A Greek convert, Paul's "own son after the common faith." The apostle took him to Jerusalem, but being a Greek he was not circumcised. Gal. 2:1-3. Paul describes him to the Corinthian church as "my partner [or companion] and fellow-helper" on their behalf. He had been sent to Corinth, and from thence brought word of the effect of Paul's First Epistle to the church there. He was also employed by Paul to get ready the collection for the poor saints in Judaea. Paul afterwards left him at Crete to set things in order, and to ordain elders in every city. This he did as the apostle's delegate for that particular place. He was not permanently settled there, for he was to leave when other labourers were sent. Titus 3:12. Afterwards, when Paul wrote 2 Tim. 4:10, he had gone to Dalmatia. It is only the later MSS of the Epistle to Titus that in the subscription say he was 'bishop of Crete.' He had the privilege of working with and for the apostle, and was doubtless a zealous and faithful servant of the church. 2 Cor. 2:13; 2 Cor. 7:6-14; 2 Cor. 8:6-23; 2 Cor. 12:18; Gal. 2:1, 3.
Titus, Epistle to.
One of the Pastoral Epistles, so called because addressed to an individual servant of the Lord. It was apparently written after Paul's first imprisonment at Rome (when otherwise could he have left Titus at Crete? Titus 1:5), and before his second imprisonment. From whence it was written is not known: its date may be about A.D. 64. The epistle urges the maintenance of good works and order in the church, and states the principles on which they are founded.
After the introductory salutation in which the counsels of God are referred to, and the acknowledging of truth which is according to piety, Paul states for what purpose he had left Titus at Crete: 1, to set in order things that were still left incomplete; and 2, to establish elders in every city, which elders are in Titus 1:7 called 'bishops,' or overseers. The qualifications for such an office are then given: no particular gift is essential, but blameless moral character is indispensable, and soundness in the faith. There were at Crete many deceivers, especially those of the circumcision, whose mouths must be stopped.
The Cretans had a bad reputation nationally, as appears from one of themselves who had said, "The Cretans are always liars, evil beasts, lazy gluttons." (The quotation is from Epimenides, a poet of the sixth century B.C. His sayings were quoted as oracles, which may account for his being called a 'prophet.') They were to be rebuked sharply that they might be sound in the faith. To the pure all things are pure, but nothing is pure to the defiled and unbelieving, the mind and conscience being defiled.
Titus 2. Titus was to speak things that became sound teaching, with exhortations suited to those of different ages, and to servants, himself being in all things a pattern of good works, and his teaching such as could not be condemned. Then follows a summary of Christianity as a practical power in man, by the teaching of grace. The grace of God that carries salvation for all has appeared, teaching how a Christian is to live, awaiting the blessed hope and appearing of the glory of the great God and Saviour Jesus Christ, who died to redeem such from all lawlessness, and to purify to Himself a peculiar people, zealous of good works.
Titus 3. Titus was to teach subjection to worldly powers and obedience to every good work. They had been characterised by ungodliness, but the kindness and love of the Saviour-God having appeared, He according to His mercy had saved them by the washing of regeneration (the moral cleansing connected with the new order of things in Christianity: cf. Matt. 19:28), and renewal of the Holy Spirit, which He had richly poured out upon them through Jesus Christ their Saviour (the 'renewal' is more than new birth, it is the Spirit's active energy in the believer), that, having been justified by His grace, they should become heirs according to the hope of eternal life. Titus was to insist on the maintenance of good works, but foolish questions were to be avoided. A heretic, after two admonitions, was to be abandoned: he was self-condemned. A few personal details are added, and the epistle closes with the benediction.
Designation of Joha, one of David's mighty men. 1 Chr. 11:45. Its signification is not known.
Son of Zuph, or Zophai, a Kohathite. 1 Chr. 6:34. Perhaps the same person is called NAHATH in 1 Chr. 6:26; and TOHU in 1 Sam. 1:1.
Levite sent by Jehoshaphat to teach the people. 2 Chr. 17:8.
1. Ancestor of some who returned from exile. Ezra 2:60; Neh. 7:62.
2. The Ammonite, who was a bitter enemy to Nehemiah. He afterwards became allied to Eliashib the priest, but Nehemiah turned out his goods from a chamber he occupied in the court of the house. Nehemiah said of him and others, "Ye have no portion, nor right, nor memorial in Jerusalem." Neh. 2:10, 19; Neh. 4:3, 7; Neh. 6:1-19; Neh. 13:4, 8.
1. Levite sent by Jehoshaphat to teach the people. 2 Chr. 17:8.
2. One who returned from exile, apparently bringing treasures of gold and silver, of which crowns were made, to be "for a memorial in the temple of Jehovah." Zech. 6:10, 14.
City of Simeon. 1 Chr. 4:32. Not identified.
Son of Gomer, a son of Japheth, whose descendants probably settled in Armenia. Gen. 10:3; 1 Chr. 1:6; Ezek. 27:14; Ezek. 38:6.
King of Hamath on the Orontes, who sent costly presents and congratulated David on his victory over Hadadezer. 2 Sam. 8:9, 10. He is called Tou in 1 Chr. 18:9, 10.
1. Son of Issachar. Gen. 46:13; Num. 26:23; 1 Chr. 7:1, 2.
2. Son of Puah, of the tribe of Issachar: he judged Israel twenty-three years at Shamir in Mount Ephraim. Judges 10:1, 2.
Family of Tola, son of Issachar. Num. 26:23.
Tongues, Confusion of.
The special purpose of this act of God was to distribute mankind. They had said, "Let us build us a city and a tower, whose top may reach unto heaven; and let us make us a name, lest we be scattered abroad upon the face of the whole earth." God nullified their design by so confounding their language that they could not understand one another's speech. They left off building the city, and were scattered abroad. Gen. 11:5-9. The gift of tongues at Pentecost in no way rescinded this, though by the miraculous power of the Holy Spirit those from a distance of various languages heard, each in his own tongue, the same gospel. The apostles had never spoken those languages before. The learned have devoted much labour in the endeavour to discover the links that exist in all known languages; but it would require divine power to remove in any practical sense the divergencies.
Tongues, Gift of.
This gift was in the early church, and was a sign 'to them that believed not,' in fulfilment of Isa. 28:11, 12: cf. 1 Cor. 14:21. The gift was exhibited in a special way on the day of Pentecost, when people of many lands heard the wonderful things of God each in his own language. In the assembly these gifts were not to be exercised unless there was present an interpreter, that the saints might be edified. Paul thanked God that he spake with tongues more than all at Corinth; but in the assembly he would rather speak five words through his understanding, that he might teach others, than ten thousand words in a tongue. 1 Cor. 12:10, 28, 30; 1 Cor. 13:1, 8; 1 Cor. 14:2-39.
The expression 'unknown tongue' is unhappy, because it has led some to think that the gift of tongues consisted of a sort of unintelligible gibberish. The word 'unknown' has been added in the A.V., where it should read simply 'tongue.' At Pentecost it was shown that the gift of 'tongues' was in a person speaking a language which he had never learnt, but which was at once understood by those who knew it.
The Hebrew word is pitdah, and has been supposed to be derived from an island in the Red Sea called Topazos. This would account for the ancient versions calling it 'topaz,' but the gem is supposed to agree with our chrysolite. Job 28:19 speaks of 'the topaz of Ethiopia.' It was one of the jewels in the breastplate, Ex. 28:17; Ex. 39:10; and is included in the prophetical description of the symbolical 'king of Tyrus.' Ezek. 28:13. In the N.T. τοπάζιον points to the same stone. Rev. 21:20. It is a silicate of magnesia and iron, and being comparatively soft has to be worn with care.
