2:18, 24. See REVELATION. The city was founded by Seleueus Nicator, who during the war with Lysimachus stationed a colony of Macedonians there. At the commencement of the Christian Era there was a preponderance of the Macedonian element in the population. It is now called Ak-hissar; there are no ancient ruins.
The Greek word is θύι>νος, and occurs in Rev. 18:12 only, as being brought to apostate Babylon. It was doubtless some wood used for decorative purposes, and is supposed to be identified with the callitris quadrivalvis. It was the wood called by the Romans citrum, of which expensive articles were made. It is 'sweet wood' in the margin.
City on the west of the Sea of Galilee: it was founded by Herod Antipas, and named after the emperor Tiberius. It became the capital of the province of Galilee, and in it were gathered the arts of Greece and the idolatry of Rome. Josephus states (Ant. xviii. 2, 3) that to build Tiberias many tombs had to be taken away, which made it ceremonially an unclean place, so that no Jews would live there except those who were compelled, and others who were bribed by the founder. In later days, however, along with Jerusalem, Hebron, and Safed, Tiberias was classed by the Jews as one of their four holy cities, renowned as seats of learning. We do not read of the Lord visiting the city. John 6:23. It is situate 32 47' N, 35 32' E.
Tiberias, [Tibe'rias] Sea of.
See GALILEE, SEA OF.
Tiberius Caesar. [Tibe'rias Cae'sar]
Son of Tiberius Claudius Nero and Livia, his name in full being the same as his father's. He was step-son of Augustus, and was the second emperor of Rome. There is only an incidental reference to him under this name in the N.T. — the fifteenth year of his reign being the time when John the Baptist began his ministry. Luke 3:1. His reign is put down as A.D. 14-37, but there is evidence that he reigned two or three years with Augustus, and the above 'fifteenth year' is reckoned from the earlier date. By comparing this with Luke 3:22, 23, it will be seen that it could not have been later than A.D. 25 or 26; for Christ was born four years before the Era A.D., and now He 'began to be about 30 years old.' Tiberius was a most profligate man, and his government was despotic and cruel.
City of Hadadezer, king of Zobah. 1 Chr. 18:8. It is intimated in the margin of 2 Sam. 8:8 that BETAH may refer to Tibhath, but Betah has not been identified.
Son of Ginath: he aspired to be king of Israel as the successor of Zimri, but was slain by the followers of his rival Omri after a contest of four years. 1 Kings 16:21, 22.
One called 'king of nations' who confederated with Chedorlaomer. Gen. 14:1, 9. He was probably chief over several clans here called 'nations.' The R.V. translates 'king of Goiim.'
Tiglathpileser, [Tig'lath-pile'ser] Tilgathpilneser. [Til'gath-pilne'ser]
Successor to Pul, king of Assyria. He is called a usurper and the founder of the second Assyrian empire. He reigned B.C. 745-727. In the reign of Pekah, king of Israel, he overran the northern part of Palestine, and took away the people as captives. 2 Kings 15:29; 1 Chr. 5:6. In the days of Ahaz, when Pekah had formed an alliance with Rezin, king of Damascus, against Judah, Ahaz appealed to the king of Assyria. Tiglath-pileser attacked Damascus, and according to his monuments he destroyed that city and put Rezin to death. The monuments also state that he held a court at Damascus where the kings met him, to own their submission, and pay their tribute. Scripture relates that Ahaz met him there, and also that he paid a heavy tribute; but the final result was that Tiglath-pileser, instead of helping Ahaz, distressed him, and carried away captive the tribes on the east of the Jordan. Israel remained tributary to Assyria. 2 Kings 16:7, 9, 10; 1 Ch, 5:26; 2 Chr. 28:20. Some Assyrian scholars hold that Tiglath-pileser is the same person as PUL. But in 1 Chr. 5:26 both kings are mentioned as different persons, and the dates of the Pul of scripture do not agree with those of Tiglath-pileser. See PUL.
Father of Jahaziah. Ezra 10:15.
Tikvah, [Tik'vah] Tikvath. [Tik'vath]
Son of Harhas, or Hasrah, and father of Shallum, the husband of Huldah the prophetess. 2 Kings 22:14; 2 Chr. 34:22.
This in Luke 5:19 is supposed by some to refer to the verandah of the open court under which the Lord might be sitting; or it may have been a light roofing accessible by the stairs outside the house, and easily broken through.
