Bible Dictionary J 3

Joshua, [Josh'ua] Book of.

This book gives the history of Israel in crossing the Jordan, their conquests over the nations, and the division of the land among the twelve tribes. It is typical of the believer's entering, in the power of the Spirit, into the purpose of God, as quickened together with Christ; of his conflict with the spiritual powers of wickedness in the heavenlies; and of his enjoyment of the promises of God. Joshua was commissioned by God Himself. Courage and obedience, under God, would ensure success. He is exhorted to be strong and God would not fail him. Israel had a title to all that was promised to Abraham, but they would possess that whereon the soles of their feet trod, and thus it would become theirs. So the Christian must make his calling and election sure, entering into the possession of his heavenly privileges.

Joshua 2.  The spies learned that the fear of Israel had fallen upon the people of the land, and the faith of Rahab saved her and her family. A Gentile gets a place in the promised possession by faith. See RAHAB.

Joshua 3, Joshua 4.  For the passage into the land see JORDAN.

Joshua 5.  The first thing on entering the land was that the males must be circumcised: this was done at Gilgal, and the reproach of Egypt was rolled away. What answers to this with the Christian is found in Col. 2:11 — Col. 3:3-5; the renunciation of the life of flesh through Christ having been cut off on the cross; of those it can be said, "Ye are dead . . . . mortify therefore your members which are upon the earth." The Passover was also kept, a type of the peaceful remembrance by the believer of that death which has enabled him to enjoy the promise; and they ate of the old corn of the land (type of a heavenly Christ), and the manna ceased: cf. 2 Cor. 5:16. This was all fitting them to take their place as the Lord's host. Then Jehovah was manifested to Joshua as Captain of the host, with a drawn sword in His hand. Joshua fell to the earth and worshipped.

Joshua 6, Joshua 7.  Jericho (type of the world antagonistic to the Lord's rights ranged under Satan) was the first city taken, and the manner of its destruction showed plainly that power for conquest was really in Jehovah. God said the whole was accursed and must be destroyed, and a curse should rest upon the man who should rebuild the city. All was not however destroyed, for Achan had taken of the accursed things. Unconscious of this sin and confiding in their own strength, they attacked Ai in vain. The sin of Achan was accounted as a sin of the people: 'Israel hath sinned,' God said; and there could be no power or blessing until the evil was put away (as in the action enjoined upon the church at Corinth).

Joshua 8.  The evil being judged, Ai was destroyed, and in this case the cattle and spoil were taken. An altar was built unto Jehovah, and the law was written upon stones, the whole of it being read before all the congregation: cf. Deut. 27:2-8. This shows the conditions on which they were to possess the land, namely, obedience to the word.

Joshua 9, Joshua 10.  When the kings in the south heard of the destruction of Jericho and Ai, they conspired together to oppose Israel. But the Gibeonites wrought deceitfully, saying they had come from very far. Type of the devices of Satan, against which the Christian is warned. Prayer was overlooked, and there was confidence in human wisdom. Five kings attacked Gibeon for making the league with Israel, but were totally defeated by Joshua, and the kings were hanged. To lengthen the day for conquest the sun and moon stood still, for it was Jehovah who fought for Israel. Thus the confederacy of the south was overthrown, and the country of the south was conquered, and Joshua returned to Gilgal. Type of the Christian abiding in the place of renunciation of self, and mortifying the deeds of the flesh in the power of resurrection.

Joshua 11, Joshua 12.  From Gilgal Joshua went again in strength against the confederacy of the north, being encouraged by Jehovah, and conquered everywhere, cutting off the Anakims from the mountains, and "so Joshua took the whole land according to all that the Lord said unto Moses." The Gibeonites and their allies from three other cities (Joshua 9:17) were the only ones that made a league with Israel. The names then are given of the two kings conquered by Moses on the east of Jordan and thirty-one kings on the west smitten by Joshua.

Joshua 13.  Chapter 12 closes the first part of the book, which says that the whole land had been taken; but Joshua 13 opens with the statement that there remained "yet very much land to be possessed." In one sense they had taken all from north to south, so that they could divide the land among the tribes; but all their enemies were not destroyed, and they did not really possess all the land promised unto Abraham. This is typical of the Christian having all things, and yet failing to enter into his full heavenly position. The tribe of Levi had a peculiar standing: "the Lord God of Israel was their inheritance;" and "the sacrifices of the Lord God of Israel made by fire" were their inheritance. These are a type of Christians as priests, who do not belong to earth, but to heaven. There were minor conquests in taking possession, and mention is made of Balaam the soothsayer being slain: God's judgement had reached the wicked man.

Joshua 14 — Joshua 17.  In dividing the land Caleb had a privileged portion. Of Joseph it was said, "Thou art a great people, and hast great power:" in Ephraim and Manasseh Joseph had two portions. The details are given as to the boundaries of the tribes.

Joshua 18, Joshua 19.  The tabernacle was set up at Shiloh, which was fairly central, 32 3' N, 35 18' E and the allotment of the possessions of the tribes was made in Shiloh before the Lord, at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation. Type of the Christian getting his position from heaven. To Joshua was given an inheritance, Timnath-serah in mount Ephraim.

Joshua 20.  Six cities of refuge were appointed to which the man-slayer could flee.  See REFUGE.

Joshua 21.  Forty-eight cities were appointed for dwelling places for the Levites. Then it is repeated that "Jehovah gave unto Israel all the land which he sware to give unto their fathers; and they possessed it, and dwelt therein." They had rest, and not any good thing that Jehovah had promised failed them. Yet, as we have seen, there were parts that they had not made their own, and in which there dwelt those who were ready to seduce them on the one hand, and to oppress them on the other.

Joshua 22.  The warriors of the two and a half tribes, who had crossed the Jordan to aid in the conquest of the land on the west, were dismissed to their possessions on the east of Jordan, with the blessing of Joshua. These tribes staying on the east led to difficulty. By the border of the Jordan they built a great altar 'to see to;' which they afterwards described as a witness that they had part in Jehovah. They were beginning to feel the consequences of having fallen short of God's calling, and of taking lower ground. The tribes on the west feared that the altar had been built in separation from the worship of Jehovah, and sent princes with Phinehas the priest to protest against it, but on hearing the explanation given, they were satisfied that the tribes on the east were faithful in heart.

Joshua 23, Joshua 24.  In conclusion Joshua rehearses the dealings of the Lord with their ancestors, and the great things He had done for them. There were blessings for them if they were obedient; but curses if they forsook the Lord. The people, not knowing their own weakness, declared that they would serve the Lord. They thus still remained under law, their obedience being the condition of their living in peace, and being blessed by Jehovah. Thus a covenant was made with the people that day, a statute, and an ordinance in Shechem. A great stone was set up as a witness of the covenant. Joshua, the faithful servant of the Lord, died, being 110 years old. To this is added the testimony that "Israel served the Lord all the days of Joshua, and all the days of the elders that overlived Joshua, and which had known all the works of the Lord, that he had done for Israel."

Josiah. [Josi'ah]

1.  Son and successor of Amon king of Judah: he reigned thirty-one years, B.C. 641-610. He did that which was right in the sight of the Lord. He began to reign when eight years old, and at the age of sixteen he sought after God. When he was about twenty years old he began to destroy all the high places, and groves, and images, and altars. He burnt the bones of the priests of Baalim upon their altars, as foretold in 1 Kings 13:2.  These things he did not only in Judah but also in the cities of Manasseh, Ephraim, and Simeon, even unto Naphtali. 2 Kings 22:1-2; 2 Chr. 34:1-7.

Having purged the land of idolatry he set his hand to repair the house of the Lord. While this was in progress Hilkiah the priest found a copy of the law, which had evidently been lost sight of. It was read to the king, who was so moved on hearing its precepts, and knowing how they had been violated, that he rent his clothes, and sent to inquire of the Lord. The answer was that the evil and the curses found in the book should fall upon the people; but, because Josiah's heart was tender, and he had humbled himself, the judgement should not be executed in his days. He then assembled all the people at the temple; made them hear the law, and renew the covenant of obedience to Jehovah their God. And it is added that "all his days they departed not from following the Lord, the God of their fathers." 2 Kings 22:3-20; 2 Kings 23:1-20; 2 Chr. 34:8-33.

In the eighteenth year of Josiah, the Passover and the Feast of Unleavened Bread were kept. The ark was restored to its place in the temple, from which apparently it had been removed for some purpose. The testimony is that "there was no Passover like to that kept in Israel from the days of Samuel the prophet." Thus was Josiah enabled to recall the people to a sense of their responsibility, and to the means of their communion with God in the ordinance of the Passover. 2 Kings 23:21-28; 2 Chr. 35:1-19.