Place in the wilderness, mentioned only in Deut. 1:1. Identified by some with et TufiIeh, a very fertile region, south-east of the Dead Sea, 30 56' N, 35 37' E.
Tophet, [To'phet] Topheth. [To'pheth]
See HINNOM and HELL.
tsab. One of the unclean animals. The Hebrew word is supposed to refer to a lizard, but to what species is not known: perhaps the dhab of the Arabs, a large lizard. The R.V. has 'great lizard.' The tortoise, however, is common in Palestine. Lev. 11:29.
Often referred to in scripture as a place of security, and also as a place of defence, on which watchmen were stationed. There were such on the walls of Jerusalem. Ps. 48:12; Ps. 61:3; 2 Kings 9:17. The term is also used symbolically: "the name of Jehovah is a strong tower." Prov. 18:10.
γραμματεύς. A man in authority at Ephesus, perhaps what would now be called 'recorder,' but he evidently possessed considerable influence. Acts 19:35.
A district forming part of the tetrarchy of Philip. Luke 3:1. It was beyond the Jordan on the north-east, its centre being about 32 50' N, 36 30' E. The district is now called el Lejah.
ταράδοσις. This may be described as that which is handed down as oral teaching. It may be from God, as in 2 Thess. 2:15; 2 Thess. 3:6; and 1 Cor. 11:2 (where it is translated 'ordinance'), instruction handed down before the word of God was complete. Or it may be from man, as was the tradition of the elders of Israel, which was strongly denounced by the Lord, and declared to be a subverting of the commandments of God. Matt. 15:2-6; Mark 7:3-13; Gal. 1:14. In Col. 2:8 it is the mere teaching of the moralists, of which much has survived to the present day. What man institutes, man holds to most tenaciously.
προδότης. This signifies one who 'delivers up,' 'betrays.' It is applied to Judas, who delivered up his Lord. Luke 6:16. In 2 Tim. 3:4 some having a form of godliness are thus designated, the reference may be to secret agents of Satan who betrayed the saints. Stephen charged the council with being the betrayers (the same Greek word) and murderers of the Just One. Acts 7:52.
In the early church there were some so called (under the Latin name Traditores), because under persecution they gave up the copies of the scriptures or church property, to save their lives; and there was long contention as to whether such could ever be restored to communion.
The word is ἔκστασις, 'ecstasy,' in which, as it were, the mind is carried beyond the body. It is translated 'astonishment' in Mark 5:42; and 'amazement' in Acts 3:10. It is rendered 'trance' when Peter had the vision of the sheet let down from heaven; and when Paul in the temple saw the Lord and heard Him speak to him. Acts 10:10; Acts 11:5; Acts 22:17. The same word is used in the LXX for the deep sleep of Adam and of Abram. Gen. 2:21; Gen. 15:12.
A word indicating the change which took place in the appearance of Jesus in the vision on the holy mount. The Lord, speaking to His disciples prior to the transfiguration, said that some should see "the Son of man coming in his kingdom;" "the kingdom of God come with power;" and Matthew records that Christ "was transfigured before them: and his face did shine as the sun, and his raiment was white as the light." Peter says he was an eyewitness of His majesty. It was therefore a short glimpse of the Lord Jesus invested with glory, as He is now on high, and as he will be in His kingdom. The law and the prophets were represented by Moses and Elias; but when Peter proposed to make three tabernacles, he was silenced by a voice from heaven, saying "This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased: hear ye him." Matt. 17:1-8; Mark 9:2; Luke 9:28; 2 Peter 1:16. The same Greek word is applied to the Christian as being 'transformed' in Rom. 12:2, and as being 'changed' in 2 Cor. 3:18: metamorphosed.
Early writers fixed on Mount Tabor as the Mount of Transfiguration; but it is more probable that it was on some part of Mount Hermon, which would have been more private. The Lord was also in that locality.
This term is used in scripture in the sense of 'change of place or status.' Abner threatened to translate the kingdom from the house of Saul to David. 2 Sam. 3:10. The believer is delivered from the power of darkness and is translated into the kingdom of God's dear Son. Col. 1:13. Enoch was translated without dying. Heb. 11:5.
A part of the temple was called 'the treasury,' in which were kept things consecrated to Jehovah, as the gold, silver, and vessels of brass and iron captured from Jericho. Joshua 6:19. The free-will offerings of the people were also given in at 'the treasury.' Mark 12:41, 43. On one occasion the Lord spoke to the people 'in the treasury, as He taught in the temple,' doubtless in the outer part where He could watch the people bringing in their gifts. Luke 21:1; John 8:20.
Tribes, The Twelve.
Twelve was God's chosen number for Israel, under this number they were ever before Him, as manifested in the twelve stones on the breastplate and the twelve names on the two onyx stones in the shoulder pieces of the high priest, and in the twelve loaves on the table of showbread. All these continued the same after the division of the ten tribes, and notwithstanding the separation. Though the ten tribes were dispersed, and as men think 'lost,' Paul spoke of the twelve tribes constantly serving God in his day; and James addressed the twelve tribes in his epistle. In the New Jerusalem the names of the twelve tribes will be written on the twelve gates. Acts 26:7; James 1:1; Rev. 21:12. They remain ever twelve in God's sight, as the church is ever one before Him.
In seven passages a list of the twelve tribes is given, but the order of the names varies in each, for which there is doubtless a divine reason. After Levi was separated for the priesthood, the number twelve was maintained by Ephraim and Manasseh being mentioned instead of Joseph. When Moses blessed the twelve tribes Simeon was omitted. The blessing there is not so much a prophecy of their historical future, as when Jacob blessed them, but according to their relationship with God in government and blessing. In Rev. 7, where the tribes are sealed for blessing, Dan is omitted, as being a type of Antichrist: Ephraim is also omitted, the number being made up by inserting Levi and by Joseph being mentioned as well as Manasseh. In the future division of the land Dan will have a portion, but will be the farthest from the temple. Ezek. 48:1-35. In the following table the names are numbered throughout according to birth. In Num. 1 there are two lists of the tribes: one, the heads of the tribes, as given in the following table; the other, when the tribes were numbered, the only difference in the order of the names being that in the latter Gad comes before Judah.
Besides the application of this term to any time of distress, and its special reference to this dispensation, respecting which it is said, "In the world ye shall have tribulation," John 16:33 — the Lord spoke of a distinct period of distress, such as never had been, or should be again. Matt. 24:21-29. These verses refer to a great tribulation that shall fall upon the Jews in a future day: cf. Jer. 30:7 and Dan. 12:1. In Rev. 7:14 a great multitude is referred to that have come out of the great tribulation, but these are from the nations, hence this tribulation is not the same as that which will fall specially on the Jews, though both may take place at the same time. In Rev. 2:22 a 'great tribulation' is spoken of, but it is doubtless general, and not the same as the above.
Various Hebrew words are thus represented, but the signification in general is that which one nation or people paid to another, either in money or kind (2 Kings 3:4), in order to be left in peaceable possession. Some of the Canaanites were not driven out of the land, but they paid tribute to the Israelites, and Solomon put others under tribute. Joshua 17:13; 2 Chr. 8:7, 8. Afterwards, because of their sin, Israel had to pay tribute to Assyria, Egypt, etc., and in the N.T. the Jews paid tribute to the Romans in the shape of taxes. Luke 20:22. These were farmed, which led to abuses: cf. Luke 3:12, 13.