Son of Shimon, a descendant of Judah. 1 Chr. 4:20.
Father of blind Bartimaeus. Mark 10:46.
Time has been described as 'the measure of motion,' as seen in the movements of the heavenly bodies; or as 'the duration of periods,' of which we can conceive a beginning and an ending. It stands in contrast to ETERNITY, of which no beginning and no ending can be conceived.
Christians are exhorted to 'redeem the time.' Eph. 5:16; Col. 4:5. This does not mean 'to make up for lost time'; but to seize every favourable opportunity. In Dan. 2:8 the king said that the wise men sought 'to gain the time': that is, obtain a delay in the hope that the king might relent, or that something might happen that would save them.
As to the various events foretold by God that have yet to come to pass, it is not for the Christian to know "the times or the seasons which the Father hath put in his own power." Acts 1:7. But, on the other hand, when two events have been foretold, the one of which must take place before the other (as the 'rapture' of the saints before the day of the Lord when He will return with His saints), Christians are expected to know about them, for the apostle Paul writes "Of the times and the seasons, brethren, ye have no need that I write unto you. For yourselves know perfectly that the day of the Lord so cometh as a thief in the night." 1 Thess. 5:1, 2. It is further explained in 2 Thess. 2:3-10, that the day of the Lord could not come before the revelation of the Antichrist, etc. Still as to the when of this and of the 'rapture' of the saints, we are not to know, but are to be always ready for the latter.
Of the children of Issachar it is said that they were men "that had understanding of the times, to know what Israel ought to do." 1 Chr. 12:32. They understood the mind of God, namely, that David should be king of the whole of the twelve tribes. So the Holy Spirit can direct the saints to the particular line of truth most suitable to the period in which they live, and teach them what they ought to do; as, for example, a line of truth and action for the present state of the church is pointed out in the Second Epistle to Timothy, agreeing, as it does, with the later addresses to the Seven Churches in Revelation 3.
The word 'time' is used in Dan. 7:25; Dan. 12:7; Rev. 12:14, for a 'year': hence "time, times, and a half " signify three years and a half. See SEVENTY WEEKS. The expression in Rev. 10:6, "time should be no longer," is better translated "there should be no longer delay."
1. Concubine of Eliphaz, son of Esau, and mother of Amalek. Gen. 36:12.
2. Daughter of Seir the Horite. Gen. 36:22; 1 Chr. 1:39.
3. Son of Eliphaz, a son of Esau. 1 Chr. 1:36.
1. Duke descended from Esau. Gen. 36:40; 1 Chr. 1:51. Perhaps the same as TIMNA No. 3.
2. City on the north border of Judah. Joshua 15:10. Identified with ruins at Tibnah, 31 45' N, 34 56' E.
3. City in the south of Judah. Joshua 15:57; 2 Chr. 28:18. Identified with Tibna, 31 42' N, 35 2' E.
1. Place in which Judah was shearing his sheep when he met with Tamar. Gen. 38:12-14. The Hebrew name is TIMNAH as in the R.V.
2. Place where Samson's wife resided. Judges 14:1-5. It is called TIMNAH in the R.V., but the Hebrew name is TIMNATHAH. Some judge Nos. 1 and 2 to be the same place as TIMNAH in Joshua 15:10.
Timnathheres [Tim'nath-he'res], Timnathserah. [Timnath-se'rah]
City given to Joshua, and where he was buried. Joshua 19:50; Joshua 24:30; Judges 2:9. Identified with Kefr Haris in the Mount of Ephraim, 32 7' N, 35 9' E.
Inhabitant of Timnath No. 2. Judges 15:6.
One of the seven men chosen to attend to the poor saints at Jerusalem. Acts 6:5.
A young man whom Paul calls "my own son in the faith." His mother Eunice was a Jewess and his father a Greek. He had evidently been brought up piously, having known the holy scriptures from a child, and Paul mentions the unfeigned faith both of his mother and of his grandmother Lois. Paul, wishing to take Timothy with him, circumcised him because of the Jews. From Lystra he accompanied Paul into Macedonia, but he and Silas stayed behind at Berea. They joined Paul at Athens, and Timothy was sent back to Thessalonica, and brought his report to Paul at Corinth. Acts 17:14; 1 Thess. 3:1, 2.