In the thirty-first year of his reign, Josiah, perhaps from fidelity to former treaties with Assyria, went out to oppose the king of Egypt when he himself was in no way attacked; and, though warned 'from the mouth of God,' he persisted in his purpose. He disguised himself, yet he was wounded and died. Jeremiah lamented for him and the singers also in their songs. 2 Chr. 35:20-26. His reign was like the last shining of God's lamp in Judah: though he had zealously followed the Lord, the heart of the people was not changed. Jer. 3:6-10: cf. Zephaniah. In Matt. 1:10-11 the name is JOSIAS.

2.  Son of Zephaniah, at whose house Zechariah assembled the chief men of the captivity when Joshua the son of Josedech was crowned. Zech. 6:10.

Josibiah. [Josibi'ah]

Son of Seraiah, a descendant of Simeon. 1 Chr. 4:35.


Ancestor of some who returned from exile. Ezra 8:10.


This refers to the Hebrew letter yod, the smallest letter in the language. Matt. 5:18. The word used is iota, which is the Greek equivalent for the same letter.

Jotbah. [Jot'bah]

Native place of queen Meshullemeth. 2 Kings 21:19.

Jotbath , [Jot'bath] Jotbathah. [Jot'bathah]

One of the halting places of Israel. Num. 33:33-34; Deut. 10:7.  It is described as 'a land of rivers of waters.'

Jotham. [Jo'tham]

1.  Gideon's youngest son who escaped the massacre by Abimelech. He boldly declared the parable 'The Reign of the Bramble' in the hearing of the men of Shechem. Judges 9:5-21, 57.

2.  Son and successor of Uzziah, or Azariah, king of Judah: he reigned sixteen years: B.C. 758-742, besides ruling during the leprosy of his father. Jotham did that which was right in the sight of the Lord. He erected the high gate of the house of the Lord, and built much on Ophel; also in the mountains of Judah he built cities, castles, and towers. He conquered the Ammonites, and for three years they paid him tribute. He became mighty because he prepared his way before the Lord his God. 2 Kings 15:5-38; 2 Chr. 27:1-9; Isa. 1:1; Isa. 7:1; Hosea 1:1; Micah 1:1. Called JOATHAM in Matt. 1:9.

3.  Son of Jahdai, a descendant of Judah. 1 Chr 2:47.

Journeys of the Israelites.



Joy, or gladness, is what man craves and is set upon finding; and he does find it when he finds God, and only then. He retains it too in proportion as he grows in the knowledge of God. God is the author of true joy as of every good and perfect gift. Being Himself perfectly good and above all evil, He is even represented as finding His own joy in the repentance of the sinner who returns to seek Him. Sin having come in, and man being thus, alas, alienated from God, his idea of joy is to be as happy as he can make himself without God and away from Him. (See the prodigal in Luke 15.) But disappointment and bitterness here and eternal sorrow hereafter alone can result from such a course as that. When however, on the contrary, the light of God's love, revealed in the gift and the death of His Son, breaks upon the heart, it is filled at once "with joy unspeakable and full of glory."

"The kingdom of God is not meat and drink; but righteousness, and peace, and joy in the Holy Ghost." The fruit too of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, with other beautiful traits, and this is produced in the believer's heart by the Spirit for God's glory. The apostle desired for the Romans that the God of hope would fill them with all joy and peace in believing. Rom. 15:13. The Thessalonians too had received the word in "much affliction with joy of the Holy Ghost." Many more passages might be cited to show how joy is one of the leading characteristics of those who have been brought to know God. The one only Man who never had to be so brought — because His delight was ever in God, as God's was in Him: He who is called a "man of sorrows" — this perfect and blessed One had His own deep joy in communion with and in dependence upon God; and He desires for His own in the world that this His joy might be theirs.

True joy is unknown in the world in its present state; but there is a day coming when sorrow, suffering, death, and all the gloomy fruits of sin, will be done away, and God Himself will wipe away all tears and fill the universe with joy unclouded and eternal. That day is depicted in Rev. 21.

Jozabad. [Jo'zabad]

1, 2.  Two of the tribe of Manasseh who resorted to David at Ziklag. 1 Chr. 12:20.

3.   Levite in the days of Hezekiah 2 Chr. 31:13.

4.  A chief of the Levites in the days of Josiah. 2 Chr. 35:9.

5.  Son of Jeshua, a Levite: he helped to weigh the vessels of the sanctuary. Ezra 8:33.

6, 7.  A priest and a Levite who had taken strange wives. Ezra 10:22-23.

8.  One who assisted in explaining the law. Neh. 8:7.

9.  A chief of the Levites who returned from exile. Neh. 11:16.

Jozachar. [Jo'zachar]

One of those who killed Joash, or Jehoash, king of Judah. 2 Kings 12:21.  He is called ZABAD in 2 Chr. 24:26.

Jozadak. [Jo'zadak]


Jubal. [Ju'bal]

Son of Lamech and Adah: "he was the father of all such as handle the harp and organ." Gen. 4:21.


This was the fiftieth year, coming at the end of every seventh Sabbatical year. The land was held as belonging to Jehovah, and if sold, or redeemed, the price must be reckoned according to the number of years to the next Jubilee, when all possessions returned to their former owners. Hebrew bond-servants also were set free in the year of Jubilee. If land was consecrated to Jehovah, it might be redeemed before the Jubilee, but if not redeemed by that time it became perpetually consecrated. The trumpet of the Jubilee was sounded in the tenth day of the seventh month, on the great day of atonement. It was to be a year of rest for the land, there being no sowing or reaping.

The Jubilee is clearly a type of the millennium. It follows Lev. 24 wherein Israel is seen

1,  according to the mind of God as in the place of His light and administration — but all sustained by Aaron, that is, Christ; for

2,  in its conduct, Israel actually fell under governmental judgement (Lev. 24:13-23); but

3,  are ultimately rescued and blessed according to God's purposes, and on the ground of the day of atonement. Israel have sold themselves and their land to strangers; but when that glad period arrives all the promised land will return to Israel; and the bond-servants will be restored, no matter how powerful those may be who hold them.

It is a very disputed point as to what is the signification of the word Jubilee, or from what root it is derived. Except in Lev. 25:9 (where the Hebrew word is teruah, 'loud of sound,' as in the margin) the word is yobel, translated 'trumpet' in Ex. 19:13; 'rams' horn' in Joshua 6:4-6, 8, 13; and 'Jubilee' in Lev. 25:10-15, 28-54; Lev. 27:17-24; Num. 36:4.  Fürst traces the word from yabal, 'strong': hence 'a he-goat, ram,' and then 'a ram's horn,' and hence 'a cry of joy, a joyful noise,' a designation of the great Jubilee feast.

There is difference of judgement as to when the year of Jubilee commenced. With this must be considered the SABBATICAL YEAR, which occurred every seven years. "Six years thou shalt sow thy field, and six years thou shalt prune thy vineyard, and gather in the fruit thereof; but in the seventh year shall be a sabbath of rest unto the land, a sabbath for Jehovah: thou shalt neither sow thy field, nor prune thy vineyard." Lev. 25:3-4.  These tables represent the last seven years before the Jubilee.

The Jubilee

The above passage speaks of six years of sowing, and six years of pruning the vineyard and gathering in the fruit thereof, but does not speak of six years of harvest. In the above tables it will be seen there would have been but five harvests in the seven years. Then the question arises, Did the Jubilee commence at the end of the seventh Sabbatical year, as in table A ? If so there would be then three years without any harvest. If this was what God intended, He would have provided for His obedient people. Some however judge that the Jubilee year was really half of the seventh Sabbatical year, and half of the first year of the following seven, as in table B. This seems confirmed by the trumpet being sounded on the 10th day of the seventh month. Still it is called the fiftieth year. Lev. 25:8-11.

There is no record of the Sabbatical year and the year of Jubilee ever being kept. Lev. 26:34-35 predicts what would happen if the Israelites did not let the land keep the sabbaths. It reads almost like a prophecy: the land should lie desolate "because it did not rest in your sabbaths." In Jer. 25:11-12; Jer. 29:10; Dan. 9:2 the actual desolation is said to be seventy years. And as the land was to have rested one year in every seven, it follows that the 70 answering to 70 × 7 = 490 years. Now the kingdom began B.C. 1095, and Jerusalem was taken in 606, which is just 490 years, and seems to confirm the silence in the history of Israel as to their giving the land the prescribed sabbaths. Apparently in this, as in everything else, they failed to obey; but the Jubilee will be made good to them in grace when they own their Messiah.