The word 'tribute' is used in the A.V. in another signification, as when the Jews asked Peter if his teacher paid 'tribute.' Here the word is διδραχμον (double drachma), and signifies the sum each Jew paid to the temple. It was about 15d. The fish Peter caught had in its mouth a stater of the value of about 2s. 6d., which paid for the Lord and for Peter. Matt. 17:24-27. The Lord refers to what the kings of the earth did in ordinary tribute, in order to show that Himself and Peter as sons of the King of the temple could have claimed exemption, though they did not. Cf. Matt. 21:13. The institution of this yearly payment apparently began in the days of Ezra and Nehemiah. It is introduced with the words, "We made ordinances for us, to charge ourselves yearly with the third part of a shekel for the service of the house of our God." Neh. 10:32. It was so far a voluntary arrangement.
A word only used to convey the thought of a plurality of Persons in the Godhead. This was revealed at the baptism of the Lord Jesus. The Holy Spirit descended 'like a dove' and abode upon Him; and God the Father declared "This is my beloved Son in whom I am well pleased." That the Father is a distinct Person and is God is plainly stated, as in John 20:17. Many passages prove that the Lord Jesus is God: one will suffice: ". . . . in his Son Jesus Christ. This is the true God, and eternal life." 1 John 5:20. That the Holy Spirit is a Person and is God the following passages clearly prove: Gen. 1:2; Matt. 4:1; John 16:13; Acts 10:19; Acts 13:2, 4; Acts 20:28; Rom. 15:30; 1 Cor. 2:10. The three Persons are also named in the formula instituted by Christ in baptism. Matt. 28:19. Yet there is but one God. 1 Tim. 2:5. Satan will have an imitation of the Trinity in the Roman beast, the false prophet, and himself. Rev. 13:4, 11; Rev. 20:10.
Seaport town and district in Mysia, in the north-west of Asia Minor: it was visited by Paul on his journeys to and from Macedonia. On one occasion he abode there seven days, and raised Eutychus to life when, the disciples having come together 'to break bread,' Paul preached till midnight. Acts 16:8, 11; Acts 20:5, 6; 2 Cor. 2:12; 2 Tim. 4:13. It is now called Eski-Stamboul: there are many ruins of the ancient city (called Alexandria Troas), which was the chief port of the traffic from Macedonia.
City in Caria in the south-west of Asia Minor, and opposite the island Samos. The ship in which Paul sailed remained there one night. There is an anchorage which is still called St. Paul's Port. Acts 20:15.
Convert of Ephesus who accompanied Paul to Jerusalem, and whom the Jews thought Paul had taken into the temple. Acts 20:4; Acts 21:29. In 2 Tim. 4:20 Paul had left him at Miletus sick.
'To believe, think.' Luke 17:9. From the Anglo-Saxon treowian, 'to trust.'
These were made of rams' horns and perhaps of the horns of other animals. They were used on joyful occasions, and at the wars. There were two trumpets made of silver which the priests used, and instructions were given as to blowing different sounds for calling the princes together, or for summoning all the congregation, or as an alarm for war. Num. 10:1-10: cf. 1 Cor. 14:8. At the dedication of the temple Solomon had a hundred and twenty priests sounding with trumpets. 2 Chr. 5:12.
The use of trumpets set forth the public proclamation of God's rights in His people, whether in their direction or in their relationship with Him.
At the giving of the law there was a loud voice of the trumpet proceeding from the mount, exceeding loud; so that all the people trembled. Ex. 19:16, 19; Heb. 12:19.
When the Lord Jesus comes to fetch His saints it will be with the voice of the archangel and with the trump of God. 1 Thess. 4:16. The 'last trump' will sound at the resurrection of the saints. 1 Cor. 15:52. In the Roman army, when it was about to start, the trumpet sounded three times: at the first trumpet they pulled down their tents: at the second they put themselves in order; and when the last sounded they started.
In the judgements that are to fall upon the earth, as foretold in the Revelation, the Seven Seals introduce the Seven Trumpets: the first four fall upon the Roman earth, and refer to the state and circumstances of men; the latter three trumpets refer to the East, and fall upon the persons themselves. The Trumpets come in between the Seals and the Vials. Rev. 8:2 — Rev. 9:14.
Trumpets, Feast of.
This occurred on the first day of the seventh month. It was to be "a sabbath, a memorial of blowing of trumpets, an holy convocation." They were to do no servile work therein, but were to offer an offering made by fire unto the Lord. Lev. 23:23-25. The offerings are more fully described in Num. 29:1-6. It indicated a renewal of blessing, being followed by the day of atonement, and the feast of tabernacles in the same month. Typically it foreshadowed the future day of Israel's awakening when the revival of their blessing will be at hand. See FEASTS.
Throughout the scriptures there is that which God designates as 'the truth.' It is divine, and above the opinions of men, however wise and pious they may be. In the O.T. the admonition is given, "Buy the truth and sell it not." Prov. 23:23. 'The truth' must refer to God, who is true, but is not called 'the truth:' hence it comprises all that may be known of God, whether declared by creation or made known by revelation. Truth is not simply that which is held as dogma, but must be received in the soul. Paul asked the Galatians who had hindered them that they should not obey 'the truth?' Gal. 5:7. Judgement is coming upon Christendom "because they received not the love of 'the truth' that they might be saved." 2 Thess. 2:10. Truth is the real way of liberty: "the truth shall make you free." John 8:32, 36. Truth cannot be separated from the Lord Jesus, who is "the way, the truth, and the life." This is objectively; subjectively the Spirit is the truth as having come from the glorified Christ. In the three Epistles of John 'the truth' is constantly referred to, and a Christian woman is warned not to receive any one into her house, nor wish him God-speed unless he holds the doctrines taught by the apostles — in other words, 'the truth.'
Tryphena [Tryphe'na] and Tryphosa. [Trypho'sa]
Two Christian women at Rome, of whom Paul said they 'labour in the Lord,' and to whom he sends salutations. Rom. 16:12.
Son of Japheth, and his descendants, who are supposed to have settled on the south-east of the Euxine or Black Sea, and were known as the Tibareni. They sent slaves and brass to Tyre. Their descendants with Rosh and Meshech will be among the enemies of the Jews in a future day, and will be destroyed. Gen. 10:2; 1 Chr. 1:5; Isa. 66:19; Ezek. 27:13; Ezek. 32:26; Ezek. 38:2, 3; Ezek. 39:1. The district they occupied now forms a part of the Russian Empire, which well agrees with their being associated with Rosh (Russia) and the Muscovites spoken of in Ezek. 38. The Moschi and Tibareni are constantly associated in the Assyrian inscriptions under the names of Muskai and Tuplai, which latter very nearly approaches Tubal.
Son of Lamech and Zillah. He was an instructor of every artificer in brass and iron, or a forger of every kind of brass and iron tool. Gen. 4:22.
It is remarkable, and it is doubtless not without a purpose, that these metals should be mentioned so early. It quite confutes the theory that all mankind have risen from some degraded position, and that they must have passed long periods in using stone implements before they used metals. This may be true of some who fell far below the moral status of Adam and Eve after their fall. Rom. 1:24, 26 explains much: "God gave them up" to their lusts because they turned their backs on Him.
Turtle, Turtle Dove.
Where the word 'turtle' occurs in the A.V. the 'turtle-dove' is always to be understood. They are of the family of pigeons, and are plentiful in Palestine, of which there are several species. They could easily be procured by the poorest for the offerings, and a pair of them was brought when the Lord was presented in the temple. Gen. 15:9; Lev. 1:14; Lev. 5:7, 11; Lev. 12:6, 8; Num. 6:10; Ps. 74:19; Jer. 8:7; Luke 2:24. They are the harbinger of spring and when they return from their migration are a symbol of fruitfulness. Cant. 2:12. The Turtur risorius is a dove found in Palestine. See DOVE.