During Paul's stay at Ephesus Timothy was with him, and was sent to Corinth, but was again with Paul in Macedonia when the Second Epistle to the Corinthians was written. He was also with Paul when the Epistle to the Romans was written from Corinth. When Paul returned to Asia through Macedonia, Timothy waited for him at Troas. Acts 20:3-5. He was with Paul at Rome when he wrote his epistles to the Colossians, Philemon, and to the Philippians. At some unknown place and time Timothy suffered imprisonment, for scripture records his release. Heb. 13:23. Paul besought him to remain at Ephesus to warn the brethren against false teachers, 1 Tim. 1:3; and in the Second Epistle he begs him to use diligence to come to him, to bring with him Mark, and the cloak he had left at Troas, the books and the parchments.
Thus to the end of Paul's life his dearly-loved Timothy was a help and comfort to him, and he availed himself of his devoted labours. He bore testimony of him, that when all were seeking their own, he had no one like-minded with himself but Timothy, Phil. 2:20; and when Paul's course was nearly run, he found in Timothy one to whom he could commit the work, instructing him as to the order of the house of God, and his behaviour in it. The apostle warned and admonished him, exhorted and charged him, with the affectionate fervour of a spiritual father, and even cared for the health of his body, advising him to take a little wine for his frequent infirmities. The last word to him in his epistles is "The Lord Jesus Christ be with thy spirit: grace be with you."
Timothy may be regarded as the typical servant, who remains after the decease of the apostles, unto the coming of the Lord. Paul looked for the continuance of the truth which he had taught through such.
Timothy, Epistles to.
These epistles are generally believed to have been written by Paul after his two years' imprisonment at Rome, recorded at the end of the Acts: the First Epistle during the time he was at liberty, and the Second Epistle when he was a prisoner a second time, and was looking for a speedy martyrdom. The First Epistle was probably written from Macedonia about A.D. 64, and the Second Epistle two years later.
THE FIRST EPISTLE has the character of a charge to an apostolic delegate as to the maintenance of sound doctrine in the assembly, and as to the provision for the due care of saints. Hence we find the character of the men suitable for bishops and deacons. They must be such as maintained faith and piety. The epistle recognises the church in its normal condition — the church of God in order — differing from the Second Epistle, in which the house is regarded as in disorder. The house of God stands in contrast to the Jewish temple, and God is presented in the character of a Saviour-God with regard to man.
After the benediction Paul states that Timothy had been besought to remain at Ephesus to enjoin some not to teach strange doctrine, nor give heed to fables and useless genealogies, which ministered questions rather than the dispensation of God, which was in faith. The end of what was enjoined was love out of 1, a pure heart; 2, a good conscience; and 3, unfeigned faith. Instead of this some were seeking to be law-teachers. The law had its use, but applied, not to the righteous, but to the lawless and to the wicked of every kind, and to anything opposed to sound teaching, according to the gospel of the glory of the blessed God with which Paul had been entrusted, he who had formerly been the chief of sinners. His salvation was a delineation of the Lord's long-suffering to all others. The mention of it calls forth a burst of praise from Paul. The charge in 1 Tim. 1:3, 4 was committed to Timothy that he might carry on the work in Paul's absence. Some had made shipwreck of faith, two of whom are named, and these had been delivered unto Satan (cf. 1 Cor. 5:5 ), that they might learn not to blaspheme.
1 Tim. 2. Prayers were to be made for all men, that the saints might lead quiet and tranquil lives in all piety, in view of liberty for God's testimony. God desires all men to be saved, and to come to the knowledge of the truth. Here it is no question of God's counsels, but of His attitude toward men in grace as the Saviour-God: cf. 2 Cor. 5:20. Christ is the one Mediator between God and men, and He gave His life a ransom for all, to be testified of in these days of grace. Paul had been appointed a herald, an apostle, and a teacher o f the Gentiles. Hence he willed that men should pray, holding up holy hands; that women should adorn themselves modestly and with good works; they were to learn in silence, and not to teach or usurp authority over man. The original order in creation and the history of the fall are cited in support of these injunctions.
