Bible Dictionary A 1


Aleph, the first letter in the Hebrew alphabet. In numerals it stands for 1, and with two points for 1,000.  A (alpha) the first letter in the Greek alphabet. The small letter with a dash after (α '), stands for 1. For this letter as a name of Christ see ALPHA.


[Aa'ron] Eldest son of Amram and Jochebed, of the tribe of Levi. We first read of him when Moses was excusing himself from being sent to deliver Israel from Egypt because he was 'slow of speech.' Jehovah declared that his brother Aaron who was coming to meet him could speak well and should be his spokesman. Aaron accompanied Moses in his interviews with Pharaoh, and with his rod some of the miraculous plagues were called forth. He with Hur held up the hands of Moses on the Mount when Israel fought with Amalek. Ex. 17:12. Aaron with his two sons Nadab and Abihu with seventy of the elders, went with Moses into the mount where "they saw the God of Israel: and there was under his feet as it were a paved work of a sapphire stone, and as it were the body of heaven in his clearness." Ex. 24:9-10. When Moses retired higher into the mount, he left Israel in charge of Aaron and Hur. Ex. 24:14.

Aaron, alas, had not the stability of his brother,* but at the request of the people, and apparently without a protest, made for them the golden calf: he also built an altar before it, and made proclamation of a feast to Jehovah on the morrow.

* Moses was with God — Aaron with the people. The stability of Moses was dependent upon the fact, that he was sustained by sovereign grace in communion with the thoughts of God: while Aaron below fell in with the thoughts of the people.

He was thus engaged while God was directing Moses respecting the tabernacle and its offerings, and declaring that Aaron and his sons were to be the appointed priests. Their appointment stood, showing how marvellously God's grace abounds over sin, and that none are chosen because of their inherent goodness. †

† Aaron's rod that budded had more to do with the tribe of Levi being chosen for the priesthood than with Aaron as an individual. Num. 17:8.

Aaron with Miriam (priest and prophetess) spake against Moses, with whom as mediator God had established His covenant for Israel in sovereign mercy, Ex. 34:27; and to whom God spake 'mouth to mouth' at that time. Their excuse was that he had married an Ethiopian woman (sign of the same sovereign grace that goes out to Gentiles who have no claim to it). Aaron humbled himself and interceded for Miriam. Num. 12. Aaron also sinned with Moses at the waters of Meribah, and was not allowed to enter the promised land. Num. 20:10-29. He was stripped of his robes, which were put on Eleazar his son, and he died and was buried on Mount Hor. Viewed officially Aaron is a striking type of Christ. In his consecration he was clothed with the priestly garments, with the breastplate, the mitre and the crown, and then was anointed with oil, type of the Holy Spirit. It was only in connection with his sons that there was any washing spoken of, or any sacrifice, even as Christ identified Himself with the priestly company, His brethren. Ex. 24:4, 10, 19, 20; Heb. 2:11-13

Aaronic Priesthood

The first thought in priesthood is that those appointed might minister to the Lord in the priests' office, that they might be a company in nearness to and in communion with the Lord. God had said of Israel that He had brought them to Himself, and redemption had been accomplished; but the people, having placed themselves under law, could not be in nearness, and needed the priesthood to maintain their relations with God, and to help them by the way. The high priest was appointed that he might offer both gifts and sacrifices for sins, and might exercise forbearance towards the ignorant and the erring Heb. 5:1-2. The priest was to teach the children of Israel all the statutes which the Lord had spoken. Lev. 10:11. He was the messenger of the Lord of hosts. Malachi 2:7. He offered up the sacrifices, and blessed the people. Lev. 9. He daily offered incense and attended to the lamps of the 'candlestick.' Minute instructions were given by God respecting everything the priest had to do, nothing being left for his own individual devising. Ample provision was made for the priests in portions of the sacrifices being given to them and by the first-fruits. After the death of Nadab and Abihu, Aaron was allowed to enter the holiest of all only once a year, and then not without blood. Lev. 16:1-2. Whenever he officiated in the sanctuary in his garments of glory and beauty, the people were also presented, for in his breastplate and on the shoulder-pieces were the names of the children of Israel. Proper priestly work for the people was not to work out redemption for them, but to maintain their relations with God.See MELCHISEDEC.

Aaronites [Aa'ronites]

The descendants of Aaron. 1 Chr. 12:27; 1 Chr. 27:17.




This word, signifying 'father, source, origin,' is much used in compound proper names: as Ab-salom, 'father of peace;' it is also used in female proper names as Ab-igail, 'source of joy'; though some retain the word 'father' in females' names as 'the father's joy.' Fürst gives also to Ab the meanings of 'freshness strength, fruit'; but in proper names he often takes Ab to signify God; as Abijah, 'God is jah.' See NAMES.

Abaddon [Abad'don]

In Rev. 9:11 this name is shown to be the same as Apollyon, 'the destroyer,' who is described as 'the angel of the bottomless pit.' It is perhaps not so much one of the names of Satan, as his character personified. It occurs six times in the Old Testament, in three of which it is associated with hell (sheol): Job 26:6; Prov. 15:11; Prov. 27:20; once with death: 'Destruction and Death say,' etc., Job 28:22; and once with the grave. Ps. 88:11. In all these passages, and in Job 31:12, it is translated 'destruction'.

Abagtha [Abag'tha]

One of the eunuchs that served Ahasuerus. Esther 1:10. In the LXX different names are given for these seven eunuchs, namely, Aman, Bazan, Tharrha, Barazi, Zatholtha, Abataza, and Tharaba.

Abana [Aba'na]

One of the rivers of Damascus, which the proud Naaman declared were better than all the waters of Israel, 2 Kings 5:12; the other is Pharpar. These are probably the rivers now called Barada and Awaj; Barada being supposed to be Abana. This is the Chrysorrhoas of the ancients. Robinson says, "it rises in the high plain south of Zebdany on Anti-Lebanon, and rushes in a south-easterly course down the mountain till it issues at Mezzeh from its chasm upon the plain. Here it turns eastward, and flowing along the north wall of the city takes its way across the plain to the two northern lakes. It is a deep, broad, rushing mountain stream; and although not less than nine or ten branches are 'taken from it, some of them quite large, for the supply of the city and the plain, yet it still flows on as a large stream, and enters the middle lake by two channels." It is judged that this river furnishes water to 14 villages, and 150,000 inhabitants. In the Arabic version Abana is translated 'Barda,' which goes to confirm the conjecture that Barada is the Abana of Scripture.

Abarim [Aba'rim]

Probably the chain of mountains that lie 'beyond' or to the east of the Dead Sea and the lower Jordan. Num. 33:47-48. Deut. 32:49-50, shows that mount Nebo was connected with Abarim and that it was 'over against Jericho' and also that it was where Moses viewed the land and died. Num. 27:12-13. Deut. 3:27 connects this with Pisgah; so that Pisgah and Nebo apparently formed part of Abarim, in the land of Moab. Abarim is translated 'passages' in Jer. 22:20.

Abba [Ab'ba]

The Greek form is ἀββᾶ father: it is the same as Ab in Hebrew, but was pronounced Abba in the time of our Saviour. It occurs three times in the New Testament, and is always followed by 'father,' and translated Abba Father; that is, the 'abba' is transcribed and not translated: if it were translated it would be 'Father Father.' In the Greek it stands thus:  ἀββᾶ ὁ πατήρ the 'Abba' being Aramaic, and the 'Father' Greek. In the, Old Testament Ab was not restricted in its use to children. Elisha used it toward Elijah; servants applied it to their masters, etc.: see 2 Kings 2:12 ; 2 Kings 5:13; 2 Kings 6:21, etc. Jehovah asked, "Hath the rain a father?" Job 38:28. In the N.T. it appears to be used in a stricter sense of relationship: "Ye have received the Spirit of adoption [or sonship] , whereby we cry, Abba Father," Rom. 8:15; and "because ye are sons, God hath sent forth the Spirit of his Son into your hearts, crying, Abba Father." Gal. 4:6. The only other instance is when the Lord thus addresses His Father, Mark 14:36; and the Spirit in the hearts of believers puts the very words He used into their lips. It has been suggested that in the two words the Jew and the Gentile each say 'Father' in his own language — the Aramaic being then spoken by the Jews, and Greek the language of the Gentiles in Palestine and many other places. God had been revealed in the Old Testament as Jehovah, the Almighty, etc., but it was reserved for New Testament times for Him to be made known to believers in the relationship of Father: cf. John 20:17.

Abda [Ab'da]

1.  Father of Adoniram. 1 Kings 4:6.

2.  Son of Shammua. Neh. 11:17: apparently called OBADIAH the Son of Shemaiah in  1 Chr. 9:16.

Abdeel [Ab'deel]

Father of Shelemiah. Jer. 36:26. The name is omitted by the LXX.

Abdi [Ab'di]

1.  Father of Kish, a Levite. 2 Chr. 29:12.

2.  Son of Malluch, a Levite. 1 Chr. 6:44.

3.  One who had taken a strange wife. Ezra 10:26.

Abdiel [Ab'diel]

Son of Guni, of the family of Gad. 1 Chr. 5:15

Abdon [Ab'don]

1.  The tenth judge of Israel: he succeeded Elon, and ruled eight years. Judges 12:13, 15.

2.  Son of Shashak. 1 Chr. 8:23.

3.  Son of Jehiel, of Gibeon. 1 Chr. 8:30; 1 Chr. 9:35-36.

4.  Son of Micha, 2 Chr. 34:20: the same as ACHBOR, q.v.

5.  City in the tribe of Asher, one of the four given to the Gershonites. Joshua 21:30; 1 Chr. 6:74. Probably the same as Hebron in the list of the cities of Asher in Joshua 19:28. According to Gesenius, Abdon is read here in twenty Hebrew MSS. instead of Hebron, though most of the ancient versions favour Hebron. This is not the well-known Hebron which is in Judah's lot. Abdon is identified with Abdeh, 33 3' N, 35 9' E.

Abednego [Abed'nego]

The Chaldee name, signifying 'servant of Nego,' given to Azariah, one of Daniel's companions. Refusing to worship Nebuchadnezzar's golden image, he was cast into the fiery furnace; but was miraculously delivered by his God. Dan. 1:7; Dan. 3:1-30.

Abel [A'bel]

The second Son of Adam. The name, Hebel given him by his mother, signifying 'breath' or 'vanity,' possibly originated in her disappointment at Cain not proving to be the promised Redeemer. In process of time the great difference in the two brothers was manifested by Abel offering to God a slain animal, whilst Cain brought the fruit of own labour from the cursed ground, ignoring the facts that in the fall of Adam life had been forfeited and the ground cursed. Abel presented a sacrifice in the way of faith through a slain firstling of the flock. Heb. 11:4. He thus obtained a witness that he was righteous, God testifying of his gifts: cf. Matt. 23:35. Thus early were brought out in clear lines the two seeds: one born of God, and the other 'of that wicked one' 1 John 3:12. Abel is a type of Christ, as Cain is that of the Jew. As the Jews broke the law against both God and their neighbour, so Cain disregarded God's judgement on man, and slew his brother. In Cain is also exemplified the religion of the natural man, who, disregarding his distance from God, thinks he can approach at any time and with any form of worship.

Abel [A'bel]

The name signifying 'meadow,' given to several places, which are distinguished by the other names appended. The name 'Abel' stands alone in 1 Sam. 6:18; for which see 'ABEL, THE GREAT;' and in 2 Sam. 20:14,18, for which see 'ABEL-BETH-MAACHAH.'