See NUMBERS AS SYMBOLS.
See NUMBERS AS SYMBOLS.
A Christian of Asia who accompanied Paul on his last visit to Jerusalem. He was sent by the apostle from Rome to the Ephesians and to the Colossians; and after Paul's release, Tychicus was again sent to Ephesus. Paul describes him as a beloved brother, a faithful minister and fellow-servant in the Lord. He was thus such a one as Paul could with confidence send on these missions to 'encourage' the saints. Acts 20:4; Eph. 6:21; Col. 4:7; 2 Tim. 4:12; Titus 3:12.
This English word occurs in the A.V. only in the margin. The Greek word is τύπος, from which comes the word 'type.' It is translated 'print,' John 20:25; 'figure,' Acts 7:43; Rom. 5:14; 'form,' Rom. 6:17; 'fashion,' Acts 7:44; 'manner,' Acts 23:25; 'pattern,' Titus 2:7; Heb. 8:5; 'ensample,' 1 Cor. 10:11 (marg. type); Phil. 3:17; 1 Thess. 1:7; 2 Thess. 3:9; 1 Peter 5:3; and 'example,' 1 Cor. 10:6; 1 Tim. 4:12.
That which is prefigured in a type is seen in the 'antitype,' ἀντίτυπον, translated 'like figure,' 1 Peter 3:21; and 'figure,' Heb. 9:24. If the tabernacle be taken as an illustration, the type or pattern was seen in the mount, that is, figuratively in heaven, and the tabernacle itself was the antitype. Heb. 9:24. Then again, the tabernacle may be taken as a type, and the saints now, as forming the house of God, the antitype. Christ is "Son over his own house, whose house are we." Heb. 3:6. Many things in the O.T. are typical of those in the N.T., as seen in 1 Cor. 10:11; but, as in all else, the teaching of the Holy Spirit is needed, or there is danger of adopting connections which are merely fanciful.
A few examples of types are here appended: the student of scripture will find it profitable to search out (in dependence upon the Holy Spirit) the numerous types of the O.T. with their antitypes in the N.T. They may be found in 1, persons; 2, places; 3, things; 4, events.
1. ADAM as the first man, under whom all earthly created things were set — type of Christ, the last Adam, who is Head over all things, the second Man. Gen. 1:28; Rom. 5:14; Heb. 2:7.
EVE as 'builded' from a rib of Adam, and declared to be bone of his bone and flesh of his flesh — type of the church, those who in relation to Christ are members of His body [of His flesh and of His bones]. Gen. 2:22, 23; Eph. 4:16; Eph. 5:30.
CAIN as ignoring the fall of man and approaching God by an offering which was the fruit of the ground which He had cursed and afterwards slaying his brother, became a type of the natural man's evil in offering to the holy God that which He could not righteously accept, and of his rejection of Christ. Gen. 4:3; Acts 17:23, 25; Heb. 11:4; 1 John 3:12.
ISAAC offered up and received as from the dead — type of Christ as crucified and raised again. Gen. 22:1-18; Heb. 11:17-19; Rom. 4:25; Gal. 3:15, 16.
(Consider also Enoch, Melchizedek, Joseph, Moses, Aaron, Joshua, Boaz, David, Solomon, Zerubbabel, Cyrus, Hagar, Ahithophel, and others.)
2. EGYPT as the place where the Israelites were in slavery to the Egyptians — type of the world where mankind is in bondage to Satan, the god of this world. Ex. 2:23; 2 Cor. 4:4; Gal. 1:4; 1 John 5:19.
ZION as the place where David pitched a tent for the ark and had his throne and ruled over God's chosen people — type of delivering grace established in power and blessing in Christ: Zion will yet be the seat of Messiah's power on earth in millennial blessing. Ps. 2:6; Ps. 78:68-72; Rom. 5:21; Heb. 12:22; Rev. 14:1.
BABYLON as the centre of idolatry and Gentile apostasy from God and the abode of corruption in the activity of power — type of papal Rome whose name is Mystery, Babylon the Great, the mother of harlots and abominations of the earth. Gen. 11:1-9; Isa. 14:4-23; Dan. 4:30; Rev. 17; Rev. 18.
(Consider also Sodom and Gomorrah, Jericho, Gilgal, Assyria, Tyre.)
3. THE MANNA given by God from heaven to the Israelites — type of heavenly grace for wilderness circumstances set forth in Christ who was the true Bread come down from heaven. Ex. 16:15; John 6:31-33.
THE BRAZEN SERPENT as raised up by Moses, a look to which gave life — type of the condemnation of sin in the flesh in the death of Christ as the One lifted up on the cross, which thus became the door into eternal life. Num. 21:8, 9; John 3:14; Rom. 8:3.
THE WELL OF WATER as a resource from God, digged in the wilderness, Israel singing, "Spring up, O well" — type of the Holy Spirit compared to "a well of living water springing up into everlasting life." Num. 21:17, 18; John 4:14.
THE TWO GOATS (forming one sin offering. Lev. 16:5), the one sacrificed and the other driven into the wilderness — type of the double effect of the death of Christ, which meets all the demands of a holy God, so that He remembers no more the sins of His people, and removes from them all imputation of sin. Lev. 16:8, 9, 21; Heb. 10:12, 17; 1 John 1:7.
(Consider also the various offerings, the tabernacle and its vessels, the smitten rock, cedar trees, vine, etc.)
4. THE DELUGE. Gen. 7:11-24 — type of the sudden destruction that will fall upon the guilty world. Luke 17:26, 27.
THE EXODUS AND PASSAGE OF THE RED SEA. Ex. 12, Ex. 14. — type of redemption. Col. 1:13; Heb. 2:14, 15.
(Consider the various events which happened to Israel in the wilderness, 1 Cor. 10:11, the passage of the Jordan, the return of a remnant from Babylon, etc.)
One at Ephesus in whose school Paul reasoned daily for the space of two years, so that all that dwelt in Asia, both Jews and Greeks, heard the word of the Lord. Acts 19:9, 10. The name is Greek, and nothing is said of Tyrannus being a disciple, so that the Christians may have hired the 'school,' as halls are rented in the present day.
Seaport in Lebanon (peviously Syria), about midway between Sidon and Accho. It was a place of great commerce, sending to the East by land and to the West by the sea. This is shown to have been the case in several of the prophets. It was not conquered by the Israelites, and is first spoken of when its king Hiram sent to David cedar trees with carpenters and masons to build David a house. 2 Sam. 5:11; 1 Chr. 14:1. He also materially assisted Solomon by sending timber and workmen for the temple. 1 Kings 5:1; 2 Chr. 2:3. The seamen of Tyre also aided in navigating the ships of Solomon.
One specific charge brought against Tyre is that "they delivered up the whole captivity to Edom, and remembered not the brotherly covenant." Amos 1:9. God said of them, "Ye have taken my silver and my gold, and have carried into your temples my goodly pleasant things;" and they had sold the children of Judah to the Grecians. Joel 3:5, 6.
Ezekiel 26:2 shows that Tyre, the merchant city of the world, was the rival of Jerusalem, the city of God: "I shall be replenished now she is laid waste." So Babylon (comp. Ezek. 27: with Rev. 18.) is the rival of the new Jerusalem. God was known in the palaces of Jerusalem — the god of this world in Tyre, there could be gratified the lust of the eye, the lust of the flesh, and the pride of life. Hence the destruction of Tyre, Ezek. 28:12-19, shows the king of Tyre to be intimately connected with the abuse of creatorial wisdom and beauty through Satan.