1 Tim. 3. The qualification of a bishop, or overseer, and of a deacon, or minister, are shown to be, not so much those of specific gift as of piety and good moral character. Paul hoped to go shortly to Timothy, but wrote these things that Timothy might know how one ought to behave himself in the house of God, which is 1, the assembly of the living God, and 2, the pillar and base of the truth — namely, that which is established to maintain the truth on the earth. Confessedly the mystery of piety is great. God has been manifested in flesh; justified in the Spirit (in the power of Christ by the Holy Spirit: cf. Rom. 1:4); has appeared to angels (they saw God in Christ); has been preached among the nations; has been believed on in the world; and has been received up into glory — an epitome of God's ways in grace outside of all connected with promises to Israel, and in contrast to law.
1 Tim. 4. The Spirit foretells that in the latter times there would be apostasy, and that people would give their mind to the teaching of demons; practising asceticism and false holiness. Timothy was to be a good minister of Jesus Christ in teaching the right use of things which God in His beneficence has given to man. The word is faithful and of all acceptation. The living God is the Saviour (preserver, Matt. 5:45) of all men, and especially of those that believe. Timothy was to teach these things and to live them; and not to neglect the gift that was given him by prophecy (cf. 1 Tim. 1:18) and with (not by here, cf. 2 Tim. 1:6) the imposition of the hands of the elderhood.
1 Tim. 5. Paul gives personal instruction to Timothy as to carrying out his mission, especially as regards the treatment of elders and widows. He was to take a little wine because of his frequent ill-health.
1 Tim. 6. Instruction is given as to those under servitude (slaves), and their behaviour towards their masters. The dangers of independence coming in in connection with those who desire to be rich, are pointed out; and Timothy, as a man of God, is exhorted to flee these things; to strive earnestly in the good conflict of faith; to lay hold on eternal life. He is again charged before God and before Jesus Christ, that he keep the command spotless until the appearing of the Lord Jesus Christ: which the blessed and only ruler shall show in its own time, the King of kings and Lord of lords: who only hath immortality; dwelling in unapproachable light; whom no man hath seen or can see: to whom be honour and eternal might. Amen. We have here the inaccessible majesty of God in His essential being. In Rev. 19 the Lord Jesus is King of kings and Lord of lords: here He, who will manifest the Lord Jesus as such, is so designated. Exhortations are added. A final word to Timothy and a benediction close the epistle.
THE SECOND EPISTLE. The fact that the apostle when writing this epistle was at the close of his ministry, gives it a peculiar interest. He reviews his service, and has to lament that all in Asia (that is, Asia Minor including Ephesus) had turned away from him. The house of God as a profession was in disorder, past recovery as a whole, and the apostle could but leave instructions to the servant how to act in such a state of things. This characterises the epistle.
After a salutation in which he desires mercy for Timothy, as well as grace and peace, Paul thanks God, whom he had served from his forefathers with pure (not always enlightened) conscience, having Timothy in unceasing remembrance in prayer, calling to mind his unfeigned faith and that of his maternal ancestors; and he desires that Timothy would rekindle the gift that he had received by the imposition of Paul's hands, for God had given, not a spirit of cowardice, but of power, of love, and of a wise discretion. Timothy is exhorted not to be ashamed of the testimony of the Lord, nor of Paul His prisoner.
God's salvation and calling according to His purpose and grace in Christ Jesus before the ages of time, has been made manifest by the appearing of the Saviour, who has annulled death, and brought life and incorruptibility to light by the gospel — a revelation which puts the soul beyond death and its power. Timothy is exhorted to hold fast the outline of sound words heard from Paul, and to keep by the Holy Spirit that deposit (of divine truth) committed to him. All Asia had turned away from Paul — not necessarily from profession of Christ, but from the practical bearing of His death and resurrection: cf. 1 Tim. 1:3, 4; Rev. 2 and Rev. 3.
1 Tim. 2. Timothy was to commit to faithful men what he had heard from Paul — provision is thus made for the transmission of the truth. Timothy was exhorted to endure hardness as a good soldier, illustration being given by the conduct pursued by those called to war, of such too as contend for mastery in the games, and of husbandmen. He is charged to remember Christ Jesus raised from the dead according to Paul's gospel; the application of which truth called forth the opposition of man after the flesh. False doctrine, which would eat as a gangrene into the very vitals of Christianity, was abroad as to the resurrection, but the foundation of God stood sure, having this seal (God's side) "The Lord knoweth them that are his;" and (man's side) "Let everyone that nameth the name of the Lord [as the Editors read here] depart from iniquity." Evil alas! had arisen in the scene of christian profession, which is compared to a great house, in which are vessels to honour and to dishonour, and the path for the servant in such case is marked out, namely, to purge himself from the latter, to be a vessel fit for the Master's use. Exhortations follow.