Jucal. [Ju'cal]


Juda. [Ju'da]

1.   One of the brethren of the Lord, Mark 6:3: called JUDAS in Matt. 13:55.

2, 3.  Son of Joanna, and son of Joseph, in the genealogy of the Lord Jesus. Luke 3:26, 30.

4.   The usual form in the N.T. for JUDAH, q.v.

Judaea, [Judae'a] Judea. [Jude'a]

This name occurs in Ezra 5:8 for the territory of Judah; in Dan. 5:13 the same is called JEWRY. In the N.T. the name at times refers to a much larger district, including all south of about 32 5' N, 35 20' E with the plain on the west border of the land to mount Carmel as generally shown on N.T. maps. The land was thus divided by Rome, with Samaria in the centre, and Galilee in the north. In Luke 3:1 Judaea embraces the above and Samaria; but in other passages a smaller area than the above is implied. Acts 12:19 speaks of Herod going down from Judaea to Caesarea, whereas Caesarea would be part of the Judaea of the Romans. Paul, in Gal. 1:22; 1 Thess. 2:14, speaks of the 'churches of Judaea' which would seem to embrace the whole of Palestine. The context will almost always show the extent of the district intended. It is called JEWRY in Luke 23:5; John 7:1.

Judah. [Ju'dah]

1.  The fourth son of Jacob and Leah, and the head of the tribe bearing his name, which signifies 'praise.' It was Judah who advised the selling of Joseph rather than taking his life: so his descendants, the Jews, delivered the Lord into the hands of the Gentiles. He sinned in the matter of Tamar his daughter-in-law; was ready enough to have her punished till it was shown that he also was guilty. Thus is traced the terribly corrupt history of the family of whom according to election Christ was to be born. Though not the eldest son he began to take a chief place in the family. He was able to persuade his father to let Benjamin be taken into Egypt, and when appeals were to be made to Joseph it was Judah who made them. When Jacob blessed his sons, the predictions show that in Judah was centred the royal line. The sceptre should not depart from Judah, nor a lawgiver from between his feet until Shiloh came, etc. Gen. 49:8-12. From Judah sprang David and a long succession of kings. Christ as born of the tribe of Judah, is referred to as "the Lion of the tribe of Juda." Rev. 5:5. In Luke 3:33; Heb. 7:14; Rev. 5:5; Rev. 7:5, the name is given as JUDA: and in Matt. 1:2-3, it is JUDAS.

The tribe held a prominent position. In the journeyings of the Israelites, Judah took the lead, and at the first and second census their numbers were 74,600 and 76,500. Their allotted portion was large. Its east border embraced the whole of the Dead Sea, and extended to Gath and the land of the Philistines on the west. Its northern boundary was about 31 48' N, 35 12' E, and in the south it extended to the Desert of Paran. Jerusalem was near the border between Judah and Benjamin. In Joshua 18:28 it is one of the cities mentioned as falling to Benjamin; but in Joshua 15:63 and Judges 1:8 it is referred to Judah. David and his successors being of this tribe, Jerusalem became their dwelling place.

2.  Ancestor of some Levites who helped to rebuild the temple. Ezra 3:9.  Perhaps the same as HODAVIAH No. 3.

3.  Levite who had taken a strange wife. Ezra 10:23.

4.  Son of Senuah: he was an overseer in Jerusalem. Neh. 11:9.

5.  Levite who returned from exile. Neh. 12:8.

6, 7.  A prince of Judah, and a priest and musician who assisted at the dedication of the wall of Jerusalem. Neh. 12:34, 36.

Judah, The Kingdom of.

On the separation of the ten tribes, Judah and Benjamin formed a kingdom under the name of Judah. Benjamin being but a small tribe, the kingdom of Judah is sometimes spoken of as one tribe. Doubtless the territory of Simeon was also attached to Judah — that tribe being as it were lost in the land. It was not named when Moses blessed the tribes. Deut. 33, cf. Gen. 49:7.  Bethel, out of the portion of Benjamin, fell to the kingdom of Israel.

The temple being at Jerusalem, with the priests and Levites, Judah represented God's people and His government upon the earth; whereas the kingdom of Israel gave itself up at once to idolatry. God, according to His promise, still caused the lamp of David to shine at Jerusalem. Many of the kings served God with purpose of heart, though others embraced idolatry. (For the succession of the kings, see KINGS.) The kingdom of Judah continued from B.C. 975 to 606 when many of the people were carried captive, though Jerusalem was not destroyed till B.C. 588.

Seventy years of captivity had been foretold by Jeremiah (Jer. 25:11-12; Jer. 29:10); these began in B.C. 606 and ended in 536 when under Cyrus the Jews returned to build the house of Jehovah; but it was not finished and dedicated until B.C. 515.  Ezra 6:15. A commission was given to Ezra in B.C. 468 (Ezra 7); and one to Nehemiah to rebuild the city in 455. It could not however be called the kingdom of Judah; only a remnant of the tribes of Judah and Benjamin returned. They were first subject to the kingdom of Persia, then to the kingdom of Greece, and after a short time of freedom under JUDAS MACCABEUS and his successors they became subject to Rome.

In B.C. 65 Syria became a Roman province and in the year 40 Herod was appointed by Rome king of Judaea, and he continued on the throne to N.T. times. The children of Israel inhabiting Judaea in those days were the descendants of Judah and Benjamin (except any individuals who may have found their way thither from the ten tribes). They were the people to whom the Messiah was presented, and who refused and crucified Him. They continued their persecution in the times of the apostles, and they will be dealt with separately from the ten tribes: cf. Matt. 24:4-35; Matt. 27:25.

They revolted from Rome, and in A.D. 70 Jerusalem was taken and destroyed, some of its inhabitants were sold as slaves, and thousands were slain. Dan. 9:26; Luke 21:12-24. Their descendants are scattered over the earth; but when God's set time is come they will be brought through the fire of judgement, and a remnant will be saved, restored to their own land, and blessed under their Messiah whom they now reject. Matt. 2:6; Heb. 8:8-12.

Judas. [Ju'das]

1.  The patriarch JUDAH. Matt. 1:2-3.

2.  One of the apostles, brother of James. Luke 6:16; John 14:22; Acts 1:13. Called JUDE in Jude 1; and apparently the same as 'Lebbaeus, whose surname was Thaddaeus.' Matt. 10:3; Mark 3:18.

3.  One of the brethren of the Lord. Matt. 13:55: called JUDA in Mark 6:3.

4.  Judas of Galilee, who raised an insurrection in the days of the taxing, A.D. 6. He was killed by the Romans and his followers were dispersed. Acts 5:37.

5.  One in Damascus with whom Paul lodged. Acts 9:11.

6.  A 'prophet' sent from Jerusalem to Antioch. Acts 15:22.  See BARSABAS, No. 2.

Judas Iscariot.  [Ju'das Iscar'iot]

Son of Simon and one of the twelve apostles. He was a false disciple: when the Lord said to His apostles 'ye are clean,' He excepted Judas in the words 'but not all.' He was sent out with the others to preach, and no exception is made in his case as to the working of miracles in the name of the Lord Jesus. Under the plea of the necessities of the poor he complained of money being wasted when Mary anointed the Lord. Yet he did not really care for the poor: he was treasurer, and was a thief. Satan knew the covetousness of Judas and put it into his heart to betray the Lord for money, which he did for thirty pieces of silver. Satan afterwards, as the Adversary, took possession of him to insure the success of the betrayal.

Judas probably thought that the Lord would escape from those who arrested Him, as He had escaped from previous dangers, while he would gain the money. When the Lord was condemned, Judas was filled with remorse, confessed he had betrayed innocent blood, and cast the money into the temple. He was a complete dupe of Satan, who first tempted him to gain the money, and then would not let him keep it. He went and hanged himself, and probably falling from the tree, his bowels gushed out. An awful termination of a sinful course. The Lord called him the 'son of perdition.'

In modern times men have erroneously argued that his confession under remorse showed true repentance, and that there is hope of his salvation! but it is not so: he fell 'that he might go to his own place.' It was a trial of man under new circumstances: to be a 'familiar friend' (Ps. 41:9) of the Lord Jesus, to hear His gracious words, see His miracles, and probably be allowed to work miracles himself in His name; and yet, as in every other trial of man, he fell. Judas is a solemn instance of how far a person may be under the influence and power of Christianity, and yet become an apostate: cf. Heb. 6:1-6.  He is mentioned in Matt. 10:4; Matt. 26:14-47; Matt. 27:3; Luke 22:3, 47, 48; John 13:2, 26, 29; John 18:2-5; Acts 1:16, 25, etc.



Jude, Epistle of.