Abelbethmaachah [A'bel-beth-ma'achah]

A city of importance in the extreme North of Palestine in the lot of Naphtali or Manassth: it is mentioned with Ijon and Dan. In 2 Sam. 20:15 it is called 'Abel of BETH-MAACHAH' and the wisdom of its rulers was said to be proverbial, 2 Sam. 20:18. It was here that Sheba took shelter from Joab, but was put to death by the inhabitants. It was taken with other cities by Benhadad, 1 Kings 15:20, and subsequently by Tiglath-pileser, 2 Kings 15:29, when its inhabitants were carried away captive to Assyria. It is called ABEL-MAIM in 2 Chr. 16:4. This has been identified with Abl, 33 15' N, 35 34' E.

Abelmaim [A'bel-ma'im].


Abelmeholah [A'bel-meho'lah]

City in the Jordan valley, mentioned with Beth-shean. 1 Kings 4:12. To the border of this place Gideon pursued the Midianites. Judges 7:22. From here Elisha, was called to be a prophet. 1 Kings 19:16. Its site is identified by Major Conder with Ain Helweh 32 19' N, 35 30' E.

Abelmizraim [A'bel-mizra'im]

This signifies, with the Hebrew points, 'meadow of the Egyptians;' but 'mourning of the Egyptians' if read without or with different points. The context in Gen. 50:11 indicates 'mourning' as a part of the name. It was the threshing floor of Atad 'beyond Jordan.' This would seem to place the seven days' mourning on the east of Jordan, before the body was carried into Canaan, for interment: cf. Gen. 50:12-13. But some hold that Moses by 'beyond Jordan' signifies the west because of his standpoint being on the east. The inhabitants of the land being called Canaanites also points to the west; and it is remarkable that Jerome uses a similar expression in 'trans-Jordanem,' and then states that ATAD, which is the same place, was between the Jordan and Jericho. It is not identified.

Abelshittim [A'bel-shit'tim]

The last encampment of the Israelites on the east of Jordan. Num. 33:49. It was nearly opposite to Jericho. Josephus says (Ant. iv. 8, 1) it was the same as Abila, a place full of palm trees. There are groves of Acacias (as the name implies) still in the neighbourhood. It is more often called SHITTIM. Identified with Kefrein 31 51' N, 35 39' E.

Abel, the Great

The A.V. has "the Great [stone of] Abel." 1 Sam. 6:18. Delitzsch believes that this is not a proper name and that Abel is a mistake for eben, 'a stone,' the final n being put instead of l: and if so it would be simply "the great stone," which is also mentioned in verses 14 and 15. This is the rendering adopted by the LXX and the Targum.

Abez [A'bez].

A town of Issachar only mentioned in Joshua 19:20. It has been identified with el-Beida, 32 43' N, 35 9' E.

Abi [A'bi]

See ABIJAH, No. 4.

Abia, Abiah [Abi'a, Abi'ah]

1.  One of Samuel's sons, a judge in Israel, who took bribes and perverted judgement. The Israelites gave this as their reason for wanting a king. 1 Sam. 8:2; 1 Chr. 6:28.

2.  Wife of Hezron. 1 Chr. 2:24.

3.  Son of Becher a Benjamite. 1 Chr. 7:8.

4.  Son of Rehoboam, the son of Solomon. 1 Chr. 3:10; Matt. 1:7. See ABIJAH, No. 1.

5.  One of the courses of priests. Luke 1:5. See ABIJAH, No. 3.

Abialbon. [A'bi-al'bon]

One of David's mighty men, 2 Sam. 23:31: he is called ABIEL in 1 Chr. 11:32.

Abiasaph. [Abi'asaph]

Levite, one of the sons of Korah, and the head of one of the families of the Korhites. Ex. 6:24. In 1 Chr. 6:37; 1 Chr. 9:19 there is EBIASAPH a Son of Korah, who is probably the same. The Ebiasaph of 1 Chr. 6:23 is apparently a great grandson of Korah.

Abiathar. [Abi'athar]

Son of Ahimelech the high priest. He escaped from the slaughter of the priests executed by Doeg at the command of Saul, 1 Sam. 22:18, 20. He became an adherent of David, and was acknowledged as high priest; but becoming involved in Adonijah's rebellion he was deprived of the priesthood by Solomon and sent to dwell in the city of Anathoth which belonged to the sons of Aaron. 1 Kings 2:26; 1 Chr. 6:60. In 1 Kings 4:4, Abiathar is named with Zadok as priests (not the priests); though deposed, Abiathar was still a priest. There is a difficulty in 2 Sam. 8:17 and 1 Chr. 18:16 where 'Ahimelech (or Abimelech) the son of Abiathar' is named as priest with Zadok in the time of David. Some suppose that the names should be transposed, and that Abiathar is meant; but this Ahimelech may have been a son of the above-named Abiathar (it not being at all unusual to name a son after his grandfather) and for some reason he is mentioned in these passages as priest instead of his father. He may have been a more worthy man than his father, who was thrust out of the priesthood for his own sin, though it fulfilled the prophecy concerning the house of Eli in Shiloh. 1 Sam. 2:31-36; 1 Kings 2:27. Our Lord in Mark 2:26 speaks of Abiathar as high priest, in connection with David eating the showbread, doubtless because he afterwards attained to that office.

Abib. [A'bib]


Abida, Abidah. [Abi'da, Abi'dah]

One of the sons of Midian. Gen. 25:4; 1 Chr. 1:33.

Abidan. [Abi'dan]

Son of Gideoni: head of a house of the tribe of Benjamin at the Exodus. Num. 1:11; Num. 2:22; Num. 7:60, 65; Num. 10:24.

Abiel. [A'biel]

1. Father of Kish and of Ner and grandfather of Saul and of Abner. That this is the most probable genealogy is confirmed by Ner being said to be Saul's uncle, 1 Sam. 9:1; 1 Sam. 14:50-51; though in 1 Chr. 8:33; 1 Chr. 9:39, Saul is said to be the son of Kish, the son of Ner. This Ner may have been an earlier ancestor; and here Abiel is not named at all. It was not unusual to leave out many names in the genealogies.

2.  One of David's mighty men, 1 Chr. 11:32; he is called Abi-Albon in 2 Sam. 23:31.

Abiezer. [Abie'zer]

1.  Son of Gilead, a descendant of Manasseh, Joshua 17:1-2, most probably the same is alluded to in Num. 26:30, under the contracted form of JEEZER. Abiezer became a family name: Gideon blew a trumpet, and Abiezer was gathered after him. Judges 6:34; Judges 8:2.

2.  One of David's mighty men. 2 Sam. 23:27; 1 Chr. 11:28; 1 Chr. 27:12.

3. Son of Hammoleketh, and nephew of Gilead, 1 Chr. 7:18.

Abiezrite. [Abiez'rite]

One of the family of Abiezer, No. 1. Judges 6:11, 24; Judges 8:32.

Abigail [Ab'igail]

1.  The Carmelitess who became the wife of David after the death of her churlish husband Nabal. This gracious woman humbled herself, confessed the 'iniquity' of her husband, and appeased David. She showed wonderful faith in recognising the counsels of God as resting upon David, and called him 'lord' whilst in rejection and being hunted by Saul. 1 Sam. 25:14-42. By Abigail David had a son named Chileab 2 Sam. 3:3; but called Daniel in 1 Chr. 3:1.

2.  A sister or half sister of David: she was the mother of Amasa by a man named Ithra or Jether, described both as an Israelite and an Ishmeelite. 2 Sam. 17:25; 1 Chr. 2:16-17. See JETHER

Abihil. [Abih'il]

1.  Daughter of Eliab, and wife of Rehoboam, king of Judah. 2 Chr. 11:18.

2.  Father of Zuriel, chief of the Levitical family of Merari. Num. 3:35.

3.  Wife of Abishur. 1 Chr. 2:29.

4.  Son of Huri, of the family of Gad. 1 Chr. 5:14.

5.  Father of queen Esther, and uncle of Mordecai. Esther 2:15; Esther 9:29

Abihu. [Abi'hu]

Abihu and Nadab, sons of Aaron, with seventy of the elders of Israel, were invited to ascend with Moses, where they saw God and did eat and drink, Ex. 24:1, 9-11. They were consecrated to minister to the Lord as priests, yet on the first occasion of their exercising the priesthood for Israel they offered strange fire, which the Lord had not commanded, and were smitten by fire from God. Lev. 10:1-2. Immediately before this we read that "there came a fire out from before the Lord and consumed upon the altar the burnt offering and the fat." That fire was never to go out, and doubtless the fire Abihu should have used was the fire that was upon the brazen altar, as is ordained in Lev. 16:12. We read elsewhere that everything was to be done 'as the Lord commanded Moses;' but of this which Nadab and Abihu did, it expressly says it was not commanded; therefore it was sin, and God was dishonoured. Their death followed, and Aaron and his other sons were not to leave the tabernacle nor mourn for the dead. Num. 26:60-61; 1 Chr. 24:1-2. The case of Nadab and Abihu should teach us that not every kind of worship is acceptable to God: "they that worship him must worship him in spirit and in truth," John 4:24: mere outward worship will not do and it must be according to what God has revealed. If separated from the sacrifice of Christ it is but the energy of nature, and is offensive to God.

Abihud. [Abi'hud]

Son of Bela, and grandson of Benjamin. 1 Chr. 8:3.

Abijah. [Abi'jah]

1.  Son and successor of Rehoboam, king of Judah. He began to reign in the eighteenth year of Jeroboam, king of Israel (B.C. 958) and reigned three years. He walked in the sin of his father Rehoboam, but for David's sake he was placed on the throne, that, as Jehovah had said, David might have 'a light alway before me in Jerusalem.' 1 Kings 11:36; 1 Kings 15:4. "There was war between Abijah and Jeroboam," and Abijah by a patriotic address to Israel sought to recover the ten tribes. This could not be; for the rupture in the kingdom had been brought about by God on account of their wickedness. Nevertheless Abijah trusted in Jehovah while he did not fail to rebuke Israel touching the golden calves they had erected. God smote Jeroboam and all Israel, and there fell 500,000 chosen men of Israel. Abijah also took the cities of Bethel, Jeshanah and Ephrain; and Jeroboam was not able to recover strength all the days of Abijah. 2 Chr. 13. In the above war Israel had 800,000 chosen men, and Judah 400,000. These numbers, together with the number slain, have been much called in question by critics, who say they ought to be 80,000 and 40,000, and 50,000 slain; which numbers are to be found in some of the early Latin copies and also in some early copies of Josephus. But the numbers in the Hebrew scriptures must have the preference: and what is there improbable in the numbers when we compare them with the number of men 'that drew sword' when David last numbered the people? 1 Chr. 21:5. Israel had 1,100,000; Judah had 470,000 and this was without Levi and Benjamin, who were not counted. This was about fifty years before the battle, ample time (notwithstanding the loss at the pestilence that followed the numbering) for a large increase. In 2 Sam. 24:9, the number of fighting men in Israel is given as only 800,000. It is supposed that this does not include the standing army, which according to 1 Chr. 27:1, amounted to 24,000 x12 = 288,000, which with its officers would be about 300,000, and this added to 800,000 = 1,100,000. On the other hand, the fighting men of Judah are in Samuel said to be 500,000. David may have had 30,000 with him at Jerusalem, from whence Joab went out, which may be here included, but which are not included in 1 Chr. 21:5.

Abijah 'waxed mighty and married fourteen wives;' which may have been a snare to him. 2 Chr. 13:1-22. He is called ABIJAM in 1 Kings 14:31; 1 Kings 15:1-8; and ABIA in 1 Chr. 3:10; Matt. 1:7.

2.  Son of Jeroboam I., king of Israel. His mother disguised herself and went to Ahijah the prophet to inquire whether her child should recover from his sickness. Jehovah revealed to the prophet who it was that came to him, and he told out to the mother the heavy judgement that should befall her husband and his house; but because there was "some good thing toward the Lord God of Israel" in Abijah, he should come to his grave peacefully. In mercy he was taken from the coming judgement. As his mother came to the threshold of the door the child died. 1 Kings 14:1-17.