2 Tim. 3. It is foretold that in the last days there would be perilous or difficult times, arising from the introduction of counterfeits of the truth allied with priestcraft. Such wicked workings would be met only by the power of divine life in souls, and hence Paul alludes to his doctrine, his godly walk, and his sufferings, and adds, All who desire to live godly in Christ Jesus will be persecuted. Evil men and seducers would advance in evil. Timothy was to abide in the things which he had learned, and been assured of, knowing of whom he had learned them (cf. 2 Tim. 3:10); he had known the holy scriptures from a child. The important testimony is added that every scripture is divinely inspired, and is profitable for teaching, conviction, correction, instruction in righteousness (supplying what is needed for every time), that the man of God may be complete, fully fitted to every good work.
2 Tim. 4. Paul charges Timothy before God, and the Lord Jesus Christ, who shall judge the living and the dead, and by His appearing and His kingdom, to fulfil his mission. (It is not here the coming of the Lord for His own, but His appearing and kingdom that are spoken of, in view of the responsibility of the saints.) It was the more needful for Timothy to fill up the measure of his ministry, for Paul was about to depart. He had finished his course, had fought the good fight, and kept the faith. The crown of righteousness was laid up for him, and for all them that love the appearing of Christ. (To love the appearing of Christ, the time of His glory, is characteristic of Christianity.)
Various details follow. Mark had been restored to the apostle's confidence: cf. Acts 13:13; Acts 15:36-40. Paul requests Timothy to bring his cloak (before winter, 2 Tim. 4:21; the body is the Lord's), the papyrus rolls, and especially the parchments. Paul had made his first defence before Nero, and all had forsaken him (he prays for them), but the Lord stood by and strengthened him. Thus far he had been delivered out of the mouth of the lion, and was able still to make known the gospel. The Lord would preserve him from every evil work for His heavenly kingdom, to whom he gives glory. Salutations and the benediction close the epistle.
This is the stannum of the ancients, found alloyed with lead, etc., but separated by smelting. It is not known to have been found in Palestine, but would have been early known there and was imported from Tarshish. Num. 31:22; Isa. 1:25; Ezek. 22:18, 20; Ezek. 27:12.
1. The boundary of Solomon's dominions on the Euphrates. 1 Kings 4:24. This is doubtless the city known to the Greeks and Romans as Thapsacus, situated at the ford of the Euphrates, which well agrees with the signification of Tiphsah, 'passing over.' It was where Cyrus, Darius Codomannus, and Alexander crossed during their wars. The town was a place of importance. Identified with Suriyeh, 35 54' N, 38 48' E. A traveller in the winter of 1841-2 found but twenty inches of water in the Euphrates at this spot.
2. City smitten by Menahem. 2 Kings 15:16. This was doubtless a different place from the above, and has been identified by some with ruins at Tafsah, 32 10' N, 35 10' E.
Son of Japheth: his descendants have not been traced, but are supposed to correspond with the Thracians. Gen. 10:2; 1 Chr. 1:5.
Designation of one of the families of scribes dwelling at Jabez. 1 Chr. 2:55. The signification of the term is not known.
An ornamental head-dress. Ezek. 24:17, 23. The same Hebrew word, peër, is translated 'bonnet' in Isa. 3:20; Ezek. 44:18; and 'ornament' in Isa. 61:10. In Isa. 3:18, 'round tires like the moon' is a translation of a different word, saharonim, meaning 'crescents,' as in R.V.
King of Ethiopia. 2 Kings 19:9; Isa. 37:9. See EGYPT.
Son of Caleb, the son of Hezron. 1 Chr. 2:48.
Son of Jehaleleel, of the tribe of Judah. 1 Chr. 4:16.
Persian title given to Nehemiah. Neh. 8:9; Neh. 10:1. In Ezra 2:63, and Neh. 7:65, 70, the same title doubtless refers to Zerubbabel. In the margin it reads 'governor.' It is thought to be similar to the modern word Pasha. This is confirmed by the Hebrew word (pechah), used for the title of Nehemiah in Neh. 12:26, and elsewhere for the Persian governors.