Written by Jude the brother of James, and apparently the same person as the apostle JUDAS, q.v. The Epistle is addressed to "the called ones, beloved in God the Father and preserved in Jesus Christ." Apostasy had set in, and the saints are exhorted to contend for the faith divinely delivered. Ungodly ones had crept in, who abused the grace of God, and denied their only Master and Lord Jesus Christ.

Three instances are produced to show how apostasy had been punished:

1.  Some of those saved out of Egypt were yet destroyed.

2.  Fallen angels are kept in eternal chains for judgement.

3.  Sodom and Gomorrha, which lie under the abiding effect of the judgement on them. Then the railers are put to shame by the conduct of Michael the archangel, who when rightly contending with Satan about the body of Moses did not rail against him, but said, "The Lord rebuke thee."

Three stages of departure from the way of truth are mentioned, with a woe upon those who are found in them:

1.  The way of Cain — man's nature and will, and hatred of God's people: cf. 1 John 3:12.

2.  The error of Balaam for reward — ecclesiastical corruption: cf. Rev . 2:14.

3. The gainsaying of Core — opposition to the royalty and priesthood of Christ: cf. Num. 16: Such were doubly dead, by nature and apostasy, and are reserved for eternal darkness.

Enoch prophesied of the judgement on the ungodly when the Lord comes with His holy myriads. See ENOCH. The saints had been warned against some who separated themselves, as being superior to others, whereas they were only natural men, and had not the Spirit. The saints were to build up themselves on their most holy faith; and by prayer in the Holy Spirit to keep themselves experimentally in the love of God, awaiting the mercy of the Lord Jesus Christ unto eternal life. They were to try to save others. The Epistle closes with a full ascription of praise to Him who is able to keep His saints from stumbling and set them with exultation blameless before His glory.

Judges, Book of.

This book is occupied with the period from the death of Joshua to the time of Samuel. Joshua, the man of faith, before he died gave them good advice and solemn warnings. The people answered, "The Lord our God will we serve, and his voice will we obey." They had now, under the guidance and power of God, to work out their own salvation. They served the Lord as long as Joshua lived and the elders he had appointed, and then they forsook God, allied themselves by marriage with the Canaanites, and turned to idolatry. It is a vivid illustration of the history of the professing church, which, after the times of the apostles, rapidly became worldly, and had to be disciplined by God, though there have been revivals, as there were in the time of the Judges.

A long catalogue had to be made of the districts from which the tribes did not drive out the Canaanites. Israel being thus unfaithful, making a league with the inhabitants, and regardless of their evil, the Lord let them remain to prove Israel: in like manner the world-bordering of the church has become a snare to it constantly. The Angel of the Lord was at Gilgal during the book of Joshua (to which place the Israelites should in spirit have constantly returned: it is the place of circumcision, that is, for the Christian, thorough separation from the first man); but now He came to Bochim, and reminded them that He had delivered them from Egypt, and had declared that He would never break His covenant with Israel; they were to make no league with the people of the land, but they had not obeyed His voice. The failure was now irretrievable. The people wept and sacrificed there.

Nevertheless they formed alliances with the Canaanites, and sacrificed to Baalim. Then they were oppressed by their enemies; but as often as they turned to the Lord, He raised up a judge who delivered them from the hand of their oppressors. Yet when the judge died, they returned again to their evil ways. This experience of evil doing — oppression, repentance, and deliverance — occurred again and again during a period of over three hundred years. (The action of the judges is considered under the name of each.)

Judges 17 — Judges 21 are not in historical order, but are grouped together to show the inner life of the people.  Judges 17 and Judges 18 disclose a sad attempt to mingle the worship of God with domestic idolatry.  See MICAH No. 1.

Judges 19 — Judges 21 show the moral character of the people, especially of Benjamin, who brought upon themselves severe punishment. When the other tribes saw the destruction they had made upon Benjamin they came to the house of God and wept, lamenting that one tribe was lacking in Israel; but no mention is made of their weeping over the sin that had brought it all about.

The book ends by repeating what it had said elsewhere: "In those days there was no king in Israel: every man did that which was right in his own eyes." God would have been their king if they would have been His subjects.

The chronology of the book of Judges presents some difficulties. It is clear from various passages that the periods during which the judges ruled could not all have been consecutive. The 480 years from the Exodus to the fourth year of Solomon, 1 Kings 6:1, necessarily shortens the period of the judges, and one passage in the book itself implies that two of the oppressions were going on at the same time, namely, that of the Philistines and of Ammon. Judges 10:7. In Acts 13:20 the A.V. reads that God gave them judges about the space of 450 years until Samuel the prophet. This would not agree with the 480 years of 1 Kings 6:1; but there is a different reading in Acts 13, which has been adopted by editors of the Greek Testament and in the R.V. irrespective of all questions of chronology. It reads "He divided to them their land by lot, about 450 years; and afterwards he gave them judges;" thus the 450 years are not applied to the duration of the judges. This period may have been made up thus, reckoning from the birth of Isaac, because the promise was to the seed of Abraham, and Isaac was the child of promise.

  60 Age of Isaac, when Jacob was born, Gen. 25:26.
130 Age of Jacob when he stood before Pharaoh
215 Age of Israel in Egypt
  40 Age of Israel in the wilderness
    7 To the division of the land
452 (about 450 years).

The 480 years 1 Kings 6:1 have been arranged thus, though this may not be absolutely correct.

  40   - From the Exodus to the crossing the Jordan
    7   - From the Jordan to the division of the land
  12   - Rest under Joshua and the Elders - Judges 2:7
    8   - Oppression by the king of Mesopotamia - Judges 3:8
  40   - Othniel judge - Judges 3:11
  18   - Oppression by the Moabites - Judges 3:14
  80   - Ehud and Shamgar - Judges 3:30
  20   - Oppression by king Jabin - Judges 4:3
  40   - Deborah and Barak - Judges 5:31
    7   - Oppression by the Midianites - Judges 6:1
  40   - Gideon - Judges 8:28
    3   - Abimelech - Judges 9:22
  23   - Tola - Judges 10:2
  22   - Jair - Judges 10:3
- - -
    In the West.
  40 - Oppression by the Philistines, during which Samson was judge, and Samuel after Eli. - Judges 13:1
    In the East.
  18 - Oppression by the Ammonites - Judges 10:8
    6   - Jephthah - Judges 12:7
(From the Jordan to Jephthah - About 338 years - the 300 years in round numbers of Judges 11:26)
    7   - Ibzan - Judges 12:9
  10   - Elon - Judges 12:11
    8   - Abdon - Judges 12:14 8
    9   From Mizpeh (1 Sam. 7:12-13)to the anointing of Saul
- - -
  40   - Saul (in the former part of which Samuel was judge) - Acts 13:21
  40   - David 1 Kings 2:11
    3 - Solomon's fourth year - 1 Kings 6:1
    Deduct for parts of years being reckoned as full years 12


1.  PENAL JUDGEMENT.  This may be administered on earth in God's government of men or of His people, in accordance with the principles of the economy in force at the time; or hereafter for eternity, in accordance with God's decrees. God's four sore judgements on the living were threatened against Jerusalem, and have often fallen upon mankind generally, and will fall upon them in the future, as shown in the Revelation.

1.  War, death by the sword either from an enemy from without, or in civil war.

2.  Famine, which may arise from a dearth in the land, or by a city being besieged.

3.  Noisome beasts, which doubtless includes the ravages of locusts, because they spoil the land and make it desolate.

4.  Pestilence, which has often swept away its thousands. Ezek. 14:13-21.

Besides these there are in various parts of the earth conflagrations, earthquakes, eruptions, cyclones, avalanches, floods, frosts, shipwrecks, sea-waves, etc., some of which happen every year. These occur in the providential government of God, and by them He continually makes Himself heard, and manifests His power: cf. Job 37:13. But beside this providential government, there are often direct judgements, hence the prophet said, "When thy judgements are in the earth, the inhabitants of the world will learn righteousness." Isa. 26:9. Such judgements are, alas, too often accounted as natural phenomena or mere accidents or calamities, without any recognition of God, and are soon forgotten. They should warn men; as a slight shower often falls before a storm, so these frequent judgements are but the forerunners of the great storm of the wrath of God that will surely fall upon this guilty world, when the vials of His fury are poured out: cf. Rev. 6 - 20.

All judgement, that is, the act of judging (κρίσις), whether of dead or living, has been committed to the Lord Jesus. He is represented as coming from Edom, with dyed garments from Bozrah, when He will tread the people in His anger, and trample them in His fury, and their blood will stain all His raiment. Isa. 63:1-3. His judgement falls on the living nations; also before Israel is restored to blessing, judgement from God will fall upon them.  See TRIBULATION. Upon professing Christendom also God will execute judgement.  See BABYLON THE GREAT. The eternal punishment of the wicked is called "eternal judgement." Heb. 6:2. The fallen angels are reserved unto judgement, 2 Peter 2:4; and everlasting fire is prepared for the devil and his angels. Matt. 25:41.