3.  Descendant of Eleazar who gave his name to the eighth of the twenty-four courses of priests. 1 Chr. 24:10. The same is called ABIA in Luke 1:5.

4.  Daughter of Zechariah and mother of Hezekiah 2 Chr. 29:1: contracted into ABI in 2 Kings 18:2.

5.  One or more of the priests who returned from the captivity, one of whom sealed the covenant. Neh. 10:7; Neh. 12:4 17

Abijam. [Abi'jam]

See ABIJAH No. 1.

Abilene. [Abile'ne]

The district over which Lysanias was tetrarch. Luke 3:1. Abila was its chief city. Josephus speaks of this as "Abila of Lysanias" to distinguish it from other cities of the same name. It was described by ancient writers as eighteen miles from Damascus on the way to Heliopolis or Baalbek, and Robinson reached its site in six hours, on the eastern slope of the Anti-Libanus. The centre of the district of Abilene lies about 33 35' N, 36 5' E. Its extent is not known: it is probable that its limits varied at different times.

Abimael. [Abim'ael]

Descendant of Joktan. Gen. 10:28; 1 Chr. 1:22.

Abimelech. [Abim'elech]

1. King of Gerar, who, believing Sarah to be Abraham's sister, took her into his harem, but being warned by God* he returned Sarah, calling Abraham her brother, as a rebuke. Gen. 20.

* A witness of God's rights in His people, Ps. 105:14-15, and that He will vindicate His faithfulness in His ways with them even when they are unfaithful.

2.  A similar thing happened with Isaac and Rebecca under another king of the same name — the name being a title of the kings of the Philistines, as Pharaoh was that of the kings of Egypt. Gen. 26:1-16.

3.  Son of Gideon by a Shechemite concubine. He induced the men of Shechem to choose him as ruler and then slew 70 of his brethren. Jotham alone escaped, who pronounced a curse upon the murderers. This was fulfilled by many of the men of Shechem being killed, and Abimelech being mortally wounded by a piece of a millstone cast upon him by a woman at the attack upon Thebez. Judges 8:31; Judges 9; 2 Sam. 11:21.

4.  Priest in the time of David, 1 Chr. 18:16: also called AHIMELECH in 2 Sam. 8:17. See ABIATHAR.

Abinadab. [Abin'adab]

1.  A man at Kirjath-jearim, at whose house the ark remained for many years after it had been returned by the Philistines. The twenty years referred to in 1 Sam. 7. no doubt give the time that elapsed before the repentance of Israel led them to lament after Jehovah. The ark abode in Abinadab's house long after this, however, and was not removed till the early part of David's reign. 2 Sam. 6.; 1 Chr. 13:7.

2.  One of the sons of Jesse. 1 Sam. 16:8; 1 Sam. 17:13.

3.  One of Saul's sons who was killed with his brethren at Saul's last battle with the Philistines. 1 Sam. 31:2.

4.  Father of one of Solomon's twelve officers who provided victuals for the king and household. 1 Kings 4:11.

Abinoam. [Abin'oam]

Father of Barak. Judges 4:6, 12; Judges 5:1, 12

Abiram. [Abi'ram]

1.  A Reubenite, son of Eliab, who rose in the conspiracy headed by Korah against Moses and Aaron, and who perished by the judgement of God, Num. 16: See KORAH

2.  Eldest son of Hiel, the Bethelite. Hiel laid the foundation of Jericho in Abiram his first-born, and thus fulfilled the first part of the prophecy by Joshua. A signal instance of how even the Israelites disregarded the word of Jehovah. Joshua 6:26; 1 Kings 16:34.

Abishag. [Ab'ishag]

The Shunammite damsel who cherished David in his old age. 1 Kings 1:3, 15. After David's death, his son Adonijah asked to have Abishag for wife, for which Solomon put him to death. 1 Kings 2:17-23.

Abishai. [Abish'ai]

Son of David's sister Zeruiah, and brother of Joab. He was one of David's officers and served him many years. He accompanied David into Saul's camp while he slept. 1 Sam. 26:6-9. With Joab he slew Abner. 2 Sam. 3:30. In his zeal for David he asked permission to slay Shimei. 2 Sam. 16:9; 2 Sam. 19:21. In the rebellion of Absalom he commanded a third of David's army. 2 Sam. 18:2. He rescued David from Ishbi-benob the giant. 2 Sam. 21:17. He was captain of the second three of David's 'mighty men,' and slew three hundred men. 2 Sam. 23:18. To him is attributed the slaughter of eighteen thousand Syrians or Edomites in the valley of salt. 1 Chr. 18:12; 2 Sam. 8:13.

Abishalom. [Abish'alom]

Father of Maachah, wife of Rehoboam and mother of Abijam, king of Judah. 1 Kings 15:1-2, 10. But in 2 Chr. 11:20 we read that Maachah was the daughter of Absalom; therefore Abishalom appears to be a fuller way of writing Absalom, and refers to the son of David. See ABSALOM.

Abishua. [Abish'ua]

1.  Son of Phinehas (son of Eleazar), and father of Bukki. 1 Chr. 6:4-5, 50; Ezra 7:5. Josephus says that Abishua was high priest after Phinehas. Ant. viii. 1, 3.

2.  Son of Bela, and grandson of Benjamin. 1 Chr. 8:1, 4.

Abishur. [Ab'ishur]

One of the sons of Shammai. 1 Chr. 2:28-29.

Abital. [Ab'ital]

One of David's wives. 2 Sam. 3:4; 1 Chr. 3:3.

Abitub. [Ab'itub]

Son of Shaharaim and Hushim. 1 Chr. 8:8, 11.

Abiud. [Ab'iud]

Son of Zorobabel, in the genealogy of the Lord Jesus, Matt. 1:13: not mentioned in the Old Testament.

Abjects, nekeh.

This word occurs only in Psalm 35:15. The root signifies 'to smite,' and Horsley translates "smiters were gathered together against me." The LXX, "Plagues were plentifully brought against me." Hengstenberg retains 'abjects,' and says, "the smitten are men of the lowest grade, the poorest," whom the Psalmist said "I knew not." He thinks Job 30:1, seq., is "a strikingly coincident parallel passage."

Abner. [Ab'ner]

The Son of Ner, Saul's uncle; Abner was consequently Saul's cousin. 1 Sam. 14:51. He was Saul's 'captain of the host' when David slew Goliath, and he presented David to Saul. 1 Sam. 17:55, 57. He was with Saul when David took away the spear and cruse of water while they slept: for which David reproached him, saying he was worthy of death because he had not more faithfully guarded his master. 1 Sam. 26:5-16. After the death of Saul (apparently about 5 years after) Abner made Ish-bosheth king over Israel; but this did not include Judah over which David was king. 2 Sam. 2:8-10. In one of the conflicts between the two houses Abner was overcome, and Asahel, Joab's brother, 'light of foot as a wild roe,' pursued Abner. Abner cautioned him twice, and then slew him. 2 Sam. 2:17-23. This act of self-defence was afterwards made the plea for Abner's death. Saul had had a concubine named Rizpah, and this woman Abner took; for which he was reproached by Ish-bosheth (who probably thought it was a prelude to his seizing the kingdom). This so incensed Abner that he revolted from his master and made overtures to David. David demanded that Abner should bring with him Michal, Saul's daughter, David's former wife. This he accomplished, and he and the men with him were well received by David, who made a feast for them. But Joab, who was absent, was angry when he heard of it, probably jealous lest the command of the army should be divided between himself and Abner. He sent messengers for Abner's return, and then, under the pretence of privately communing with him, smote him, professedly to avenge the death of his brother Asahel. David was much grieved at this murder, and followed the bier and fasted till the sun went down. He rehearsed on the occasion the following dirge:

"Died Abner as a fool dieth?

 Thy hands were not bound,

 Nor thy feet put into fetters:

 As a man falleth before wicked men so fellest thou."

David further said that in Abner's death a prince and a great man had fallen, and that Jehovah would avenge his death. This last was accomplished, according to David's dying injunction, by the direction of King Solomon, and Joab was slain by Benaiah. Yet doubtless the holy government of God was fulfilled in the death of Abner. Personal pique turned him round to David, and yet he knew well, while upholding the house of Saul, that David was God's anointed king.


The word 'abomination' is used in the O.T. in reference to any iniquity as viewed by a holy God. It also designates what was unfit to be presented in the service of God, such as an animal with any sort of blemish being brought as a sacrifice; the price of a dog being put into the treasury, etc. Deut. 17:1; Deut. 23:18. The divine service became itself an abomination to God when it had fallen into a mere outward observance or was in association with iniquity. Isa. 1:13; Prov. 28:9. But idolatry was the special thing that was declared to be abomination to Jehovah. The idols themselves are thus designated: 2 Kings 23:13; Isa. 44:19; and Ezek. 8. shows the idolatry that was carried on in secret, and the 'greater abomination,' of bringing it actually into the inner court of the Lord's house, between the porch and the altar! The word is but seldom used in the N.T. and applies then to wickedness in general.

Abomination of Desolation.

This exact expression occurs only in Matt. 24:15 and Mark 13:14, referring to what had been revealed to Daniel in Dan. 12:11, where it is connected with the great tribulation (ver. 1) spoken of by the Lord in those Gospels. Dan. 9:27 shows that the time of the abomination is in the last half of the last of the seventy weeks of Daniel named in Dan. 9:24. The person who makes a covenant with the Jews in those days and afterwards breaks it, we know to be the head of the future Roman empire. See SEVENTY WEEKS. Of this person an image will be made, and the people will be constrained to worship it, Rev. 13:14-15; but we do not read that it will be carried into the future temple; whereas our Lord says that the abomination will stand in the holy place. On the other hand we read that the Antichrist "exalteth himself above all that is called God, or that is worshipped; so that he, as God, sitteth in the temple of God, showing himself that he is God." 2 Thess. 2:4. The 'abomination of desolation' is evidently connected with the trinity of evil spoken of in Rev. 13 and will be the work of Satan, the Roman beast, and the false prophet. It will end in dire desolation. The desolator is the Assyrian, Isa. 8:7-8; Isa. 28:2, 18 the northern king who will then hold the territory of Assyria. Dan. 11:40.

Abraham. [A'braham]

Son of Terah and grandson of Nahor, the seventh descendant from Shem. His name was at first ABRAM, 'father of elevation;' but was altered by God into ABRAHAM, 'father of a multitude.' In this name (Abraham) the blessing of the Gentiles is secured by God. The family dwelt in Ur of the Chaldees, and were idolaters. Joshua 24:2. Abraham was the first to receive a definite call from God to leave not only the idolatrous nation to which his ancestors belonged, but to leave his kindred and his father's house and to go into a land that God would show him. God would bless him and make him a blessing, and bless all who blessed him and would curse all who cursed him. Gen. 12:1-3. He thus became the depositary of God's promise and blessing. Abraham at first only partially obeyed the call: he left Ur and went to dwell at Haran, in Mesopotamia (Charran in Acts 7:4), but with his father and kindred; and did not enter Canaan until the death of his father. When in the land God promised that unto his seed He would give the land. Abraham built an altar, and called upon the name of Jehovah. A famine occurring in the land Abraham went to sojourn in Egypt, and for want of faith he called Sarai his sister and she was taken into the house of Pharaoh, but the Lord protected her, and Abraham with his wife was sent away with a rebuke. When near Bethel he could again call on the name of the Lord. He had now become so rich in cattle that disputes arose between his herdsmen and those of Lot, and Abraham asked Lot to choose where he would sojourn, if he went to the right Abraham would go to the left; and they separated. Again Jehovah declared that as far as Abraham's eye could reach in all directions the land should belong to his seed. The next recorded event is that Lot was taken prisoner and carried to the north. Abraham pursued the enemy and recovered all. He refused to take even a thread of the spoil from the king of Sodom: he would not be made rich from such a source; but he was blessed by Melchisedec, king of Salem, the priest of the most high God, who brought forth bread and wine: to whom Abraham gave tenths of all. See MELCHISEDEC. God now revealed Himself to Abraham as His shield and exceeding great reward.