Tyre was to be forgotten seventy years. Isa. 23:15. It is not clear to what time this refers. When it was prophesied that Jerusalem should be destroyed for seventy years 'the nations round about' are also included, Jer. 25:9-11; and Tyre is mentioned as one of the nations that should serve Nebuchadnezzar, and his son, and his son's son. Jer. 27:2-7. So that the seventy years of Jerusalem's captivity and the seventy years of Tyre may have been concurrent or nearly so. Nebuchadnezzar besieged Tyre for thirteen years. Tyre was built partly on the main land and partly on an island. It is not recorded how far Nebuchadnezzar succeeded, but we read that he 'got no wages' for his toil; the riches being removed by ships before the city fell. Ezek. 29:18, 19. After the seventy years of Tyre being forgotten, we read that "her merchandise and her hire shall be holiness to the Lord." Isa. 23:17, 18. This may possibly refer to the fact that Tyre forwarded cedar trees from Lebanon for the building of the second temple (Ezra 3:7), but we must look to a day yet future for the fulfilment of the prophecy: cf. Ps. 45:12. See also Isa. 23; Jer. 47:4; Ezek. 26 — Ezek. 28; Hosea 9:13; Joel 3:4; Zech. 9:2, 3.
Alexander the Great formed a causeway from the mainland to the island, and conquered all.
The borders of Tyre were visited by the Lord, and He declared that if the mighty works which had been done in Chorazin and Bethsaida had been done in Tyre and Sidon they would have repented. Matt. 11:21, 22. It is now called es Sur, 33 16' N, 35 12' E; but ancient Tyre has disappeared, and is no more.
One mentioned with Ithiel, to whom Agur addressed some proverbs. Prov. 30:1.
One who had married a strange wife. Ezra 10:34.
River flowing near to the city of Shushan where Daniel saw himself in a vision. Dan. 8:2, 16. It is judged to be the Eulaeus of the Greeks and Romans. Identified by some with the Kerkhah, an affluent of the Tigris, and this agrees with the upper Eulaeus. Others have traced it to the Kuran, another affluent of the Tigris, and this agrees with the lower Eulaeus; but at one part a branch of the former once ran into the latter.
1. Son of Sheresh, a descendant of Manasseh. 1 Chr. 7:16, 17.
2. Son of Eshek, a Benjamite. 1 Chr. 8:39, 40.
A descendant of Asher. 1 Chr. 7:39.
City in Asher. Joshua 19:30. Identified by some with Alma esh Shaub, 33 7' N, 35 11' E.
ἄπιστος. The name given in scripture to the class of persons who have not faith in the divine revelation of the gospel. Luke 12:46; 1 Cor. 6:6; 1 Cor. 14:23; 2 Cor. 6:14. The word is translated 'infidel' in 2 Cor. 6:15; 1 Tim. 5:8; and 'faithless' in Matt. 17:17; Mark 9:19; Luke 9:41; John 20:27.
Ceremonial uncleanness had a large place in the Jewish ritual. Lev. 5:3. It demanded separation from the camp for a time, and in many cases an offering must be brought before there could be restoration. It is typical of the moral uncleanness that separates from communion with God and the assembly.
ἐκδύω. In 2 Cor. 5:3, 4 the reference is to a person raised from the dead and yet found morally 'naked' in his sins before God. In Matt. 27:28; Luke 10:30, the A.V. has 'stripped' for the same Greek word.
This term occurs only in 1 John 2:20, though the same word, χρίσμα, is twice translated 'anointing' in 1 John 2:27. The Holy Spirit is an unction that permeates, as it were, the whole being of the Christian to give him Christ's character.
The binding of either ropes or chains round a ship in bad weather, to keep it from parting asunder in consequence of its being old or because of its imperfect construction. Acts 27:17. It is called in the navy frapping.
Corner pieces or blocks as parts of the foundation of the molten sea. 1 Kings 7:30, 34.
The Hebrew word is reem, translated in the LXX by ἁδρός, and μονοκέρως, from the last of which the A.V. adopted the rendering 'unicorn.' There is nothing in the scripture to intimate that the animal had but one horn, indeed Deut. 33:17 speaks of 'the horns of a unicorn' (see margin), and it must have been some animal with which the Israelites were familiar. Its great strength and untamableness are the main characteristics: it cannot be utilised, as the tame ox, for agricultural purposes. Num. 23:22; Num. 24:8; Deut. 33:17; Job 39:9, 10; Ps. 29:6; Ps. 92:10; Isa. 34:7. The Lord asked to be saved from the lion's mouth, for Jehovah had heard Him from the horns of the unicorns (Ps. 22:21), to which His implacable enemies are compared. It is most probable that a species of wild ox, the Bos primigenius, is referred to; these may have been known in Palestine, as was the lion, though they are now extinct. This is confirmed by the wild ox being sculptured in an Assyrian bas-relief, with the name reem or rim over it.
Unleavened Bread, Feast of.
1. Levite musician and door-keeper when David brought up the ark. 1 Chr. 15:18, 20.
2. Levite who returned from exile. Neh. 12:9.
This term is commonly applied to blasphemy against the Holy Spirit, in attributing the miracles wrought by Christ to the power of Satan. There may be many sins against the Holy Spirit, but it was this special one of blasphemy of which the Lord said it should not be forgiven, neither in this age nor in the age to come. Matt. 12:31, 32. The Jews are possibly lying under it at this present time.
Some place from whence gold was brought. Jer. 10:9; Dan. 10:5; supposed according to some ancient versions to be the same as OPHIR, q.v.
Father of Eliphal one of David's mighty men. 1 Chr. 11:35.
Ur of the Chaldees.
City or district somewhere near the Euphrates, from whence Abraham was called of God. Gen. 11:28, 31; Gen. 15:7; Neh. 9:7. It is supposed to be identified with Mugheir, one of the most ancient sites in Chaldea, situate about 31 N, 46 10' E. There are ruins of the true Chaldaen type, with many tombs, indeed almost a city of tombs, the dead having been brought thither from long distances for burial because of the supposed sanctity of the place.
Christian at Rome, described by Paul as 'our helper in Christ,' to whom a salutation was sent. Rom. 16:9.
1. Son of Hur and father of Bezaleel who had skill given him for the construction of the tabernacle. Ex. 31:2; Ex. 35:30; Ex. 38:22; 1 Chr. 2:20; 2 Chr. 1:5.
2. Father of Geber, one of Solomon's commissariat officers. 1 Kings 4:19.
3. Levite who had married a strange wife. Ezra 10:24.
1. A Hittite in David's army, with whose wife, Bathsheba, David committed adultery. The simple faithfulness of Uriah foiled David in his endeavour to cover his sin. David added to his iniquity by securing Uriah's death, with the connivance of Joab, at the hands of the children of Ammon. 2 Sam. 11:3-27; 2 Sam. 12:9-15; 2 Sam. 23:39; 1 Kings 15:5; 1 Chr. 11:41. He is called URIAS in Matt. 1:6.
2. Priest whom Isaiah employed as a faithful witness to record his prophecies. Isa. 8:2. By the order of the king he built an altar at Jerusalem after the fashion of one seen by Ahaz at Damascus, 2 Kings 16:10-16, where he is called URIJAH.
3. Son of Koz a priest, and father of Meremoth. Ezra 8:33. Called URIJAH in Neh. 3:4, 21.
See URIAH No. 1.