2.  SESSIONAL JUDGEMENT.  The common expression 'the General Judgement' does not occur in scripture. By this term is commonly understood that all mankind on 'the day of judgement' will stand before God, or rather the Lord Jesus, to be judged according to their works, and there to hear their eternal destiny. But this is not according to scripture. In all the passages (except 1 John 4:17, where it speaks of the Christian having boldness in the day of judgement) it is 'day of judgement;' not the day of judgement, as referring to one specified time.

Besides the sessional judgement of the empires in Dan. 7:9-14, there are two other such judgements in scripture, with more or less of detail, which do not take place at the same time, nor embrace the same people. The Lord Jesus has been appointed to judge the living and the dead. Acts 10:42. In Matt. 25 the living are judged, and in Rev. 20 the dead are judged, both of which cannot refer to the same judgement.
      In Matt. 25:                                   In Rev. 20.
       It is the living nations, and no }{It is the dead, and no mention of
      mention of the dead, this earth }{  the living, the earth having 'fled
      being the scene of it, to which  }{  away' before His face who sits
      the Son of man comes.             }{  upon the great white throne.

Some are saved and some are lost. }{No mention of any saved: all are lost.
    Judged solely according to their }{Judged according to general sins,
    treatment of the Lord's brethren, }{  and no mention made of their
      and no mention of general sins.}{  treatment of the saints.

It is plain that these are separate and distinct judgements. The judgement of the 'living' will be at the beginning of the Lord's reign. After the Church has been taken to glory, Christ will still have His own servants doing His work upon the earth, such as His two witnesses in Rev. 11:3; cf. also Matt. 10:23. When He comes to reign, the nations will be judged as to how they have treated these whom He calls His 'brethren.' The judgement of the wicked 'dead' will be after the millennium, and will embrace all who have died in their sins from the creation of the world. They will be judged according to their works, and the secrets of men will then be judged.

Then the question arises as to the saints who may be alive at the coming of the Lord, and the thousands who have died. They cannot be included in either the judgement of Matthew 25 or of Revelation 20. As to their persons, whether they are to be saved or not, it is plainly stated in John 5:24, that they will not come into judgement at all. "He that heareth my word, and believeth on him that sent me, hath everlasting life, and shall not come into judgement; but is passed from death unto life." The A.V. reads 'condemnation,' but the word is κρίσις and is translated 'judgement' in the same chapter —  John 5:22, 27, 30, and 'damnation' in John 5:29. It is the same word also in Heb. 9:27; "As it is appointed unto men once to die, but after this the judgement; . . . . unto them that look for him shall he appear the second time without sin unto salvation."

3.  THE JUDGEMENT-SEAT OF CHRIST.  All will be manifested before this judgement-seat that they may receive the things done in the body whether it be good or bad. 2 Cor. 5:10. This does not clash with the above statement that the believer does 'not come into judgement.' The Lord Jesus will sit on the judgement-seat, He who died for believers' sins, and rose again for their justification; and He is the believer's righteousness — He will not judge His own work. The saint, being divinely justified, cannot be judged, indeed, John 5:24 declares he does not come into judgement at all. But he will be manifested: the things done in the body will be brought into review, all will then be seen by him in its true light, whether good or bad, and this will but serve to exalt the grace that has saved him.

Then an account will be required as to what sort of servant he has been. Has he used the talent committed to him ? Some may have laboured with improper materials, and such work will be burned up, and the workman will lose his reward, though he himself will be saved yet so as through fire. Whereas, with others, the work will abide, and the labourer will get a reward. 1 Cor. 3:14. Each shall receive a reward according to his own labour. 1 Cor. 3:8. The apostle John exhorted the saints to abide in Christ that he, as a workman, might not be ashamed before Him at His coming. 1 John 2:28: cf. 2 John 8. These passages apply to the Christian's service, to each of whom a talent is given.

The exhortation to the Philadelphians is "Hold that fast which thou hast that no man take thy crown." Rev. 3:11. And the Lord says "Behold, I come quickly; and my reward is with me, to give to every man according as his work shall be." Rev. 22:12. All that Christians do now will then be manifested; they should therefore seek to do such work as will stand the fire, and such as will be owned and approved of in that day by their Lord and Master. His love to us is "made perfect, that we may have boldness in the day of judgement, because as he is so are we in this world." 1 John 4:17.


The word is πραιτώριον, praetorium, as it is translated in Mark 15:16.  It was the official residence of Pilate the governor in Jerusalem. John 18:28, 33; John 19:9; Acts 23:35. It is translated 'palace' (the barracks of the Praetorian body of soldiers, from whom Paul's guards were selected) in Phil. 1:13; 'common hall' in Matt. 27:27; and 'hall of judgement' in John 18:28.


βῆμα. A place attached to the judgement-hall, where judgement was pronounced, speeches delivered, etc. It was on the βῆμα that Herod sat, when he made his oration. Matt. 27:19; John 19:13; Acts 12:21; Acts 18:12-17; Acts 25:6-17. The floor of this place was doubtless of tesselated stones, which accounts for its being called the PAVEMENT in John 19:13. In the Hebrew it was called GABBATHA, which signifies elevated or raised platform. In James 2:6 the word is κριτήριον. (For the judgement-seat of Christ, see JUDGEMENT, No. 3.)

Judith. [Ju'dith]

Daughter of Beeri a Hittite, and wife of Esau. Gen. 26:34. See BASHEMATH.

Julia. [Ju'lia]

Christian woman at Rome to whom Paul sent salutations. Rom. 16:15.

Julius. [Ju'lius]

The centurion of 'Augustus' band' who had custody of Paul in travelling to Rome. He treated Paul with great courtesy, allowing him to visit his friends at Sidon and refresh himself. Paul counselled him as to where they should winter, but he naturally was swayed by the master of the ship, though it proved afterwards that it would have been wiser to have listened to the man of God, who, though a prisoner, could tell them that God had given him all that sailed in the ship, and that all would be saved. When the shipwreck occurred, Julius would not allow the prisoners to be put to death because he was desirous of saving Paul. God was watching over His servant, and turned the heart of Julius towards him. Acts 27:1, 3, 43.

Junia. [Ju'nia]

A believer and fellow prisoner and kinsman of Paul, of note among the apostles, and who was in Christ before Paul. Rom. 16:7. The name is really JUNIAS.


rothem. This is supposed to refer, not to the juniper (see HEATH), but to the Arabic ratam, the Retama raetam, a 'broom' that grows twelve feet high, under which a person could sit for shelter. 1 Kings 19:4-5.  In Job 30:4 reference is made to its roots being used for food by the poor. Its roots were also burnt for charcoal, and Ps. 120:4 says that sharp arrows of the mighty with coals of juniper were to be applied to a false tongue.

Jupiter, [Ju'piter]

Ζεύς. Supreme god of Greece and Rome, though the religious ideas of the two nations differed considerably. At Lystra the heathen inhabitants supposed Jupiter was impersonated by Barnabas, and at Ephesus they professed that the image of Diana had fallen from Jupiter, or heaven. Acts 14:12-13; Acts 19:35.

Jushabhesed.  [Ju'shab-he'sed]

Son of Zerubbabel. 1 Chr. 3:20.


The word δικαίωσις occurs but twice in the N.T., namely, Rom. 4:25 and Rom. 5:18. In the former passage it appears to be the equivalent in meaning of faith being imputed to the believer for righteousness, that is, of the believer being accounted righteous. Hence the word 'justification' may be said to be the estimation formed in God's mind of the believer in view of that order of things of which Christ risen is the Head. Such estimation has its expression in Christ Himself, and its consequences are seen in Rom. 5.

The question as to how a righteous God can justify a sinner is raised and answered in Romans 3.  It is difficult to conceive a subject more momentous for every human being. What is set forth in the gospel at the outset is the vindication of God in righteousness as regards sin by the death of the Lord Jesus Christ, where, in God's infinite grace to sinners, the question of sin and its judgement has been raised between Himself and the spotless Sin-bearer and settled to His glory. Of Him it is said, "Whom God hath set forth a mercy-seat, through faith in his blood, . . . . for the showing forth of his righteousness in the present time, so that he should be just and justify him that is of the faith of Jesus." It is then in the blood of Jesus that God's judgement of sin is seen, and it is on this righteous basis that He can justify all who believe in Him.