When Abraham lamented to God that he had no son, God declared that he should have a son, and that his seed should be as the stars of the heaven for multitude. Abraham believed God, and it was counted to him for righteousness. This is the first time that faith is spoken of. Still he asked whereby should he know that his seed should possess the land, and was told to take a heifer, a she goat, and a ram, all of three years old, a turtle dove and a young pigeon. These he divided in the midst, except the birds, and laid them one against another. When the sun went down a smoking furnace and a burning lamp passed between the pieces: type of the fire that consumes the dross, and a light for the path. The same day God made a covenant with Abraham that to his seed should the land be given from the river of Egypt to the great river Euphrates : cf. Jer. 34:18-19: it had been ratified in death, a type of Christ. When Abraham had fallen into a deep sleep, he was informed that his seed should be in a strange land, and be afflicted 400 years. Gen. 15 See ISRAEL IN EGYPT.

Abraham had believed that God would give him a son, but now he waits not God's time, and at Sarai's suggestion he associates with Hagar, a bondmaid, and Ishmael is born, Gen. 16. — a figure of the law, that is, man's attempt to possess the blessing by his own effort.

God now reveals Himself to Abraham as 'the almighty God,' a name which signifies that all resource is in God Himself. 'God talked with him,' and made a covenant with him according to that name. It is now that his name is changed from Abram, because he was to be a father of many nations. Abraham was to walk before the Almighty God and be perfect, and was to keep the covenant by having all the males circumcised (a figure of no confidence in the flesh), which he at once put into practice. Sarai's s name was altered to Sarah, for she was to be a princess and should have a son.

Abraham entertained three visitors: on two leaving him the third is spoken of as the Lord who asks, "shall I hide from Abraham the thing which I do?" According to John 15:14-15, this gives the key to Abraham being called "the friend of God." 2 Chr. 20:7; Isa. 41:8; James 2:23. God opened His mind to him, and Abraham was emboldened to plead for the righteous in Sodom.

Abraham's faith again fails him and at Gerar he once more calls Sarah his sister, which might have led to sin had not God protected her, and Abraham is again rebuked.

Isaac is born, and conflict ensues between that which is a type of the flesh and the Spirit: Hagar and her son Ishmael are cast out. Gen. 21: cf. Gal. 4:22-31. God then tried the faith of Abraham by telling him to offer up his son Isaac for a burnt offering. Abraham obeyed, and, but for the intervention of the angel of the Lord, would have killed his son, believing "that God was able to raise him up even from the dead." After the death and resurrection in figure of Isaac, the unconditional promise is confirmed to Abraham that in his seed — which is Christ — should all the nations of the earth be blessed. Gen. 22:18; Gal. 3:14-18. If any are Christ's, they are Abraham's seed, and heirs according to promise. Gal. 3:29. The promise is sure to all the seed, "not only to that which is of the law, but to that also which is of the faith of Abraham, who is the father of us all." Rom. 4:16.

Abraham was by faith so much a stranger (Heb. 11:9) that, on the death of Sarah, he had to buy a piece of ground of the children of Heth, to secure a sepulchre in the land. Gen. 23. He was so careful that Isaac should not marry one of the daughters of the Canaanites that he sent his servant (Eliezer perhaps) to his own kindred to seek a bride for Isaac, being convinced that God would send His angel and prosper the mission, which resulted in Rebecca being the wife of Isaac. Gen. 24.

Abraham had another wife, Keturah, and concubines by whom he had sons; but to these he gave gifts and sent them eastward, so that Isaac and his seed might peacefully dwell in the promised land. Abraham died at the age of 175, and was buried with Sarah.

The history of Abraham in Genesis divides itself into three parts. a. Gen. 12 - 14., his public walk and testimony as called of God. b. Gen. 15 - 21., his private and domestic history with God, illustrating the growth of  soul, etc. c. Gen. 22 - 25. give in type a prophetical outline of events: namely, the sacrifice of Christ;  the setting aside of Israel for a time; the call of the bride; and the final settlement of the nations in blessing in the end of the days.

The nation of Israel was descended from Abraham, and we know how zealously they contended for the relationship, though alas, they had not and have not the same faith. Still the land was given to them, and when God's set time comes they will surely be brought back to their 'fatherland' and after trial and discipline will be blessed therein.

Abraham being the father of Ishmael and the other sons sent into the East it is not to be wondered at that he is a personage of universal fame in that immense quarter of the world, and that there are numerous traditions concerning him. It can hardly be doubted that their relationship to Abraham will yet be found in their favour during the millennium when the promise that his seed should be 'as the sand of the sea shore' will have its fulfilment.

To the Christian the life of this patriarch is worthy of the deepest attention, in view of the varied manifestations whereby God revealed Himself to him, whether in the formation of his character under those manifestations, or in the Christian's connections with him in the way of faith, or with respect to the unconditional promises made to him as to the possession of the land of Palestine both in the past and in the future.

Abraham's Bosom.

Abraham their forefather was believed by the Jews to be in the highest place of happiness, and their writings show that 'to be with Abraham' and to be in his bosom were terms they used to express the highest security and happiness. Our Lord therefore used an expression that was well understood by His hearers and needed no explanation. Luke 16:23. It stands in contrast to hell, or hades, and was therefore figurative of heaven.

Abram. [A'bram]


Absalom. [Ab'salom]

The third son of David, by Maacah, daughter of Talmai, king of Geshur. He was remarkable for his beauty and his luxuriant hair. 2 Sam. 14:25-26. Because of his putting his half-brother Amnon to death he fled from his father and remained at Geshur three years. By the instigation of Joab, Absalom was recalled, but not admitted into the presence of his father until a later period. (This reconciliation was effected at the expense of righteousness, and without any repentance on Absalom's part — a total contrast to God's ministry of reconciliation. 2 Cor. 5:18-20; etc.) It was declared to David that his successor was not yet born. 2 Sam. 7:12 This was told to David by Nathan the prophet, and probably became known to Absalom. Amnon being dead, and perhaps Chileab, his two elder brothers, he might naturally have thought that the throne should have descended to him, and this may have led to his treason. By artful acts of condescension he stole the hearts of the people, and then at Hebron he claimed to be king, and met with much encouragement. The rebellion was so strong that David fled from Jerusalem. Absalom entered the city and was joined by Amasa and Ahithophel. The latter advised Absalom to go in publicly to the concubines of David who were left at Jerusalem, that all hopes of a reconciliation might be abandoned — though this had been foretold as a punishment to David. 2 Sam. 12:11. By the advice of Hushai the further counsel of Ahithophel of an immediate pursuit was set aside, and David had time to collect an army, and reach a place of safety. A war followed, and Absalom in riding through a wood, was caught by his head in the branches of an oak, and was there put to death by Joab. David's grief was extreme, but he was recalled to his duties by Joab. We read that Absalom had three sons and a daughter, 2 Sam. 14:27, yet that because he had no son left he raised up a pillar in the king's dale, to keep his name in remembrance: it was called ABSALOM'S PLACE or monument. 2 Sam. 18:18. A building in the valley of the Kedron partly rock-hewn, is called Absalom's tomb ; but it can have nothing to do with the above 'pillar' unless it has been much added to with comparatively modern architecture. Josephus says that in his day there was an object called Absalom's 'pillar' about 2 stadia from Jerusalem. Apparently Absalom is called ABISHALOM in 1 Kings 15:2; cf. 2 Chr. 11:21.





Accad. [Ac'cad]

Nimrod's kingdom embraced Babel, Erech, Accad and Calneh in the land of Shinar. Gen. 10:10. The ruins of Accad cannot now be identified with certainty. In the Assyrian inscriptions however a city is named Akkad. which was doubtless the same and there is a remarkable mound some 50 miles N.N.W. of Babylon about 33 25' N, 44 15' E, called Akker-koof, and known to the Arabs as Akker-i-Nimrood or Tell-Nimrood. It is about 400 feet in circumference and 125 feet high, composed of sun-dried bricks, reeds, bitumen etc. Some believe this to have been the ancient Accad; but others think it must have been farther south. "The Accadians had been the inventors of the pictorial hieroglyphics, which afterwards developed into the cuneiform or wedge-shape system of writing. They had founded the great cities of Chaldea and had attained to a high degree of culture and civilisation."- Dr. Sayce. An inscription has been found showing the Accadian transition from the hieroglyphic to the wedge-shape letters; and others with the latter interlined with the Babylonian or Assyrian dialect. The Accadian was the principal dialect spoken by the primitive inhabitants of Babylonia, and in which some of their ancient legends are inscribed. It became eventually the learned language of the kingdom, as Latin became in the West.

Acceptable year of the Lord.

The Lord Jesus at the beginning of His ministry entered into the synagogue at Nazareth, and on the prophecy by Isaiah being handed to Him read from Isaiah 61, the passage, "The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because he hath anointed me to preach the gospel to the poor; he hath sent me to heal the broken-hearted, to preach deliverance to the captives, and recovering of sight to the blind, to set at liberty them that are bruised, to preach the acceptable year of the Lord " — leaving off in the middle of a sentence, for the next words are, "and the day of vengeance of our God" Luke 4:18-19; Isa. 61:1-2. The Lord added, "This day is this scripture fulfilled in your ears." The vengeance will be executed for the deliverance of Israel in a coming day; but when our Lord spoke there was the fullest grace for his hearers: it was the acceptable year of Jehovah. There may be an allusion to the year of Jubilee (type of the millennium) when servants were liberated, debts cancelled, and when family possessions were restored to their original owners. But the grace vouchsafed by the Lord brought lasting blessings for their souls.


This means being 'brought into favour.' As God is holy, and man is a sinner, he can only be brought into acceptance by means of a Mediator, the Lord Jesus Christ. To effect this the Lord had to die, to vindicate the justice of God, and atone for the sins of those who believe. In Him risen and glorified the believer is brought into favour according to the value before God of Christ's person and work, wherefore the apostle says, "to the praise of the glory of his grace wherein he hath made us accepted in the beloved." Eph. 1:6. It is then a fact that the Christian is accepted or brought into favour in the Lord Jesus Christ: cf. Rom. 5:2. How far his spirit and conduct is acceptable or well-pleasing to God is entirely a different question. 2 Cor. 5:9 should read "We labour that whether present or absent we may be acceptable to him." Being accepted we should be zealous that in all things our ways may be well-pleasing to God.

Accho. [Ac'cho]

A seaport in the Mediterranean, about 30 miles south of Tyre. It was assigned to Asher, but it was one of the places they failed to possess. It is mentioned in the O.T. only in Judges 1:31. After the dismemberment of the Macedonian empire Accho could not fail to excite attention in the numerous contests that took place during the Era of the Ptolemies: by one of whom it was gained and was called PTOLEMAIS. By this latter name it is frequently referred to in the books of Maccabees and by Josephus. In Acts 21:7 also we read that Paul sailed to Ptolemais. It was made a Roman colony by the emperor Claudius and named Colonia Claudii Caesaris. It was besieged and taken by the Crusaders, who called it ACRE and ST. JEAN D'ACRE on account of the knights of St. John of Jerusalem. In 1799 it was held by the English against Napoleon, who was defeated. Notwithstanding all these changes it retains its ancient name, and is still called Acco. An ancient coin gives the name in Greek letters AKE. It lies in the north of the bay of Acre, 32 55' N, 35 4' E. The population is 40,000 of which two-thirds are Jews [AD2000], this compares with about 5,000 in AD1800, of which 2,250 males were Muslims and Druzes, and about 800 Christians and Jews.