1. Son of Tahath, a Kohathite. 1 Chr. 6:24.
2. Descendant of Kohath, employed by David when he brought up the ark. 1 Chr. 15:5, 11.
3. Father of Michaiah, or Maachah, wife of Rehoboam. 2 Chr. 13:2. See MICHAIAH.
1. One who stood by the side of Ezra when he read the book of the law. Neh. 8:4.
2. Son of Shemaiah: he prophesied against Jerusalem and the land, and then fled into Egypt, but was sent for by Jehoiakim and put to death. Jer. 26:20-23. See URIAH Nos. 2 and 3.
Urim and Thummim.
The signification of these Hebrew words is 'lights' and 'perfections.' They were distinct from the gems on the breastplate, for Moses put the breastplate upon Aaron, "also he put in [or 'on'] the breastplate the Urim and the Thummim." Lev. 8:8. It is clear that God answered questions by means of the Urim and Thummim. Num. 27:21; Deut. 33:8; 1 Sam. 28:6. On the return of the Jews from Babylon some, who claimed to be priests but could not show their genealogy, were not allowed to eat of the holy things until there should stand up a priest with Urim and Thummim, and an answer be obtained from God. This great privilege has never yet been restored. Ezra 2:63; Neh. 7:65.
It may be remarked that there is no record as to the construction of the Urim and Thummim, nor of their form. The first mention of them is in Ex. 28:30; "Thou shalt put in [or 'on'] the breastplate of judgement the Urim and the Thummim; and they shall be upon Aaron's heart when he goeth in before the Lord," as if God had given them to Moses, and had merely to tell him what to do with them — if indeed they were material things; but what they were, and how the answers were given, is not revealed. When Israel is restored, Christ Himself will take the place of the ancient Urim and Thummim.
This word does not in scripture signify, as now, undue interest, but simply interest of any kind. The Israelites were forbidden to require interest from their brethren, always supposing the person having the loan to be poor, otherwise he would not need to borrow; to strangers, however, they were allowed to lend on interest. Ex. 22:25; Lev. 25:35-38; Deut. 23:19, 20. On the return of the Jews, Nehemiah sharply rebuked the nobles and the rulers for taking interest of their poorer brethren. Neh. 5:3-13. Scripture strictly enjoins the rich to help the poor. The only mention of usury in the N.T. is in the parables of the Talents and the Pounds, where the master blamed the servant for not putting the gifts into use, so that he might have received his own with interest, or increase. Matt. 25:27; Luke 19:23.
1. Son of Ammihud, a descendant of Judah. 1 Chr. 9:4.
2. Son of Bigvai: he returned from exile. Ezra 8:14.
1. Son of Aram, a son of Shem. Gen. 10:23; 1 Chr. 1:17.
2. Son of Dishan, a son of Seir. Gen. 36:28; 1 Chr. 1:42.
3. The native land of Job, perhaps the district peopled by the descendants of one of the above, or of Huz the son of Nahor. Job 1:1; Jer. 25:20; Lam. 4:21. It is supposed to have been in the south-east of Palestine towards Arabia Deserta, which would lie open to attacks from the Sabeans and the Chaldeans.
Father of Palal who helped to repair the wall of Jerusalem. Neh. 3:25.
Son of Joktan, a descendant of Shem. Gen. 10:27; 1 Chr. 1:21. His descendants are traced to Sana (the ancient name of which was Awzal), the capital of the Yemen in Southern Arabia.
Uzza, [Uz'za] Uzzah. [Uz'zah]
1. Son of Abinadab: he was smitten by God for touching the ark when it shook. Though he did it with a good motive, it was against the law, which forbad even the Kohathites to touch the ark. 2 Sam. 6:3-8; 1 Chr. 13:7-11. See PEREZ-UZZAH.
2. One in whose 'garden' Manasseh and Amon, kings of Judah, were buried. 2 Kings 21:18, 26.
3. Son of Shimei, a Merarite. 1 Chr. 6:29.
4. Son of Ehud, a Benjamite. 1 Chr. 8:7.
5. Ancestor of some Nethinim who returned from exile. Ezra 2:49; Neh. 7:51.
City in Ephraim. 1 Chr. 7:24. Identified with Beit Sira, 31 53' N, 35 2' E.
1. Son of Bukki, a descendant of Phinehas. 1 Chr. 6:5, 6, 51; Ezra 7:4.
2. Son of Tola, a descendant of Issachar. 1 Chr. 7:2, 3.
3. Son of Bela, a son of Benjamin. 1 Chr. 7:7.
4. Son of Michri, a Benjamite. 1 Chr. 9:8.
5. Son of Bani and overseer of the Levites at Jerusalem. Neh. 11:22.
6, 7. Two priests who returned from exile. Neh. 12:19, 42.
The Ashterathite, one of David's mighty men. 1 Chr. 11:44.
1. Son of Amaziah and father of Jotham. He reigned over Judah fifty-two years, B.C. 810 to 759. At the commencement of his reign he did that which was right in the sight of the Lord, and the Lord prospered him. He greatly strengthened the kingdom, and organised his army well. He was successful against the Philistines, the Arabians, and the Mehunims; and the Ammonites were tributary, so that his fame was spread abroad.
A prophet named Zechariah counselled him, and he did well as long as the prophet lived; but on the prophet's death he became 'strong,' and his heart was lifted up to his destruction, for he went into the temple to offer incense. The priests withstood him, and on his persisting he was smitten with leprosy, and had to dwell in a separate house to the day of his death. His son Jotham acted as regent while he lived.
Uzziah is a solemn instance of one walking well until he was 'strong,' and of one not chosen of God attempting to exercise priestly service. His history evinces the truth that "it is a fearful thing to fall into the hands of the living God." 2 Chr. 26:1-23; Isa. 1:1; Hosea 1:1; Amos 1:1; Zech. 14:5. He is called AZARIAH in 2 Kings 14:21; 2 Kings 15:1-27; 1 Chr. 3:12; and OZIAS in Matt. 1:8, 9.
2. Son of Uriel, a Kohathite. 1 Chr. 6:24.
3. Father of Jehonathan, one of David's overseers. 1 Chr. 27:25.
4. Priest who had married a strange wife. Ezra 10:21.
5. Father of Athaiah who returned from exile. Neh. 11:4.
1. Son of Kohath, the son of Levi. Ex. 6:18, 22; Lev. 10:4; Num. 3:19, 30; 1 Chr. 6:2, 18; 1 Chr. 15:10; 1 Chr. 23:12, 20; 1 Chr. 24:24.
2. Son of Ishi a Simeonite: he with his brethren attacked the Amalekites of Mount Seir, and secured for themselves a permanent settlement. 1 Chr. 4:42.
3. Son of Bela, a son of Benjamin. 1 Chr. 7:7.
4. Son of Heman and one employed in the service of song. 1 Chr. 25:4.
5. Son of Jeduthun, a Levite: he helped to cleanse the temple in the days of Hezekiah. 2 Chr. 29:14.
6. Son of Harhaiah, and one who helped to repair the wall of Jerusalem. Neh. 3:8.
Descendants of Uzziel No. 1, and one of the four divisions of the Kohathites. Num. 3:27; 1 Chr. 26:23. See KOHATH.
A term not used opprobriously in scripture, but as signifying a 'wanderer': from the Latin vagabundus. Gen. 4:12, 14; Ps. 109:10. In Acts 19:13 the R.V. has 'strolling.'