Justification of life (Rom. 5:18) is the righteous bearing into life which is toward all through the one accomplished righteousness of the Lord Jesus Christ even to death, in contrast with the bearing of the one offence of Adam which brought in death and condemnation upon all. What has been effected by the one Man, Jesus Christ, abounds in the scope of it, over all that has been brought in by the one man Adam. In the death of Christ there is seen the complete judgement and removal out of the sight of God both of the sins and of the man who sinned, believers having, through the Lord Jesus Christ raised from the dead, a new Head, in whom they live for God.

There is another aspect of justification referred to in the Epistle of James (James 2), where it is entirely a question of what appears before men. "Show me thy faith without thy works, and I will show thee my faith by my works."

Justus. [Ju'stus]

1.  Surname of JOSEPH, or BARSABAS, who was selected as one suitable to take the place of Judas Iscariot. Acts 1:23.

2.  A worshipper of God at Corinth, into whose house Paul entered when he abandoned the synagogue. Acts 18:7.

3.  Christian at Rome, also called JESUS, whose salutation Paul sent to the Colossian saints. Col. 4:11.

Juttah. [Jut'tah]

City in the highlands of Judah, given to the priests. Joshua 15:55; Joshua 21:16. Identified with Yutta, 31 27' N, 35 5' E.

Kabzeel. [Kabzeel']


Kadesh, [Ka'desh]  Kadeshbarnea. [Ka'desh-bar'nea]

This place is first mentioned in connection with the battle of the kings, when Lot was taken captive. They "came to EN-MISHPAT, which is Kadesh." Gen. 14:7. It was one of the halting places of the Israelites, and where they made a prolonged stay, and from whence the twelve spies were sent into the land. At the end of the thirty-eight years' wandering they returned to Kadesh, and Miriam died and was buried there. It was here also that Moses smote the rock when the people murmured for water. The water thus obtained is spoken of as both the 'water of MERIBAH,' or 'strife,' Num. 20:13; Num. 27:14; Ps. 81:7, and the 'waters of strife in Kadesh.' Ezek. 47:19; Ezek. 48:28. It was in the wilderness of Paran, and is known to be situated in the extreme south of the land, from whence Joshua smote the inhabitants, and it became the border of Judah's possession. Num. 13:26; Num. 20:1-22; Num. 32:8; Deut. 1:2, 19, 46; Deut. 9:23; Deut. 32:51 (Meribah-Kadesh); Joshua 10:41; Joshua 15:3, etc. Identified by some with Ain Kadis, 30 33' N, 34 32' E.

Kadmiel. [Kad'miel]

A Levite and his family who returned from exile, and helped in the rebuilding of the temple. He led the devotions of the people and sealed the covenant. Ezra 2:40; Ezra 3:9 (see margin); Neh. 7:43; Neh. 9:4-5; Neh. 10:9; Neh. 12:8, 24.

Kadmonites. [Kad'monites]

One of the ancient peoples who possessed the land promised to Abraham. Gen. 15:19. Probably the same as bene-Kedem, 'children of the east.' Judges 6:3.

Kallai. [Kal'lai]

Priest of the family of Sallai. Neh. 12:20.


City in Asher. Joshua 19:28. Identified with Kana, 33 12 N, 35 18' E.

Kanah, [Ka'nah] River.

Brook between Ephraim and Manasseh. Joshua 16:8; Joshua 17:9. Identified with Wady Kanah, 32 9' N, 35 6' E.

Kareah. [Kare'ah]

Father of Johanan and Jonathan. Jer. 40:8-16; Jer. 41:11-16; Jer. 42:1, 8; Jer. 43:2-5. Called CAREAH in 2 Kings 25:23.

Karkaa. [Kar'kaa]

City in the south of Judah. Joshua 15:3. Not identified.

Karkor. [Kar'kor]

Place in the east of Jordan, where the host of Zebah and Zalmunna encamped. Judges 8:10. Not identified.

Kartah. [Kar'tah]

City in Zebulun, given to the Levites. Joshua 21:34. It is not mentioned in the list in 1 Chr. 6, and is not identified.

Kartan. [Kar'tan]

City in Naphtali, given to the Levites. Joshua 21:32. In 1 Chr. 6:76 it appears to be called KIRJATHAIM. Not identified.

Kattath. [Kat'tath]

City in Zebulun. Joshua 19:15. Not identified.

Kedar. [Ke'dar]

Son of Ishmael, and founder of an important tribe inhabiting the north-west of Arabia, though the name is probably also employed for Arabs generally. Gen. 25:13; 1 Chr. 1:29. The Psalmist desired peace, for he had been dwelling in the tents of Kedar, with those who 'hated peace.' Ps. 120:5-6. The bride in Cant. 1:5 was black, or dark, like the black tents of Kedar. The references to lambs, rams, goats, flocks, camels, tents, and tent-curtains, show that a nomadic people are spoken of, though their, 'villages' are also mentioned. Judgements were pronounced against them. Isa. 21:16-17; Isa. 42:11; Isa. 60:7; Jer. 2:10; Jer. 49:28; Ezek. 27:21.

Kedemah. [Ke'demah]

Youngest son of Ishmael. Gen. 25:15; 1 Chr. 1:31.

Kedemoth. [Kede'moth]

1.  City in Reuben, given to the Levites. Joshua 13:18; Joshua 21:37; 1 Chr. 6:79.

2. A wilderness near the same. Deut. 2:26.

Kedesh. [Ke'desh]

1.  City in the extreme south of Judah. Joshua 15:23. Supposed by some to refer to Kadesh-barnea.

2.  Canaanite city, taken by Joshua, allotted to Issachar, and given to the Levites. 1 Chr. 6:72. Called KISHION in Joshua 19:20 and KISHON in Joshua 21:28. Identified with Tell Abu Kudeis, 32 34' N, 35 13' E.

3.  City in Naphtali, allotted to the Levites, and a city of refuge. Joshua 12:22; Joshua 19:37; Joshua 20:7; Joshua 21:32; 2 Kings 15:29; 1 Chr. 6:76. Called KEDESH-NAPHTALI in Judges 4:6. Identified with ruins at Kades, 33 7' N, 35 32' E. It has been supposed that Barak assembled his army, not at Kedesh in Naphtali, but somewhere nearer to Mount Tabor and to the river Kishon, where Sisera had his troops. Judges 4:10-13. It was possibly at Kadish, 32 44' N, 35 33' E.

Kedeshnaphtali.  [Kedesh-naphtali]

See KEDESH, No. 3.



Kehelathah. [Kehe'lathah]

One of the encampments of Israel. Num. 33:22-23.

Keilah. [Kei'lah]

1.  City in the lowlands of Judah. It was delivered by David from an attack of the Philistines. He and Abiathar with the ephod took shelter there; but warned by God that the people of the city would deliver him up to Saul, they escaped. Joshua 15:44; 1 Sam. 23:1-13; Neh. 3:17-18. Identified with Kila, 31 37' N, 35 E.

2. One called 'the Garmite,' in the genealogy of Judah. 1 Chr. 4:19.

Kelaiah, [Kelai'ah] Kelita. [Keli'ta]

Levite who had married a strange wife. Ezra 10:23.  He assisted Ezra in explaining the law and sealed the covenant. Neh. 8:7; Neh. 10:10.

Kemuel. [Kemu'el]

1.  Son of Nahor. Gen. 22:21.

2. Son of Shiphtan and a prince of Ephraim. Num. 34:24.

3. Levite, father of Hashabiah. 1 Chr. 27:17.

Kenan. [Ke'nan]


Kenath. [Kenath']

City of Bashan, taken by NOBAH, and called after his own name. It was afterwards re-taken with the villages of Jair by Geshur and Aram, as the passage in Chronicles should read. Num. 32:42; 1 Chr. 2:23. Identified with Kanawat, 32 46' N, 36 34' E.

Kenaz. [Ke'naz]

1.  Son of Eliphaz, and a duke of Edom. Gen. 36:11, 15, 42; 1 Chr. 1:36, 53.

2. Father of Othniel. Joshua 15:17; Judges 1:13; Judges 3:9, 11; 1 Chr. 4:13.

3. A descendant of Caleb. 1 Chr. 4:15.

Kenezite. [Kene'zite]

Designation of Jephunneh, father of Caleb. Num. 32:12; Joshua 14:6, 14.