Accuser, The,

ὁ κατήγορος A title given to Satan when he is cast down to the earth, because he had accused the brethren before God day and night. Rev. 12:10: cf. Zech. 3:1.

Aceldama. [Acel'dama]

The word Ἀκελδαμα, 'field of blood,' is Aramaic expressed in Greek letters, the word being differently spelt in different MSS. The field was bought with the money paid to Judas for betraying his Lord but which he in despair could not keep. In that sense he bought the field, Acts 1:18-19; whereas it was really purchased by the chief priests, Matt. 27:6-8; cf. Zech. 11:12. The traditional spot is on the slope of the hill south of Jerusalem, where there is a ruined structure, long used as a charnel-house. It is some 20 feet deep, with a few decaying bones at the bottom. Tradition says that the bodies were thrown into it, and that the soil possessed the power to consume them in 24 hours. Shiploads of the earth were carried away to form European burial grounds in the time of the Crusades. The soil cretaceous would favour the decomposition of the bodies.

Achaia. [Acha'ia]

This with Macedonia embraced the whole of Greece in the N.T.; but with the poets Achaia often referred to the whole of Greece. Under the Romans it was divided into two districts, Achaia being a senatorial province. Tiberias united the two districts into an imperial province under procurators; but Claudius again restored it to the senate under a proconsul, so that Luke was correct in calling Gallio a proconsul (ἀνθύπατος) or deputy. Acts 18:12; Acts 19:21; Rom. 15:26; 1 Cor. 16:15, etc.

Achaicus. [Acha'icus]

A Christian who, with Stephanas and Fortunatus, visited Paul at Ephesus, by whom the apostle was refreshed in spirit. 1 Cor. 16:17. The subscription to the epistle states that it was sent to Corinth by the above three and Timotheus.

Achan, [A'chan] Achar.

Son of Carmi, of the tribe of Judah, who on the fall of Jericho kept some of its spoil, against the express command of Jehovah, hence called 'the accursed thing,' and was stoned to death with his family, and with his possessions burned with fire. Joshua 7:1. Called ACHAR, in 1 Chr. 2:7. All Israel were punished until the sin was discovered and avenged; showing in type that there cannot be evil in an assembly of Christians without all being involved.

Achaz. [A'chaz]


Achbor. [Ach'bor]

1.  An Edomite, the father of Baal-hanan. Gen. 36:38-39; 1 Chr. 1:49.

2. Son of Michaiah and servant of Josiah. 2 Kings 22:12, 14; Jer. 26:22; Jer. 36:12: called  ABDON, the son of Micah, in 2 Chr. 34:20.

Achim. [A'chim]

Son or descendant of Sadoc, and father of Eliud: the name occurs only in Matt. 1:14.

Achish. [A'chish]

1.  The Philistine king of Gath with whom David twice took shelter from Saul. The first time the servants of Achish reminded him that of David it had been said that he had slain his ten thousands. When David heard this he was afraid and feigned himself mad, and Achish sent him away. 1 Sam. 21:10-15. Psalm 34 was composed on this occasion, as we learn from its heading, in which Achish is called Abimelech. This has given occasion for critics to doubt its authenticity. But 'Abimelech' was used as a title rather than a proper name of the kings of the Philistines, as Pharaoh was of the kings of Egypt. The second occasion was when David's heart failed him, and he said, "I shall now perish one day by the hand of Saul." Achish dealt well with David, gave him Ziklag to dwell in, and would have had him go to war with him against Israel, saying, "I will make thee keeper of my head for ever" 1 Sam. 27; 1 Sam. 28:2. The lords of the Philistines however objected, and Achish begged David to return. See DAVID.

2.  Another king of Gath, to whom the servants of Shimei fled, which led to Shimei's death. 1 Kings 2:39-40.

Achmetha. [Ach'metha]

This reads in the margin, "Ecbatana, or, in a coffer.' Ezra 6:2. The LXX do not treat it as a proper name: the passage there reads "And there was found in the city (πόλει), in the palace, a volume." The Vulgate has "Et inventum est in Ecbatanis." Apparently history alludes to two cities named Ecbatana: one associated with the ruins at Takht-i-Suleiman, 36 28' N, 47 18' E<.a>; the other identified with the modern Hamadan, 34 48' N, 48 26' E, anciently the summer residence of Persian kings, and where the records of the kingdom were apparently kept. This is most probably the Achmetha of scripture. Travellers state that the Jews exhibit a tomb in their charge in the midst of the city, which is the reputed tomb of Mordecai and Esther.

Achor, [A'chor] Valley of.

Achor signifies 'trouble,' and was the place where Achan was stoned for having troubled Israel by taking the accursed thing. Joshua 7:26. The valley was between Jericho and Ai, on the border of the tribe of Judah. Identified with Wady Kelt 31 50' N, 35 24' E. It will be a door of hope to Israel — putting away evil from among themselves, national self-judgement — in the future when they call to mind that it was there that God's judgement began to fall on them, followed by blessing: so the tribulation of the latter day will usher in blessing. Hosea 2:15; Isa. 65:10.

Achsa, [Ach'sa] Achsah. [Ach'sah]

Daughter of Caleb, whom he promised as wife to him who should take Kirjath-sepher. Othniel, nephew of Caleb, took it, and Achsa became his wife. At her request for springs of water Caleb gave her the upper springs and the nether springs for the quickening of dry ground. Joshua 15:16-19; Judges 1:12-15; 1 Chr. 2:49. The springs are symbolical of Christ in glory, and the Holy Spirit here, object and power of life with God.

Achshaph. [Ach'shaph]

A city on the border of Asher's lot. It is named between Beten and Alammelech. Joshua 19:25. Its king was among the thirty and one kings slain by the children of Israel, he having risen with others to oppose the division of the land. Joshua 11:1; Joshua 12:20. It has been identified with Kefr Yasif, 32 57' N, 35 10' E.

Achzib. [Ach'zib]

1.  City of Judah, Joshua 15:44; Micah 1:14: probably the same that is called elsewhere CHEZIB and perhaps CHOZEBA. Identified with Ain Kezbeh, 31 42' N, 35 E.

2. City in the lot of Asher, but from which the inhabitants were not driven out. Joshua 19:29; Judges 1:31. Identified with ez-Zib, a town on the Mediterranean coast, 33 3' N, 35 6' E.


This word, as a measure of land, occurs twice in the Authorised version. In 1 Sam. 14:14, the word is maanah, 'a furrow,' reading in the margin 'half a furrow of an acre.' In Isa. 5:10 it is tsemed, 'a pair, or yoke' The 'acre' was as much as a yoke of oxen would plough in a day. The Latin etymology is similar: thus jugum a yoke; jugerum an acre. The Roman acre contained 28,800 square feet (being 240 feet in length by 120 in breadth), which is less than two-thirds of an English acre, which contains 43,560 square feet. "The Egyptian land measure," says Wilkinson, "was the aroura, or arura, a square of 100 cubits, covering an area of 10,000 cubits . . . . . It contained 29,184 square English feet (the cubit being full 20-1/2 inches) and was little more than three quarters of an English acre." What the Jewish acre exactly contained we have no means of ascertaining: it is not included in the usual lists of weights and measures as a definite measure of land. The passage in Isa. 5:10: "ten acres of vineyard shall yield one bath" clearly refers to a time of great dearth which Jehovah would send upon Israel in judgement.

Acts of the Apostles.

The introduction to this book compared with the introduction to the gospel by Luke makes it plain that the two were written by the same person. The Acts ends with the two years' imprisonment of the apostle Paul at Rome: it could not therefore have been written before the end of that time, and was probably written very soon afterwards or it would have given the issue of Paul's trial. This would place the date about A.D. 63.

The 'Acts' forms a link between the Gospels and the Epistles, as the ascension of Christ formed a link between the Gospels and the Acts. It occupies a sort of transition time, for though the church was soon formed, the doctrine of the church was not made known until Paul's epistles. The title, 'Acts of the Apostles,' might have led us to expect a more general account of the labours of all the Twelve; but their mission in the ways of God is superseded by that of Paul, both as minister of the gospel of the glory of Christ, and of the church. A wise selection of the fruits of apostolic energy has been made, verifying some things stated in the Gospels, and forming an indispensable introduction to the Epistles.

After the ascension of the Lord, and the choosing an apostle to fill the place of Judas, the first great event recorded is the day of Pentecost. The Lord had said, "I will build my church," Matt. 16:18 ; and the descent of the Holy Spirit on the day of Pentecost is the answer to the question, when did the incorporation of the church begin? 1 Cor. 12:13 proves that it was by the gift of the Holy Spirit, though, as it has been said, the doctrine of the church was not revealed till afterwards.

Ananias was charged with lying to the Holy Spirit, by whom God was then dwelling in the church. Our Lord had promised that on His departure He would send them another Comforter, the Holy Spirit, to abide with and be in them. This also was fulfilled at Pentecost. Peter, Stephen, etc. were full of the Holy Spirit: cf. Acts 4:31.

After this another call was made to Israel to receive Jesus as the Christ. They had killed the Prince of life, but God had raised Him from the dead, and now in mercy and on the ground of their ignorance one more appeal was made to them to repent and be converted that their sins might be blotted out, and that God might send again Jesus Christ who was then in heaven. The rulers however were grieved that they preached by Jesus the resurrection from among the dead, and commanded Peter and John not to speak or teach in the name of Jesus. Stephen, being accused before the Sanhedrim, rehearsed the history of Israel from the beginning, and charged them with resisting the Holy Spirit, as their fathers had done. The indictment of Israel as man in the flesh, and the exposure of his enmity to God led to the final sin of rejecting the glorified Christ, expressed by the stoning of Stephen who calling upon the Lord not to lay the sin to their charge, exemplified the life of Christ in his body.

This ends the first phase of the acts of the Holy Spirit, and clears the way for the going out of the gospel and the revelation of the truth of the church. The persecution that followed led to the spread of the gospel. Philip preached Christ to the Samaritans and many believed. Peter went from Jerusalem, laid his hands upon them and they received the Holy Spirit. Peter was then used at Caesarea in opening the door to the Gentiles (answering to his having the keys of the kingdom committed to him, Matt. 16:19), and they also received the Holy Spirit.

In the meantime Saul had been converted, and immediately preached that Jesus was the Son of God. The churches had rest, and walking in the fear of the Lord and comfort of the Holy Spirit, were multiplied. Acts 9:31. Herod Agrippa however soon began to persecute the church; he killed James the brother of John, and put Peter into prison, who was however miraculously delivered. Herod died a miserable death; and the word of God grew and multiplied. Acts 12. This ends the phase of the church's history in connection with the remnant of Israel.

Antioch, instead of Jerusalem, now became a centre of evangelisation, independent of apostolic authority, yet without breaking the unity of the Spirit by forming a separate church. Barnabas and Saul are separated to the work by the Holy Spirit, and with John Mark take a missionary journey.

Certain persons from Judaea insisting at Antioch that the Gentile converts must be circumcised or they could not be saved, the question was referred to the church at Jerusalem. In their decision they could say, "It seemed good to the Holy Ghost, and to us, to lay upon you no greater burden than these necessary things: that ye abstain from meats offered to idols, and from blood, and from things strangled, and from fornication: from which if ye keep yourselves ye shall do well. Fare ye well." Acts 15:28-29.