Beside the allusions to the veils worn by women (a custom which has become almost universal in the East), the veil is often used symbolically in scripture for that which hides the glory of God. It was this literally when Moses came down from the mount; his face shone because of the glory he had seen, and the people could not bear it: therefore he put a veil on his face. That veil remains to this day on the hearts of the Jews when they read the law. Ex. 34:33-35. They do not see the glory of which the law was typical; but in God's due time He will remove the veil, and under the shadows of the law they will see Christ, and will receive Him whom they now refuse. In contrast to that ministration, in which the glory had to be veiled because of Israel's inability to behold it, Christians now can gaze upon the glory of the Lord, whose face is unveiled, and be changed into the same image from glory to glory, even as by the Lord the Spirit. 2 Cor. 3:13-18.
THE VEIL OF THE TABERNACLE AND OF THE TEMPLE witnessed to the fact that under the dispensation of the law the way into the holiest was not made manifest: God had not come out in full blessing, and man could not go in. On the death of Christ the veil was rent from top to bottom, and God has come out in fullest light. In Christianity the believer has boldness to enter into the holiest by the blood of Jesus, by the new and living way which He has consecrated for us through the veil, that is to say, His flesh. Redemption has been wrought, and God is made known in full grace, and the believer can go into His presence. Matt. 27:51; Heb. 6:19; Heb. 10:20. In Heb. 9:3 the veil of the Temple is called the 'second veil,' the curtains at the entrance being accounted the first.
One of the sons of Haman: he was slain and hanged. Esther 9:9.
There are few places in Palestine which resemble the valleys of other countries. Two of the words translated 'valley' are also translated 'plain,' and signify broad plains between the hills. Two other words refer to the narrow dales or ravines through which the streams run in winter, but many of which are dry in summer, now called wadys.
The words are
1. biqah, 'valley or plain,' which is the word used for the valleys or plains of Aven, Jericho, Lebanon, Megiddo, Mizpeh, and Ono.
2. emeq, 'valley or plain,' more resembles an English 'valley': it is applied to Achor, Ajalon, Baca, Berachah, Beth-aram, 'of decision' (Joel 3:14); Elah; 'of the giants' (Joshua 15:8; Joshua 18:16); Gibeon, Hebron, Jehoshaphat, Jezreel, Keziz, 'of the King,' or 'the King's Dale' (Gen. 14:17; 2 Sam. 18:18); Rephaim, Shaveh, Siddim, and Succoth.
3. gay, ge, ravine, narrow glen: applied to Charashim, Hamon-Gog, Hinnom, Son of Hinnom, Jiphthah-el, Zeboim, and Zephathah; and used symbolically for 'Valley of the Mountains' (Zech. 14:5); 'of the passengers' (Ezek. 39:11); 'of salt' (2 Sam. 8:13; 2 Kings 14:7; 1 Chr. 18:12; 2 Chr. 25:11; Ps. 60 title); 'of craftsmen' (Neh. 11:35); 'of slaughter' (Jer. 7:32; Jer. 19:6); 'of vision' (Isa. 22:1, 5); 'of the shadow of death.' (Ps. 23:4.)
4. nachal, gorge, wady, often translated 'brook' and 'river': the valleys are Eshcol, Gerar, Shittim, Sorek, Zared.
5. shephelah, translated 'vale' and 'valley,' but not specified by any proper name. It refers to the lowlands that lie midway between the highlands and the low plains of Judah. See CANAAN.
6. φάραγξ. "Every valley shall be filled, and every mountain and hill shall be brought low," Luke 3:5: a quotation from Isa. 40:4, where the Hebrew word is gay.
Valley of the Giants.
See REPHAIM, VALLEY OF.
One who had married a strange wife. Ezra 10:36.
These have been briefly considered under the word BIBLE, but as the subject is important more detail is here added, confining attention however to the N.T. 'Readings' must be distinguished from different 'translations.' Thus, for instance, the Revised Version omits a part of the verse in John 5:3, and the whole of the verse in John 5:4, placing it in the margin with the words, "Many ancient authorities insert wholly or in part, 'Waiting for the moving of the water,'" etc.
As such alterations may cause surprise and uneasiness to simple students of scripture, who believe in its verbal inspiration, an effort is here made to elucidate the subject.
In the first place it must be observed that such variations as the above, and all "various readings," belong to the Greek text, and do not refer to translation. It is easy to see that the same Greek words may be translated differently by different persons; but the 'readings' refer to different Greek words being substituted; or words may be added by copyists in various MSS, or words or sentences may be omitted as in the above instance from John 5:3, 4.
It must be borne in mind that from the time the New Testament was originally written till about A.D. 1452, when printing was invented, copies could only be multiplied by being written with the pen, and that all the ancient copies are in manuscript, and all vary more or less from each other, no two copies being exactly alike. This is not to be wondered at when we consider how difficult it is for lengthy subjects to be copied without mistakes being made; and if they are not discovered and rectified, it can easily be understood how the errors would increase — each copyist adding to the list. Therefore the more ancient the manuscript the more value is placed upon its readings, not that any particular one could, however, be followed entirely.
Printed copies could only be made from the manuscripts, and it is not now known what manuscripts were used for the early printed Testaments.
The COMPLUTENSIAN Edition was the first to be printed: it was finished with the O.T. in A.D. 1517, but was not published till 1522.
In the meantime the learned ERASMUS brought out his first edition, with a Latin translation (on which he had worked for years), in 1516. It was done in great haste, Erasmus being urged on by John Froben, printer at Basle, so that it could be issued before the Complutensian. The book was gladly hailed by those who desired the light of the word of God, but was strongly opposed by many of the papal clergy. Next to Wycliffe's edition of the N.T. in English among the people, stands Erasmus' Greek Testament among the learned as an instrument used by God in forwarding the Reformation in England. Bilney, Tyndale, and Fryth, three English martyrs, trace their conversion to reading, under God's enlightenment, Erasmus' Greek Testament.
The Editions of STEPHEN, a printer in Paris, followed. The first in 1546, and his most renowned one in 1550 (the one generally reprinted in England as the commonly received text), it was the first to give readings of the MSS in the margin; a fourth edition was issued in 1551, in which he had divided the text into verses. This reminds one that there is no authority for the divisions of chapters and verses, though they are very useful for reference.
The ten Editions of BEZA followed, the first in 1565 and his last in 1611.
The ELZEVIR Editions came next, in 1624 and 1633. The latter is the one which is called the textus receptus, or 'the text received by all': "textum ergo habes nunc ab omnibus receptum." It is the one commonly reprinted on the continent: and is the same in the main as that of Stephen reprinted in England, there being only about 287 minor differences between them.
All the above editions are very similar, but at this period more attention was called to the variations in the manuscripts, and they were carefully compared, with the laudable aim to discover what was the text as it stood originally .
MILL's Edition appeared in 1707. He had laboured for thirty years in his work: he reprinted Stephen's 1550 edition, and gave the fruits of his research in notes and appendix.
BENGEL's Edition followed in 1734.
WETSTEIN's Edition was published in 1751-2. He had increased the material by which the common text could be improved.
GRIESBACH's Edition followed. His principal editions were in 1796-1806, and a smaller one in 1805. He was the first who altered the commonly received text where he judged it to be incorrect. He laboured to classify the Greek MSS and arranged them in families to indicate where they had apparently been copied from one another, or had followed one recension.
SCHOLZ's Edition came next in 1830-36: it is not reliable.
LACHMANN's principal Edition was published in 1842-50. He confined his attention to early Greek MSS — not later than the fourth century, though he did not keep rigidly to this rule. He wholly set aside the "received text."
TISCHENDORF's Editions followed: his last, the eighth, was issued in 1865-72. He laboured many years in his work, and, in searching for more manuscripts, was rewarded by discovering and issuing the Codex Sinaiticus, one of the most valued copies, though erroneous in many places.