Kenites. [Ke'nites]

There seem to have been several different peoples called by this name, without any apparent link between them. Thus

1.  There were some in the land when it was promised to Abraham. Gen. 15:19.

2.  Jethro, or Raguel, Moses' father-in-law, is called a Kenite, Judges 1:16, and is also called a Midianite. Num. 10:29. The Midianites sprung from Midian, the son of Abraham and Keturah, Gen. 25:2; so these Kenites were probably a branch of the Midianites. The children of the Kenite, Moses' father-in-law, left Jericho, the city of palm trees, and went into the wilderness of Judah, which was to the south of Arad, and dwelt there. Judges 1:16 Apparently Heber the Kenite travelled north, and was neutral between Israel and their enemies; but Jael his wife smote Sisera in her tent. Judges 4:11, 17; Judges 5:24. Others remained in the far south, for when Saul was going to smite the Amalekites he warned the Kenites, for their own safety, to depart from among them, because they had befriended Israel when they came from Egypt. 1 Sam. 15:6. They were still in the neighbourhood when David feigned to have attacked them. He regarded them as friends, and sent presents to them. 1 Sam. 27:10; 1 Sam. 30:29.

3.  There were Kenites whom Balaam saw dwelling in the rocks, and who were to be carried away by Asshur. Num. 24:21-22. These may have been a remnant of the Kenites mentioned in Gen. 15:19.

4.  Descendants of Hemath, the father of the house of Rechab. 1 Chr. 2:55.

Kenizzites. [Keniz'zites]

Mentioned only once as people in the land promised to Abraham. Gen. 15:19.


Veil or small shawl with which the women who prophesied covered the head of persons of 'every stature:' alluding probably to their leading people blindfold by their divinations, to catch their souls. Ezek. 13:18, 21.

Kerenhappuch.  [Ke'ren-hap'puch]

Youngest daughter of Job after his restoration to prosperity. Job 42:14. The meaning of the name is disputed. The LXX render it 'horn of plenty.'

Keri and Chethib.

These terms refer to the various readings appended to the printed Hebrew Bible. The keri (or qeri) are placed in the notes, and signify 'to be read,' instead of what is in the text, which latter is called chethib (or kethib), 'written.' A small circle or star is placed in the text to call attention to the alteration, and where one word is substituted for another the word to be read is printed in the notes, without points, the points that belong to it being given in the text, though they do not belong to the word there printed. The total number of these alterations has been calculated to amount to 1353.

Several different accounts have been given as to the origin of these various readings, some endeavouring to trace them back to Moses; others, to Ezra; and others to the Sanhedrim; so that there seems no reliable clue to their authority. The great bulk of the alterations are corrections of errors made by mistaking one letter for another, or similar faults of the copyist; but there are some variations of importance, and what may seem strange is that in the A.V. in some instances the keri is adopted and in others the chethib, without its being stated why. What influenced the selection is now unknown. For instance there are above a dozen places in which the keri substitutes לו, the personal pronoun, for אלal, the negative particle, which greatly alters the sense. A few of these are adopted in the A.V. as Job 13:15; Ps. 100:3; Isa. 63:9. May we not be assured that even in this God has guarded His own Book, and especially the version most widely circulated — the English Bible?

Kerioth. [Keri'oth]

1.  City in the south of Judah. Joshua 15:25. This passage is better read, 'Kerioth-hezron, which is Hazor.' Identified with el Kureitein, 31 21' N, 35 7' E.

2. City of Moab denounced for judgement. Jer. 48:24, 41. Probably the same as KIRIOTH in Amos 2:2.

Keros. [Ke'ros]

Ancestor of some Nethinim who returned from exile. Ezra 2:44; Neh. 7:47.

Keturah. [Ketu'rah]

Wife or concubine of Abraham by whom he had six sons, Midian being the most noted. Gen. 25:1-4; 1 Chr. 1:32-33.


Used symbolically for authority to open or to shut. Spoken of Eliakim, 'established by God,' as having the key of the house of David laid upon his shoulder: "he shall open, and none shall shut; and he shall shut, and none shall open." Isa. 22:22. He is a type of the Lord Jesus, as spoken of in Rev. 3:7, who has also the keys of hades and of death. Rev. 1:18. To Peter were given the keys of the kingdom of heaven, Matt. 16:19, which he opened to the Jews in Acts 2, and to the Gentiles in Acts 10. The Lord charged the doctors of the law with taking away the key of knowledge. Luke 11:52. This they did by their traditions and by hindering those who would have entered in to the blessings brought by Christ.

Kezia. [Kezi'a]

Second daughter of Job after his restoration. Job 42:14.

Keziz. [Keziz']

This, though called a 'valley' in the A.V., is mentioned among the cities of Benjamin. Joshua 18:21.  It is better to regard the word for 'valley' as a part of the name, reading Emek-keziz.

Kibrothhattaavah.  [Kibroth'-hatta'avah]

One of the halting places of the Israelites, called 'the graves of lust,'  "because there they buried the people that lusted" for flesh. Num. 11:34-35; Num. 33:16-17; Deut. 9:22.

Kibzaim. [Kibza'im]

Levitical city in Ephraim. Joshua 21:22. Identified with Tell el Kabus, 31 50' N, 35 18' E.


A kid of the goats is constantly mentioned for the sin offering. Num. 7:16-87, etc. As an article of food the kid is considered a dainty: it was with kids that Rebekah prepared the savoury meat as venison, wherewith Jacob deceived his father. Gen. 27:9.


These, 'with the fat thereof,' were often burned on the altar in the sacrifices. Lev. 3:4-15; Lev. 4:9; Lev. 7:4, etc. The same word, Kelayoth is translated 'reins,' (which signifies 'kidneys') when used symbolically of the inward feelings and affections.

Kidron, [Kid'ron] Kedron, [Ke'dron] Brook.

The valley, or wide wady, that lies between the east of Jerusalem and the west of Mount Olivet.  It is joined by the valley of Hinnom that runs along the south of Jerusalem, and it continues its course for about twenty miles to the Dead Sea. Though called a brook, it is now nearly always dry; this is supposed to be partially due to the amount of rubbish lying in the valley. Its true bottom has been found some forty feet below, and much nearer to the walls of the city. The side of the valley nearest the city is full of Mahometan graves, and on the eastern slope are the graves of the Jews, among which is the erection called the Pillar of Absalom. In O.T. times it was treated as a defiled place. Asa burnt his mother's idol there. 1 Kings 15:13. Josiah also burnt there the symbols of idolatry. 2 Kings 23:4, 6, 12; and by 2 Kings 23:6; Jer. 31:40 it would appear to have been the common burial ground.

On the revolt of Absalom David crossed the brook ere he climbed the mount of Olives. The Lord also crossed it on His last visit to Gethsemane, when He was about to be delivered up by Judas. 2 Sam. 15:23, 30; John 18:1, where the A.V. has CEDRON.   See JEHOSHAPHAT, VALLEY OF.

Kinah. [Ki'nah]

City in the south of Judah. Joshua 15:22. Not identified.


A word generally signifying 'cows,' but its use is not strictly confined to the female: cf. Deut. 7:13; Deut. 28:4, 18, 51.

Kingdom, Kingdom of God, Kingdom of Heaven.

In Daniel 2:44 it is predicted that "In the days of these kings [the ten divisions of the fourth kingdom, the revived Roman Empire] shall the God of heaven set up a kingdom, which shall never be destroyed: and the kingdom shall not be left to other people, but it shall break in pieces and consume all these kingdoms, and it shall stand for ever:" cf. also Dan. 7. The 'kingdom of heaven' was announced by John the Baptist and by the Lord as 'at hand' (Matt. 3:2; Matt. 4:17), but the Lord declared that the 'kingdom of God' had come. Matt. 12:28. In many respects the two expressions are identical, but the 'kingdom of heaven' occurs in the gospel by Matthew only, and stands in contrast to the Messiah on earth. It refers to the rule of that which God has set in heaven, and commenced when Christ went to heaven. It may be illustrated by the lights which God set in the heavens to give light and to rule on earth. The 'kingdom of God' is more connected with the moral state established in man.

The Jews having refused their king, the kingdom was not set up in manifestation at that time and it is still held in abeyance. In the meanwhile it is 'the kingdom and patience of Jesus Christ.' Rev. 1:9. Christ is represented as having gone to receive a kingdom, and to return. Luke 19:12. In the meantime the kingdom has been produced, and goes on in its mysterious form: cf. Matt. 13:11. There are multitudes who profess obedience to God and to the Lord Jesus, and who look to heaven as the throne from whence come all their blessings, while they are passing through a world of which Satan is the god and prince; but to the saints the kingdom of God is very real. They by faith anticipate the kingdom in power. Righteousness, peace, and joy characteristics of the kingdom, are already theirs in the Holy Ghost. Rom. 14:17. In this sense the kingdom of God is often referred to in the Epistles. A person must be born again really to enter into it (John 3:3, 5), but this idea, is distinct from the form which the kingdom has taken, and the dimensions it has attained in the hands of man.