Paul with Silas took a second missionary journey, extending to Europe and returned to Antioch. Acts 18:22. From thence Paul went a third journey. (For the particulars of these journeys and from whence Paul wrote some of his epistles, see the article PAUL.) It may be noted that while at Ephesus, because of the opposition of the Jews in the synagogues, Paul separated the disciples and they met in a building distinct from the synagogue, commencing a further development of the church's history. Acts 19:9.

At the close of the third missionary journey Paul, led by deep spiritual affection for his nation, but forbidden by the Spirit in whose energy the ministry entrusted to him had hitherto been carried out, went up to Jerusalem, where he was arrested. The rest of the book details his trials and danger from the Jews; his journey to Rome, where he calls together the chief of the Jews, to whom he preaches Jesus. We read no more of any of his labours, and the Acts leaves him a prisoner.

The book embraces a period of about thirty years: the mystery of the church, and the gospel of the glory committed to Paul, as well as the state of the assemblies must be gathered from the Epistles. During the above period Paul wrote the two epistles to the Thessalonians, the two to the Corinthians, to the Galatians, Romans, Colossians, Philemon, Ephesians, and Philippians.

Acts of Pilate.


Adadah. [Ad'adah]

Town in the most southern part of Judah's possessions, Joshua 15:22, identified by some with Adadah in the desert S.E. of Beersheba.

Adah. [A'dah]

1.  One of the two wives of Lamech, and the mother of Jabal and Jubal. Gen. 4:19-20, 23.

2. One of the wives of Esau, daughter of Elon the Hittite and thus 'a daughter of Canaan:' she bare to Esau his first-born son Eliphaz, who became the father of seven of the dukes of Edom. Gen. 36:2, 4, 15, 16. See BASHEMATH.

Adaiah. [Adai'ah]

1.  Father of Jedidah and grandfather of Josiah, king of Judah. 2 Kings 22:1.

2.  Son of Ethan, a Gershonite. 1 Chr. 4:41.

3.  One of the sons of Shimhi. 1 Chr. 8:21.

4.  Son of Jeroham. 1 Chr. 9:12.

5. Father of Maaseiah a "captain of hundreds." 2 Chr. 23:1.

6,7.   Two who had married strange wives. Ezra 10:29, 39.

8.  One whose descendants returned from exile and dwelt in Jerusalem. Neh. 11:5.

9.  One who returned from exile, and did the work of the house of the Lord. Neh. 11:12.

Adalia. [Ada'lia]

Son of Haman, slain and hanged. Esther 9:8, 13.

Adam. [Ad'am]

The first man. The name is supposed to be derived from Adamah, 'earth, or red earth,' agreeing with the fact that "the Lord God formed man of the dust of the ground, Gen. 2:7. He differed from all other creatures, because God breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, by which man became a living soul. He differed also in being made after the image and likeness of God: he was God's representative on earth, and to him was given dominion over all other living things, and he gave them names. He was placed in the garden of Eden to dress it and to keep it, showing that occupation was a good thing for man even in innocence. God said also that it was not good for man to be alone, so He caused him to sleep, took from him a rib, and of this 'builded' a woman. Adam called her Isha for she was taken out of Ish, man: the two being a type of Christ and the church, in the closest union: cf. Eph. 5:31-32.

Adam and Eve were permitted to eat of all the trees of the garden except the tree of the knowledge of good and evil: of the which if they ate, in the same day they should die. Eve, being beguiled by Satan, ate of that tree; and at her suggestion, though not deceived as Eve was, Adam also took of it. Their eyes were at once opened, they knew they were naked, and hid themselves from God. They were transgressors, had fallen from their state of innocence, and acquired a conscience, and with it the sense of their own evil and guilt. When questioned by God, Adam laid the blame on Eve, ungratefully saying, "the woman whom thou gavest to be with me, she gave me of the tree, and I did eat." The ground was then cursed for Adam's sake: in sorrow he should eat of it all his life: thorns and thistles should be produced, and in the sweat of his face he should eat bread.

God made for Adam and Eve coats of skins and clothed them, foreshadowing the need for a vicarious sacrifice, and the righteousness that could only come to them through death. They were driven from the garden, and Cherubim with a flaming sword prevented them re-entering, lest they should eat of the tree of life and live for ever in their sin. Adam did not beget a son until after his fall: hence all mankind are alike fallen creatures. Acts 17:26; Rom. 5:18-19; 1 Cor. 15:22. Adam lived 930 years and begat sons and daughters. We have no details of the life of Adam as a fallen man. Viewed typically as head of a race he stands in marked contrast to Christ, the last Adam.

Adam, [Ad'am] the Last.

In contrast to the first man, Adam, who was made a living soul, the last Adam, the Lord Jesus Christ, was a life-giving Spirit: the first was natural; the second spiritual: the first man was of the earth, earthy; the second Man was out of heaven. 1 Cor. 15:45-47. Everything committed to man having failed in Adam, Christ as last Adam becomes the head of a new and redeemed race. He is the last Adam because there will be no other: every man must come under one of these two headships: the first Adam, man; or the last Adam, Christ: cf. 1 Cor. 15:22; Ps. 8:3-9; Heb. 2:6-9.

Adam. [Ad'am]

A town near the Jordan, named only in Joshua 3:16, which should read "a heap very far off, by [or at] Adam, the city that is beside Zaretan." The waters of death were heaped at Adam as if to teach the death of the first man at the passage of the Jordan. Adam is identified with ed Damieh, 32 7' N, 35 33' E. If this is correct, the waters were piled up some 20 miles from where the Israelites crossed. See JORDAN.

Adamah. [Ad'amah]

One of the fenced cities in the lot of Naphtali. Joshua 19:36. It has been associated with Damieh, 32 45' N, 35 27' E; but this would appear to be in Zebulun's lot.


shamir. Ezek. 3:9; Zech. 7:12. Though once translated 'diamond,' Jer. 17:1, it is used symbolically of extreme hardness, 'harder than a flint.' The word is translated 'briars' and signifies any 'sharp point:' hence a diamond point, or anything hard.

Adami. [Ad'ami]

Place on the borders of Naphtali. Joshua 19:33. Some early writers say it was afterwards called Damin. It is identified with Adamah, 32 38' N, 35 32' E.

Adar. [A'dar]


Adar. [A'dar]

Place on the southern border of Palestine, in the lot of Judah. Joshua 15:3. In Num. 34:4 it is called HAZAR-ADDAR. It is unknown.

Adbeel. [Ad'beel]

Son of Ishmael and one of the "twelve princes according to their generations." Gen. 25:13; 1 Chr. 1:29. There is no trace of a nation bearing this name, nor of any place named after him.

Addan. [Ad'dan]

One of the places from which certain persons returned to the land who "could not show their father's house and their seed, whether they were of Israel." Ezra 2:59. In the parallel passage in Neh. 7:61, it is ADDON.

Addar. [Ad'dar]

Son of Bela and grandson of Benjamin. 1 Chr. 8:3. The same as ARD in Gen. 46:21; Num. 26:40.


There are four words thus translated.

1.  akshub. Ps. 140:3. This word occurs but once, and simply compares the wicked to adders who have 'poison under their lips.' It cannot be identified.

2.  pethen. Ps. 58:4; Ps. 91:13, reading in the margin of both 'asp.' The wicked are compared to the deaf adder that stoppeth her ears. There is an old tradition that the adder sometimes laid one ear in the dust and covered the other with its tail; but they have no external ears: that all known adders can hear is well attested by those called serpent charmers, though some species are more easily attracted than others. The above name is held to point to the deadly Cobra. The same Hebrew word is translated 'asp' in Deut. 32:33; Job 20:14, 16; Isa. 11:8, simply pointing to it as poisonous or dangerous.

3. tsiphoni. This is only once translated 'adder' in the text, Prov. 23:32, but is four times translated 'cockatrice,' in Isa. 11:8; Isa. 14:29; Isa. 59:5, referring to its poison, and Jer. 8:17 to the fact that it will not be charmed, but will bite. This is supposed to be the 'yellow viper' of Palestine, which lurks in dens, and whose poison is deadly. It is said to resist the arts of the serpent charmers. The cockatrice was a fabulous creature, and was perhaps adopted by the translators to designate some unknown deadly snake.

4. shephiphon. Gen. 49:17. This is identified with the Cerastes, or horned viper, so called because of having two short horns on its head. It is a small destructive snake, rarely more than two feet long. It is called in the margin 'an arrow-snake.' It lies in holes or ruts and darts upon an animal passing: and this well agrees with the above text, where Dan is compared to "an adder in the path that biteth the horse heels, so that his rider shall fall backward:" typical of apostasy and the power of Satan.

Addi. [Ad'di]

Descendant of Cosam in the genealogy of the Lord Jesus. Luke 3:28. The name cannot be traced in the Old Testament.

Addon. [Ad'don]


Ader. [A'der]

Son of Beriah, a descendant of Benjamin. 1 Chr. 8:15.

Adiel. [A'diel]

1.  Descendant of Simeon. 1 Chr. 4:36.

2.  Priest, son of Jahzerah. 1 Chr. 9:12.

3.  Father of Azmaveth. 1 Chr. 27:25.

Adin. [A'din]

One or more whose descendants returned from exile. Ezra 2:15; Ezra 8:6; Neh. 7:20; Neh. 10:16.

Adina. [Ad'ina]

Reubenite, one of David's captains. 1 Chr. 11:42.

Adino. [Ad'ino]

"The Tachmonite that sat in the seat, chief among the captains; the same was Adino the Eznite." 2 Sam. 23:8. In 1 Chr. 11:11 the chief of the captains is Jashobeam an Hachmonite, or son of Hachmoni, margin. The passage in Samuel reads in the margin "Joshebbassebet the Tachmonite, head of the three." It is difficult to reconcile the two passages. Some think that Jashobeam and Joshebbassebet are the same name — one being varied by the copyist. Those who take the passage in Samuel to be incorrect, make "Adino the Eznite" not a proper name, but 'he swung his spear.' Fürst takes Adino to be a proper name, and so do the LXX. The two passages may refer to different persons. It will be noted that Jashobeam is said to have killed three hundred men, and Adino killed eight hundred. The former also is named in connection with David's coming into power, and the latter in connection with 'the last words of David.' Jashobeam may therefore have died and Adino become chief in his place. That the two passages are not meant for lists of the 'first three' at the same period seems evident by Shammah, one of the three, being named in Samuel only.

Adithaim. [Aditha'im]

Town in the tribe of Judah. Joshua 15:36. It cannot be identified.


A solemn charge by one in authority to another to speak the truth under the obligation of an oath, as when Ahab adjured Micaiah, 1 Kings 22:16, and when the high priest adjured our Lord. Matt. 26:63. Also binding a person under a curse to do or not to do the thing enjoined, as in Joshua 6:26; 1 Sam. 14:24: cf. also Mark 5:7; Acts 19:13. Also a 'solemn charge,' as in 1 Thess. 5:27, in the margin.

Adlai. [Ad'lai]

Father of Shaphat, one of David's chief shepherds. 1 Chr. 27:29.

Admah. [Ad'mah]

One of the cities in the plains of Jordan destroyed with Sodom and. Gomorrah. Deut. 29:23. It was subject to Chedorlaomer, king of Elam, but its king revolted. In the war that followed all were carried away including Lot, but Abraham pursued and recovered all. Gen. 10:19; Gen. 14:8. Jehovah, when speaking of His fierce anger against Ephraim said, "How shall I make thee as Admah?" Hosea 11:8.

Admatha. [Ad'matha]

One of the seven princes of Persia and Media. Esther 1:14.