1. Youngest daughter of Zelophehad. Num. 26:33; Num. 27:1; Num. 36:11; Joshua 17:3.
2. Ancient Canaanite city conquered by Joshua. At the division of the kingdom it became a royal city for the kings of Israel. In Cant. 6:4 it is referred to as being 'beautiful,' but the LXX and the Vulgate do not in this passage regard it as a proper name. Joshua 12:24; 1 Kings 14:17; 1 Kings 15:21, 33; 1 Kings 16:6-23; 2 Kings 15:14, 16. Identified with Teiasir, 32 20' N, 35 23' E.
Designation of Elisha. 1 Kings 17:1; 1 Kings 21:17, 28; 2 Kings 1:3, 8; 2 Kings 9:36. The LXX in 1 Kings 17 has "the Thesbite of Thesbæ of Galaad." Josephus has "of Thesbon, a country in Gilead," probably copied from the LXX. No such place is known. Some suppose the word to signify 'the stranger.'
The giving of a tenth to God, or to His representatives, was practised long before the law enforced it. Abraham gave tithes of the spoils to Melchizedek, and Jacob vowed that he would give to God the tenth of all that God might give to him. Gen. 14:20; Gen. 28:22; Heb. 7:2-9. There is evidence that heathen nations devoted tithes to sacred and fiscal uses, consecrating them to their gods or to victorious generals, or as a permanent source of income to their sovereign.
The tithes under the law were
1. Those given to the Levites: they embraced a tenth of all produce. Every tenth animal as it passed under the rod was to be given, whether it was good or bad: if changed, both had to be given: if either animal or vegetable produce were redeemed, a fifth had to be added thereto. Lev. 27:30-33; Num. 18:21-24; Neh. 10:37, 38. Again a tenth of the tithe given to the Levites was a portion for the priests. Num. 18:26-28.
2. On coming into the land a second tenth of all produce was to be taken to Jerusalem, or, if the distance was too great, it could be turned into money, and when the offerer arrived at Jerusalem he could purchase any thing that he desired, which was to be eaten there by himself, his children, his servants, and any Levites that might be there at the time. Deut. 12:6-12, 17, 18; Deut. 14:22-27.
3. Every third year (called 'the year of tithing') a third tenth was given according to Josephus (Ant. iv. 8, 22: cf. Tobit 1:7, 8), or, what is more probable, a variation was made in that year respecting the second tenth: it was not to be carried to Jerusalem, but to be laid up 'within the gates,' and there shared by "the Levites . . . . and the stranger, and the fatherless, and the widow." Deut. 14:28, 29; Amos 4:4.
At the end of 'the year of tithing,' the offerer was to make a solemn declaration before the Lord that he had fully performed the commandment of the Lord, and had withheld for his own use nothing of the tithe. And on this ground he was to pray for the divine blessing on Israel. One of the charges brought against Israel at the end of the O.T. was that they had robbed God, because they had withholden the tithes and offerings; and therefore the whole nation was "cursed with a curse." But if they would bring the tithes into God's storehouse, and prove Him, there would be a blessing beyond their capacity to receive it. Mal. 3:8-12.
In New Testament times many were punctilious in paying tithes of small things, while they neglected the weightier matters of the law — judgement, mercy, and faith. Matt. 23:23. A definite tenth or fifth is not enforced in the N.T., but liberality is enjoined. "God loveth a cheerful giver:" he that soweth sparingly will reap sparingly; and he that soweth bountifully will reap bountifully: "he that hath pity upon the poor lendeth unto the Lord." Paul told the saints to lay by for the special collection he was making for the poor 'as God had prospered' each. God required of them according to what they had, and not according to what they had not. The poor widow who cast in the two mites cast in more than the rich, for it was her whole living. At the commencement of the church many gave up their possessions and the saints had 'all things common;' but failure soon came in, and we may learn from the general tenour of the epistles that such a state of things would not continue, though the principle abides that we do not call any of the things we possess our own.
God has ordained that they who preach the gospel should live of the gospel. He that is taught in the word is to communicate in all good things to him who teaches. Gal. 6:6.
Supposed to refer to the smallest points in the Hebrew letters that distinguish one from another, as ב differing from כ. The least point of the law must be fulfilled. Matt. 5:18; Luke 16:17.