The parables in the gospels describe the form and objects of the kingdom while the Lord is away. In Matt. 13 the Lord spoke four parables to the multitude; then He dismissed the people and explained the parable of the Wheat and the Tares to His disciples and added three parables bearing on the secret character of the kingdom. It is shown that evil would be found in the kingdom, but that Christ will eventually send His angels to gather out of His kingdom all things that offend; then it will be established in power by the Lord Jesus sitting on His own throne, and reigning supreme as Son of man over the earth, ending by His ultimately giving up the kingdom to the Father, that God may be all in all. 1 Cor. 15:24, 28. The moral characteristics suitable to the kingdom are given in the Sermon on the Mount, and its principles and order in Matt. 18.

The kingdom must not be confounded with the church. In the kingdom the wheat and the tares grow together until the harvest; but in the church a wicked person is to be put out. 1 Cor. 5:13. There may appear to be a similarity between the professing church and the kingdom; but the ideas are not the same. The kingdom is the sphere of Christ's rule; whereas the church is the dwelling place of God by the Spirit. Neither will the duration on earth of the church and the kingdom be the same; the kingdom will be set up in power after the rapture of the church, and will continue during the millennium. The Christian, besides sharing in the privileges of the church, has also the privileges and responsibilities attaching to the kingdom. To each individual is entrusted a pound (Luke 19:12-24); or, in another aspect, one or more talents (Matt. 25:14-28), which he is responsible to use for his Lord and Master, and for which he will have to give an account in a future day. His place in heaven is by grace apart from his works, but his reward in the kingdom will be according to his faithfulness to his Lord.

King's Dale.

This is supposed to be in the valley of the Kidron, where there is still a monument called the Pillar of Absalom, though the existing one cannot be the pillar he erected. 2 Sam. 18:18. The King's Dale in Gen. 14:17 cannot be identified.

Kings, First and Second Book of.

These embrace a period of the history of Israel from B.C. 1015 to B.C. 562. They do not give the commencement of the kingdom under Saul, nor the history of David, but begin with the reign of Solomon. In the headings of these books the A.V. adds "Commonly called the 'Third Book' and 'Fourth Book' of the Kings" (copied probably from the LXX or the Vulgate, for this addition is not in the Hebrew), the two books of Samuel being the First and Second. The kingdom was at its height in the reign of Solomon, but because of his sin the kingdom was divided, and after many warnings from God through His prophets, to both Israel and Judah, both kingdoms were brought to a close, the people being carried away into captivity, and Jerusalem and the temple destroyed. See ISRAEL, JUDAH, and the various Kings The books of the Kings differ from the books of the Chronicles in that the former treat of kingly power established by God in the nation of Israel; (and, though it failed and apostatised, the will of God in its establishment will be carried out when Christ administers the government of God in power:) whereas the Chronicles are principally occupied with the house of David, and God's promises concerning it.

The chronology of the period of the kings can be fairly well ascertained if it is remembered that parts of years were always reckoned as full years. In most cases, when a king began to reign, it is stated what year it was of the king reigning in the other kingdom, and these cross references help to check both lists. The dates are approximately as follows. The names of the contemporary PROPHETS are also added.


Chronology of the Kings


Beside the common signification of this term for a male relative, it is used typically in reference to the Lord Jesus in His relationship with Israel.  As their kinsman He has the right of redemption, and will undertake their cause in a future day, as Boaz did the cause of Naomi and Ruth.  Ruth 2 — Ruth 4.


A country from which the Syrians had come, and to which they were carried from Damascus by the Assyrians. 2 Kings 16:9; Isa. 22:6; Amos 1:5; Amos 9:7. Being associated with Elam in Isaiah it is supposed to be in Lower Mesopotamia.

Kir of Moab, Kirharaseth, [Kir-hara'seth]

Kirhareseth, [Kir-hareseth] Kirharesh, [Kir-ha'resh] Kirheres. [Kir-heres]

Fortified city in Moab. 2 Kings 3:25; Isa. 15:1; Isa. 16:7, 11; Jer. 48:31, 36. Identified with Kerak, 31 11' N, 35 37' E.

Kiriathaim. [Kiriatha'im]


Kirioth. [Kiri'oth]

City in Moab denounced for judgement. Amos 2:2. Probably the same as KERIOTH in Jer. 48:24, 41. See KIRJATHAIM, No. 1.

Kirjath. [Kir-jath]


Kirjathaim. [Kirjatha'im]

1. City of Reuben, east of the Jordan. Num. 32:37; Joshua 13:19. Called KIRIATHAIM in Jer. 48:1, 23; Ezek. 25:9 where it is associated with Moab, and devoted to judgement. Identified by some with Kureiyat, 31 35' N, 35 42' E.

2. Levitical city in Naphtali. 1 Chr. 6:76. Probably the same as KARTAN in Joshua 21:32. Not identified.

Kirjatharba.  [Kir'jath-ar'ba]

The Canaanitish name, signifying 'city of Arba,' of the city afterwards called HEBRON, q.v. Gen. 23:2; Gen. 35:27; Joshua 14:15; Joshua 15:13, 54; Joshua 20:7; Joshua 21:11; Judges 1:10; Neh. 11:25.

Kirjatharim, [Kir'jath-a'rim]  KirjathBaal. [Kir'jath-Ba'al]


Kirjathhuzoth. [Kir'jath-hu'zoth]

Place in Moab. Num. 22:39. Not identified.

Kirjathjearim. [Kir'jath-jear'im]

City lying on the borders of Judah and Benjamin, the former name of which was KIRJATH-BAAL. Joshua 15:60; Joshua 18:14. It was one of the four cities included in the compact made with Gibeon. The ark was removed to the hill of the city and remained there many years (see ABINADAB). Joshua 9:17; Joshua 15:9; Joshua 18:15; Judges 18:12; 1 Sam. 6:21; 1 Sam. 7:1-2; 1 Chr. 2:50, 52, 53; 1 Chr. 13:5-6; 2 Chr. 1:4; Neh. 7:29; Jer. 26:20. The city is also called KIRJATH in Joshua 18:28; KIRJATH-ARIM in Ezra 2:25; BAALAH in Joshua 15:9-11, and BAALE OF JUDAH in 2 Sam. 6:2.  Identified by some with ruins at Erma, 31 46' N, 35 1' E.

Kirjathsannah, [Kir'jath-san'nah] Kirjathsepher. [Kir'jath-se'pher]



1.  Son of Abiel a Benjamite and father of Saul, king of Israel. 1 Sam. 9:1, 3; 1 Sam. 10:11, 21; 1 Sam. 14:51; 2 Sam. 21:14; 1 Chr. 8:33, etc. Called CIS in Acts 13:21.

2. Son of Jehiel, a Benjamite. 1 Chr. 8:30; 1 Chr. 9:36. Probably the uncle of No. 1. See NER.

3. Son of Mahli and grandson of Merari. 1 Chr. 23:21-22; 1 Chr. 24:29.

4. Son of Abdi, a descendant of Merari. 2 Chr. 29:12.

5.  Ancestor of Mordecai. Esther 2:5.

Kishi. [Kish'i]

Son of Abdi, a descendant of Merari. 1 Chr. 6:44. Called KUSHAIAH in 1 Chr. 15:17.

Kishion, [Kish'ion] Kishon. [Kish'on]

See KEDESH No 2.

Kishon, [Kish'on] River of, Kison. [Kis'on]

A brook that rises in the mountains of Esdraelon, and runs in a north-westerly course to the Mediterranean, close to mount Carmel. It was the scene of the victory of Deborah and Barak over the army of Sisera. The river is represented as 'sweeping away' the enemy, which well describes the rushing torrent. When there is much water it is in places quite impassable. It was also at this brook that Elijah slew the prophets of Baal. Judges 4:7, 13; Judges 5:21; 1 Kings 18:40; Ps. 83:9. It is now called Nahr el Mukutta.


This common mode of salutation among relatives is sanctified by its adoption in the church. Five of the Epistles close with the exhortation to greet one another with a holy kiss, or kiss of love. Rom. 16:16; 1 Cor. 16:20; 2 Cor. 13:12; 1 Thess. 5:26; 1 Peter 5:14. When Paul said farewell to the elders of Ephesus, they wept sore, and fell on his neck and kissed him. Permission to kiss the hand of a superior is a mark of honour. The heathen kissed their gods. 1 Kings 19:18; Hosea 13:2. In the case of distant objects of worship, like the sun and moon, they kissed the hand (Job 31:26-27), hence the most usual word for worship in the N.T. is προσκυνέω, from κυνέω, to kiss. Kings and judges of the earth are exhorted to kiss the Son when He comes to reign, lest He be angry, and they perish. Ps. 2:12.