Adna. [Ad'na]

1.  One of the sons of Pahath-moab who had married a strange wife. Ezra 10:30.

2.  A priest of the family of Harim. Neh. 12:15.

Adnah. [Ad'nah]

1.  One of the captains of thousands, of the tribe of Manasseh, who joined David in Ziklag. 1 Chr. 12:20.

2.  The chief of the captains of thousands in the reign of Jehoshaphat. 2 Chr. 17:14.

Adonai. [Ad'onai]

See GOD.


[Adoni-be'zek] King of Bezek, as the name implies, a Canaanitish city. He was taken captive by Judah, and they cut off his thumbs and great toes. He confessed that this was a righteous judgement upon him, because he had done the same to seventy kings, whom he made to gather their food under his table. Judges 1:5-7.

Adonijah. [Adoni'jah]

1.  Fourth son of David by Haggith, born at Hebron. 2 Sam. 3:4. He was apparently the oldest of David's sons at the close of David's life, and may have supposed that he would succeed to the throne; but without consulting his father he said, "I will be king," and both Joab and Abiathar helped him. David at once proclaimed Solomon as king. Adonijah ran in fear to the horns of the altar, but Solomon promised if he showed himself a worthy man he should not be hurt. He afterwards asked to have as wife Abishag with whom David had shared his bed. According to Herodotus (3. 68) this was in eastern countries considered as a pretension to the crown, which agrees with Solomon saying, 'Ask for him the kingdom also,' and explains also the advice given by Ahithophel to Absalom, to go in publicly to his father's wives. Adonijah was at once put to death. 1 Kings 2:19-25.

2.  Levite in the time of Jehoshaphat. 2 Chr. 17:8.

3.  One who sealed the covenant in Neh. 10:16.

Adonikam. [Adoni'kam]

One or more whose descendants returned from exile. Ezra 2:13; Ezra 8:13; Neh. 7:18.

Adoniram. [Adoni'ram]

Chief over the tribute in the days of Solomon. 1 Kings 4:6; 1 Kings 5:14. In David's time ADORAM was over the tribute, 2 Sam. 20:24, and in the days of Rehoboam also a person of this name was over the tribute, 1 Kings 12:18, which Gesenius and others take to be a contracted form of Adoniram, and to refer to the same person. Apparently the Adoram mentioned in 1 Kings 12:18 is called HADORAM in 2 Chr. 10:18. All Israel stoned him to death at the revolt of the ten tribes. If Adoniram held office from David to Rehoboam it would embrace a long period; still it may be the same throughout, or father and son.

Adonizedec. [Adoni-ze'dec]

The Canaanitish king of Jerusalem. Hearing of the destruction of Ai, he called four kings to his aid to punish Gibeon for making peace with Israel. Gibeon sent to Joshua for help and the five kings were overcome. They took shelter in a cave but were taken from thence, and, after the captains of Israel had placed their feet on their necks, they were slain. Joshua 10:1-27. Letters from Adonizedec entreating the king of Egypt to send soldiers to defend him from the Abiri (Hebrews) have been found among the Tell Amarna Tablets (see under EGYPT) These letters give a vivid account, from a Canaanitish point of view, of the wars which took place when Joshua took possession of the land.


The word is υἱοθεσία, the adoption of sons, or the placing of persons in the position of sons, with all the privileges attaching thereto. Examples of this in a natural way are seen in the O.T. in Moses being an adopted son of the daughter of Pharaoh, Ex. 2:10, and Esther being adopted by her cousin Mordecai, Esther 2:7. In a higher sense Israel was the adopted son of God. Moses was instructed to say to Pharaoh, "Thus saith Jehovah, Israel is my son, even my firstborn." Ex. 4:22 : cf. also Deut. 14:1; Isa. 43:6. So that Paul, when enumerating the privileges of Israel, could say that to them pertained the 'adoption.' Rom. 9:4. In a much higher sense, since redemption has been wrought, those who believe in the Lord Jesus Christ are in the new creation sons by adoption, and the Spirit of God's Son is given them so that they can call God Abba Father, and not only be sons but know and enjoy the relationship with all its blessed privileges. Gal. 4:5-6. The Christian receives the spirit of adoption, the Holy Ghost bearing witness with his spirit that he is a child of God. Not that he enters into the full blessedness of being God's son until the future; for we who have the first-fruits of the Spirit groan within ourselves waiting for the adoption — the redemption of our body. Rom. 8:15-23. All this is certain as to believers, for having been chosen in Christ Jesus they have been predestinated unto adoption by Jesus Christ to Himself according to the good pleasure of His will. Eph. 1:4-5.

Adoraim. [Adora'im]

Fortified city built by Rehoboam. 2 Chr. 11:9. It is identified with Dura, a large village which lies to the west of Hebron, 31 31' N, 35 1' E.

Adoram. [Ado'ram]



This word does not occur in the Authorised Version, but there are several attitudes described that form part of the outward acts of adoration which may be well considered under this title, leaving inward adoration to the article on WORSHIP. The homage given may be to God, to the Lord Jesus, to an idol, or by one man to another.

1.  Bowing, bowing down. "O come, let us worship and bow down." Ps. 95:6. It was forbidden to be paid to images, Ex. 20:5, but was often done. Num. 25:2. Joseph's brethren bowed down before him. Gen. 42:6.

2.  Kneeling, bowing the knee. To God. Isa. 45:23; Eph. 3:14. To the Lord Jesus every knee shall bow, even those under the earth. Phil. 2:10: it was done in mockery, Mark. 15:19; and in sincerity, Matt. 17:14. To Joseph, Gen. 41:43. 3.

3.  Falling down before. Demanded by Nebuchadnezzar in honour of his image, Dan. 3:5; requested by Satan, at the temptation of our Lord, Matt. 4:9; paid to the Lord when an infant by the wise men, and often in the Gospels, Matt. 2:11; Mark 5:33; Luke 5:8; John 11:32; and in heaven by the elders to God and the Lord Jesus, Rev. 4:10; Rev. 5:8, 14; Rev. 19:4.

4.  Kissing. In idolatry, 1 Kings 19:18; Hosea 13:2. To the sun and moon by kissing the hand, Job 31:26-27. (Tacitus, Hist. iii. 24, says that in Syria they salute the rising sun; and that this was done by kissing the hand.) All the above actions are portrayed on ancient monuments. The word 'worship' in the Authorised Version of the N.T. often signifies 'homage,' such as one man gives to another in authority, or to one he wishes to honour, rather than 'worship' in the sense which that word now conveys.

Adrammelech. [Adram'melech]

1.  The god of the Sepharvites, to whom they burnt their children, placed in one of the houses of the high places among the Samaritans. 2 Kings 17:31. A sort of Adar-Mars, i.e., sun-god, who was regarded as a destroying being (Fürst).

2.  One of the sons of Sennacherib who smote his father with the sword and then fled to the land of Armenia. 2 Kings 19:37; Isa. 37:38.

Adramyttium. [Adramyt'tium]

The place to which the ship belonged in which Paul sailed as a prisoner. Acts 27:2. It lies in Mysia, Asia Minor, 39 35' N, 27 2' E. Its present name is Adramyt, and it is still a seaport town.

Adria. [A'dria]

The Adriatic Sea, wherein Paul was 'driven up and down' and afterwards shipwrecked. Acts 27:27. The term 'Adriatic' is now confined to the sea that lies between Italy and Dalmatia and Albania; but formerly it had a wider signification and included that part of the Mediterranean which was bounded by Sicily, Italy, Greece and Africa. The difference is of importance inasmuch as Malta (Melita) where Paul was shipwrecked is not within the present Adriatic Sea, though it is within that which was formerly called so. Attention to this would have prevented objectors calling in question Paul's being shipwrecked at Malta.

Adriel. [A'driel]

Son of Barzillai, the Meholathite to whom Merab, Saul's daughter, was given to wife, after having been promised to David. 1 Sam. 18:19. She bare Adriel five sons, and these were given up to death to avenge the Gibeonites because Saul had slain some of them. In 2 Sam. 21:8 these are said to be the "sons of Michal [or Michal's sister, margin] the daughter of Saul, whom she brought up for Adriel." These were doubtless the sons of Merab and not of Michal: translators are agreed that it should be translated 'bare to Adriel,' as it reads in the margin, and not 'brought up.' It seems therefore most probable that the name Michal is here the mistake of an early copyist, and the passage should read, "the five sons of Merab the daughter of Saul, whom she bare unto Adriel;" or it might originally have stood, "the five sons of the daughter of Saul whom she bare to Adriel," and some one unadvisedly added Michal in the margin which afterwards found its way into the text.

Adullam. [Adul'lam]

One of the royal cities of Canaan, afterwards part of Judah's lot. Joshua 12:15; Joshua 15:35. It was rebuilt or fortified by Rehoboam, 2 Chr. 11:7 ; and was dwelt in by some who returned from exile. Neh. 11:30; Micah 1:15. Identified with Aid-el-ma, a name similar to Adullam, 31 39' N, 35 E. More interest attaches to the CAVE OF ADULLAM than to the city, because of its having been a stronghold of David. In the locality of the place named above there are limestone cliffs, in which are extensive excavations, one of which may have been David's cave of Adullam. This is in the low country and all David's house went down from the hills of Bethlehem to him. 1 Sam. 22:1. The traditional site is a cave in the Wady Khureitun on the east part of Judah. It is approached by a narrow footpath (now partly blocked up by a fallen rock) which could easily be defended, and the cave is very large. Both this and other caves near where the city of Adullam was located are by different travellers strongly advocated as the true site. The 'Cave of Adullam' has become a proverbial expression for a refuge in distress, because there gathered to David, besides his relatives, "every one that was in distress, and every one that was in debt, and every one that was discontented," or bitter of soul, and he became their captain. 1 Sam. 22:1-2; 2 Sam. 23:13; 1 Chr. 11:15. David was God's anointed king, and the prophet Gad went to him, and Abiathar the priest; so that with that outcast company were God's prophet, priest, and king, though all the outward forms of worship were elsewhere: typical of the Lord Jesus in His rejection. When on earth the outward forms were not with Him; and now that He is in glory His virtual rejection is still as complete even by some in Christendom.

Adullamite. [Adul'lamite]

An inhabitant of Adullam Gen. 38:1, 12, 20.


This was forbidden in the ten commandments; but neither there nor anywhere else is the sin defined. It seems clear, that as far as the man was concerned, if he had intercourse with a woman unless it was with a married woman, he would not be charged with adultery, though he himself might be married; indeed how could he be when he was allowed more wives than one, as well as concubines and slaves? If he committed adultery with a married woman or with one betrothed, both were to be put to death. Deut. 22:22-24. With the woman it was stricter, she must have no intercourse with any man but her husband. If a man was jealous of his wife there was the ordeal of the bitter waters provided to test her innocence. Num. 5:11-31. But we do not read that any man or woman was stoned for adultery, nor that any woman drank the bitter waters. We know from the New Testament that Moses had, because of the hardness of their hearts, allowed a certain looseness, and a man could divorce his wife for any cause, which was easier than bringing a suspected wife to trial. It may be that the men themselves had not good consciences, like those who brought the adulterous woman to the Lord in John 8:3. We have a dreadful picture of guiltiness in Judges 19: and Jeremiah charges Israel with being "as fed horses in the morning, every one neighed after his neighbour's wife," which loudly called for judgement. Jer. 5:8; Jer. 13:27. The Lord declared that a man morally committed adultery (or fornication) in his heart if he lusted after a woman. Adultery had also a typical meaning. Israel had been espoused to Jehovah, but instead of being a faithful wife she had sought other lovers. "With their idols have they committed adultery." Ezek. 23:37. So the false church, who has Jezebel in her midst, the Lord will cast her "and them that commit adultery with her into great tribulation, except they repent of their deeds." Rev. 2:22.