TREGELLES's followed. He also laboured many years and collated more manuscripts; but he confined his attention to ancient copies. It is dated 1857-72.
ALFORD's came next, but is not remarkable for fresh critical matter.
WORDSWORTH's followed. He is distinguished by his conservatism. He believed that God had overruled the issuing of the commonly received text, and he kept to that except where he believed that the Greek manuscripts and other evidence warranted him in making an alteration.
WESTCOTT AND HORT are the last to be mentioned. Their principle may perhaps be said to be the very reverse of that of Wordsworth, altering the text freely where others have hesitated. It dates A.D. 1881.
The REVISERS of 1881, J. N. DARBY, and others, who have translated the Greek Testament have either chosen one of the above texts, or selected for themselves what they should translate, without, however, issuing the Greek separately. The Greek Testament with the Revisers' readings was issued by the Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1881.
In Dr. Scrivener's Cambridge Greek Testament, 1887, all the readings of Lachmann, Tischendorf, Tregelles, Westcott and Hort, and the Revisers, are given in the notes. The readings of these Editors with those of Alford and Wordsworth are also given in an appendix to the Englishman's Greek Concordance. The readings from Griesbach to Wordsworth are also given in the notes to the Englishman's Greek New Testament. These collations are judged to be all that in an ordinary way is needed by most Christians.
It is deemed needful to add as a caution that Dean Burgon (in "The Revision Revised") brings serious charges against the Revisers of the New Testament in that they deviated from the instructions they received in regard to their translation as well as to the Greek text they adopted, and that they followed too often the venturesome readings of Westcott and Hort; also in throwing needless doubts upon many passages with the words "many ancient authorities, etc." in the margin.
This is to be regretted; but it all the more confirms the wisdom of Wordsworth in keeping to the common Greek text except where there is good authority for leaving it. And may it not also be added, amid so many English translations from different texts, that it is better to keep to the text of the Authorised Version (which with few exceptions follows the commonly received Greek text) except where there are godly reasons for differing from it.
The Greek Manuscripts naturally fall into two classes:
1. Those called the Uncial from uncia, 'an inch,' not that the letters were actually made as large as that, but they are all capitals, have no spaces between the words, and few if any points. A specimen is here given from the Codex Sinaiticus. It is John 6:14, 15. It shows how the words were divided at the ends of lines without any mark being attached (at the end of lines 1, 3, 7 and 9), and sometimes without any regard to syllables, also how contractions were made, IC for Ιησοῦς (Jesus), the line showing that it was a contraction. In some instances the line became invisible in old MSS and then the reading became doubtful. The mark at the end of line 4 shows that a letter has been omitted: in this case it is the letter ν. The specimen also shows how corrections were often made by the writer or by later hands.
The letters in the left hand margin answered a similar purpose to the marginal references of the A.V. They are known as the Ammonian Sections. In the third century Ammonius of Alexandria arranged this numerical system to aid the reader in finding parallel passages in the Gospels; and in the fourth century Eusebius, the historian, in a set of Canons arranged the Ammonian Sections so as to make any particular one more easily found. The ΝΑ refers to the Ammonian Section No. 51 of John, which was to be found in Eusebius' canon Δ, that is, No. 4, which was a collation of sections that occurred only in Matthew, Mark and John. They point out Matt. 14:23b-27; Mark 6:47-50; John 6:16-21. These references are given in full in Scrivener's Greek Testament of 1887, and in Wordsworth's Greek Testament.
The principal Uncial Manuscripts, omitting small portions and mere fragments, are:
א Sinaiticus IV. The whole of the New Testament.
A Alexandrinus V. The whole, but defective in places.
B Vaticanus IV. Matthew to Hebrews 9:14, including the Catholic Epistles,
which are inserted, as in other early MSS, after the Acts.
Timothy, Titus, Philemon and the Revelation are lacking.
B Basilianus VIII. Also called Vaticanus 2066, contains the Revelation.
C Ephraemi V. Portions of the whole; about two thirds of N.T. altogether.
D Bezae VI. Nearly all the Gospels and Acts. Greek and Latin.
D Claromontanus VI. Paul's Epistles. Greek and Latin.
E Laudianus VI. Most of the Acts. Greek and Latin.
P Porphyrianus IX. The Acts, the Epistles and the Revelation.
It should be noted that the same letter does not always refer to the same MS, as D above. Also in the two MSS shown as B, though bound in the same volume, one is some 400 years earlier than the other. Some of the MSS, as C above, are Palimpsests, that is, the old writing had been partly erased, and other works written over it, as shown under WRITING.
2. Other Greek MSS are called Cursives, because written in the common running hand and not all in capitals. These are of later date, from about the tenth century to the sixteenth: whereas the Uncial copies date from about the fourth century to the tenth. The earliest of these naturally stand in the first place, and the later ones and the Cursives take a secondary place.
The most important of the Cursive Manuscripts are:
No. 1 at Basle X. All but the Revelation.
" 33 at Paris XI. All but the Revelation. It is called 33 in the Gospels, 13 in the
Acts and General Epistles, and 17 in Paul's Epistles.
" 69 at Leicester XIV. All the New Testament. Called 69 in the Gospels, 31 in the Acts
and General Epistles, 37 in Paul's Epistles, and 14 in the Revelation.
" 47 at Oxford XI. Paul's Epistles.
" 61 at Dublin XVI. All the New Testament, but is judged not to be all of one writer.
It is called 61 in the Gospels, 34 in the Acts and Catholic
Epistles, 40 in Paul's Epistles, and 92 in the Revelation.
There are hundreds of other manuscripts, but most of them are seldom quoted, and some have not been collated.
There is also a class of Greek manuscripts called EVANGELISTARIES, books containing portions of the Gospels which were used in religious services: there are more than 900 of these.
Besides the Greek manuscripts there are other helps by which to ascertain what was the original Greek text.
1. VERSIONS. It will easily be seen that when the early versions were needed they were made from some text that was then available, and the translations show in some degree what was in the text that was translated. For the principal of these translations see VERSIONS OF THE SCRIPTURE.
2. FATHERS. These, both Greek and Latin, are referred to because in their Biblical works they often quoted scripture, and these quotations show what was in the ancient copies from which they quoted. These date from the second century, which is earlier than any Greek manuscript extant.
From the above it may be conceived what labour was involved in the original examination of so many witnesses for or against a reading. These have now been given more or less fully in the editions of Tischendorf, Tregelles, Alford, and partially by J. N. Darby. Very few persons are competent to examine and weigh all the evidence pro and con; but with the aids now afforded by the above mentioned means it is not difficult to ascertain where all the editors agree upon a passage, and it is deemed safe to follow such. But in these questions, as in all others, the guidance of the Holy Spirit should be sought. A spiritual man is less liable to err than a great scholar.
As an illustration of all the editors agreeing in leaving the commonly received Greek text, 1 John 5:7, 8, may be referred to. All agree in omitting (what are known as 'the heavenly witnesses') from "in heaven" in verse 7 to "in earth" inclusive in 1 John 5:8.
As explained under BIBLE, only a few passages remain really doubtful, and not one of these affect the fundamental truths of Christianity. This is of God's mercy: any poor sinner can look therein with confidence for the way of salvation, and Christians can learn what has been revealed as God's truth, and know what His purpose is concerning themselves, His ancient people the Jews, and the world at large.
The various readings do not affect in any way the doctrine of Verbal Inspiration. See INSPIRATION.
If any wish to examine further into the questions here considered they may consult Scrivener's "Plain Introduction to the Criticism of the New Testament,'' G. Bell & Sons, or a brief work called "Our Father's Will," G. Morrish.