Adummim. [Adum'mim]

The sides of a ravine that formed the border between the lots of Judah and Benjamin, and is called 'the going up to or ascent of Adummim.' Joshua 15:7; Joshua 18:17. It lies in the road between Jerusalem and Jericho, and agrees with the parable of the good Samaritan in being a descent from Jerusalem, and was until lately a dangerous road, infested with robbers. It is identified with Talat ed-Dumm, 31 49' N, 35 21' E.

Advent, Second.

This is simply the second coming of the Lord Jesus Christ to this earth, which naturally implies that He has already been here once. "Now once in the end of the world hath he appeared to put away sin by the sacrifice of himself . . . . and unto them that look for him shall he appear the second time without sin [or apart from sin] unto salvation." Heb. 9:26-28. The 'second advent' therefore is clearly a scriptural expression. Scripture speaks of many momentous and solemn events connected with the second coming of Christ which will be found under the different headings connected with this subject.

There are two aspects of the coming of the Lord Jesus which should never be confounded, namely, His coming for His saints, and His coming with His saints. These events may be thus illustrated. Suppose a large town or province revolted from allegiance to its sovereign, and refused to acknowledge his authority. After many warnings the sovereign raises an army to punish the rebels; but he knows that in that city there are many true subjects who loyally acknowledge his title and claims. When approaching the city he secretly calls out all those loyal ones, who gladly go out to meet him. He storms the city, and entering with those that have already joined him, he punishes the rebellious, and rewards those that had been faithful. Now, as the coming of the sovereign would be a day of joyful deliverance to one class, so it would be followed by judgement on the others. We find both these aspects of the coming of the Lord Jesus plainly revealed in the scripture. 1 Thess. 4:15-18 speaks of Christ coming for His saints to their everlasting joy; and Jude 14, 15 speaks of Christ coming to execute judgement on His enemies. Another distinction to be noticed is that when Christ comes for His saints, including both the living and the dead, He will not actually come to the earth for them. The above passage in 1 Thessalonians says that the saints will be caught up in the clouds to meet the Lord in the air. This is often called the RAPTURE. It will be a meeting far too sacred for the eyes of the wicked to behold — it will be in the clouds. No separation will ever take place: those that are thus caught up will be for ever with the Lord. But the important aspect of the Resurrection and Rapture of the saints is, that it is God's answer in those that believe to the all-glorious worth of His own Son.

This is the bright hope of the Christian. There is no event revealed in scripture that must take place before the Rapture of the saints. They should, therefore, be expecting the return of the Lord at any moment to fetch all His saints away together. John 14:1-3; 1 Thess. 1:9-10.

In other scriptures it is revealed that there will be an interval between the Rapture (the catching away of the saints), and the Lord's coming, to the earth. For instance, in 2 Thess. 2 we learn that the day of the Lord cannot come till the Antichrist is revealed, because the Lord is going to destroy that wicked one when He comes. Then in Rev. 8. we find that the Antichrist will co-operate with another 'beast,' the head of the future Roman empire; and in Dan. 9. that this latter power will make a covenant with Israel and will break the covenant in the midst of the week: all which intimates that this apparent triumph of wickedness will spread over at least seven years, otherwise spoken of as the last week of the seventy weeks of Daniel. See SEVENTY WEEKS.

That the Lord Jesus will actually come to the earth is plainly revealed in Acts 1:11; "This same Jesus, which is taken up from you into heaven, shall so come in like manner as ye have seen him go into heaven." "His feet shall stand in that day upon the mount of Olives, which is before Jerusalem on the east." Zech. 14:4. "The Lord, whom ye seek, shall suddenly come to his temple . . . . but who may abide the day of his coming?" Malachi 3:1-2.

For the events connected with the Second Advent see APPEARING; DAY OF THE LORD; JUDGEMENT; KINGDOM; MILLENNIUM.

Adversary, The.

Satan, the adversary, stood up against Israel and provoked David to number Israel. 1 Chr. 21:1: cf. 2 Sam. 24:1. He also opposed Joshua, the high priest. Zech. 3:1. "Your adversary the devil, as a roaring lion, walketh about, seeking whom he may devour." 1 Peter 5:8. In Rev. 12:10 he is also called 'the accuser of the brethren.' It is one of the names or characters of Satan: he is not only the tempter of man, but he is also the positive enemy, the adversary of all, seeking to devour whom he may, and to distress and lead astray those he is not permitted to destroy. See SATAN.

Advocate, The,

παρακλητος. This word signifies one who takes up the cause of another. 1 John 2:1. The same Greek word is translated 'Comforter' in John 14:16, 26; John 15:26; John 16:7. From this we learn that the word applies both to the Lord Jesus and to the Holy Spirit. "If any man sin we have an advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous." This applies to Christ in the glory: He is not an advocate for the unconverted, but for the Christian if he should sin; and it is with the Father, for the one who sins is a son. Sin breaks the communion, and the advocacy of Christ is to restore it. He is the Paraclete in heaven, who takes up the cause of the saint, and the Holy Spirit is the same on earth to secure the spiritual welfare of God's people. See HOLY SPIRIT.

AElia Capitolina. [Æ 'lia Capitoli'na]

The name given by the Roman emperor Hadrian to a city he raised on the ruins of Jerusalem about A.D. 136. He refused to let any Jews enter the city and sought to stamp out the very name of Jerusalem. Temples were erected to Capitoline Jupiter and to Phrygian Astarte. The city bore the above name for centuries.

AEneas [Æ 'neas]

A man at Lydda who had kept his bed eight years. He was healed by Peter, who said, "Jesus Christ maketh thee whole." Acts 9:33-35. This was followed by the remarkable fruit that "all that dwelt at Lydda and Saron saw him and turned to the Lord."

AEnon [Æ 'non ]

Place where John was baptising, because there was much water there. John 3:23. It was near SALIM, q.v.


In relationship by marriage, the principal point of interest is the degrees of relationship within which marriage was forbidden. Thus a woman must not marry two brothers, unless her husband had died without issue, when the brother was required to raise up seed to the deceased. Apparently a man might by the law of Moses marry his deceased wife's sister; but not the second in the life-time of the first, Lev. 18:18, though Jacob before the Law was given had two sisters for wives at the same time. Near relatives may not marry: cf. Lev. 18. Many codes respecting the degrees of affinity have been made by nations, more or less in agreement with the law of Moses. See MARRIAGE.


In fallen humanity man is born to trouble as the sparks fly upward. Besides the afflictions of man in body, mind, and estate, there are also the oppressions they suffer one from another. In some parts of the earth slavery still exists and in more enlightened parts the rich oppress the poor. James 2:6. Man is very ready to attribute all such things to the Creator, forgetting that God made man upright and God declared that everything that He had made, including man, was very good. It is sin that has brought in the misery, and man, by becoming the willing servant of Satan, has put himself into the hands of his enemy. Besides the afflictions incident on fallen humanity, there are afflictions that fall specially upon the Christian. There are those he may have to suffer for righteousness' sake as well as for Christ's sake. Another class of afflictions which the Christian has to bear is inflicted directly from the hand of God for his good. See CHASTENING.


This occurs but once in the A.V. and is the translation of words which signify 'the day declined,' as it reads in the margin. Judges 19:8.

Agabus. [Ag'abus]

A prophet who came from Jerusalem to Antioch, and foretold a famine "throughout all the world: which came to pass in the days of Claudius Caesar." Acts 11:28. He also foretold that Paul would be bound at Jerusalem and delivered to the Gentiles; which also came to pass. Acts 21:10. In the former passage it is said that Agabus "signified by the Spirit" that there should be great dearth; and in the latter he said, "Thus saith the Holy Ghost," plainly showing that the prophetic spirit in man was under the immediate guidance of the Holy Spirit, who now dwells in the Christian, to explain to him what was given to the prophets.

Agag. [A'gag]

King of the Amalekites whom Saul should have killed, but whom he spared. Samuel slew him, declaring that as Agag's sword had made women childless so his mother should now be childless. 1 Sam. 15:8-33. The name also occurs in Num. 24:7, where Balaam said of Israel "his king shall be higher than Agag." It is supposed that 'Agag' was the common title of the kings of the Amalekites, as Pharaoh was that of the Egyptians.

Agagite. [A'gagite]

Haman was the son of Hammedatha the Agagite. Esther 3:1-10; Esther 8:3, 5; Esther 9:24. Fürst says the Gentile name "of Haman is therefore explained by Josephus τὸ γένος Ἀμαλεκίτες and so too by Jewish tradition." That is, that Haman was an Amalekite. This explains why Mordecai refused to bow down before Haman. He was of that race with which Jehovah had sworn to have war for ever, and which Saul was directed to utterly exterminate. Ex. 17:16; Deut. 25:19; 1 Sam. 15:3.

Agar. [A'gar]



1.  kadkod, ἴασπις: from the root to strike fire, and hence a "sparkling gem, ruby." (Ges.) "A shining, sparkling precious stone, probably a carbuncle, so called from its red sparkling colour." (Fürst.) It occurs but twice: Isa. 54:12, "I will make thy windows of agates." This might be thought to signify that the agate was transparent, and that the windows were to be 'glazed' with agates; but windows were not then glazed. Others translate the word 'minarets, pinnacles, battlements,' and instead of ' agates' many prefer rubies. The other passage is Ezek. 27:16: Syria was thy merchant for coral, the agate, etc.; they came from Damascus. The Revised Version and others again translate 'rubies' which well agrees with the signification of the word.

2.  shebo, ἀχάτης, achates, Vul., from 'to burn, to glow.' (Fürst.) "A composite stone formed of quartz, chalcedony, cornelian, flint, jasper, etc. and therefore glittering with different colours." (Delitzsch.) Bochart traces the word to a root signifying 'to be spotted.' This gem has been described as a semi-pellucid, uncrystallized variety of quartz; it is found in parallel or concentric layers of various colours, and presents different tints in the same specimen. It is generally, translated 'agate.' It was the stone chosen for the second place in the third row of the breastplate of the high priest. Ex. 28:19; Ex. 39:12.


αἰών. A period of time marked off by that which distinguishes it from other periods, as the Patriarchal age, the Apostolic age, etc. Though these terms do not occur in scripture, many allusions are made to the different ages. Thus we speak of the Antediluvian age, and scripture speaks of the same period as 'the old world,' i. e., the ordered scene which God did not spare. 2 Peter 2:5. The 'Patriarchal age' embraces the time from the call of Abraham to the release from Egypt and the giving of the law. From 'Adam to Moses' excluding both, is an epoch when men's sins could not be classed as transgressions, seeing there was no definite law such as was given to Adam, or such as was administered by Moses. Rom. 5:13-14. Again, from Moses to Christ formed a definite period: "the law was given by Moses, but grace and truth came by Jesus Christ," John 1:17; "the law and the prophets were until John: since that time the kingdom of God is preached, and every man presseth into it." Luke 16:16. The time when Christ was on earth is in John's first epistle repeatedly called 'the beginning:' the beginning of Christianity, though it is not called an age. We may also distinguish the period of the Church (from the day of Pentecost until the Rapture of the saints), though it is separated from recognised times and seasons. Our Lord not only spoke of the age in which He was on earth, but referred some events to 'the end or completion of the age.' Matt. 13:39-40, 49. The disciples also asked what would be the sign of that completion. Matt. 24:3. Our Lord also spoke of 'the coming age,' when His own should receive life eternal. Luke 18:30; cf. also Matt. 12:32; Eph. 1:21; Eph. 2:7. God's kingdom is 'a kingdom of all ages.' Ps. 145:13, margin. Eternity, in reference to the glory of God, to the blessing of the saved, and to the punishment of the wicked, is again and again called the 'age of ages,' often translated 'for ever and ever:' all being consummated in the eternal state. The Greek word is αἰών throughout, though often translated 'world' in the A.V.